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Francesca Bandini ◽  
Eren Taskin ◽  
Gabriele Bellotti ◽  
Filippo Vaccari ◽  
Chiara Misci ◽  

AbstractPlastics fragmentation into smaller debris, namely, micro- and nano-plastics (MPs and NPs), is a matter of global concern because of their wide distribution in terrestrial and marine environments. The latest research has focused mainly on aquatic ecosystems, and fragmentation of bioplastics into micro- and nano-particles (MBPs and NBPs) is not considered. The distribution, concentration, fate and major source of MPs, NPS, MBPs and NBPs in agroecosystems still need to be understood. The use of composts and sewage sludge from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) treatment plants as soil amendments is likely to represent a major input of these debris. The present review provides insights into the current evidence of pollution from micro- and nano-particles of both fossil- and bio-origin in the OFMSW treatment, and aims at evaluating if the recycling of organic waste and its application as a soil fertilizer outweigh the risk of pollution in terrestrial environments. Huge unpredictability exists due to the limited numbers of data on their quantification in each source of possible solution. Indeed, the major hurdles arise from the difficult to quantify the micro-, especially the nano-, particles and subsequently assess the concentrations in the environments, as well as bioaccumulation risks, and toxic effects on organisms. Graphical Abstract

Genes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 145
Jiao Qin ◽  
Bang Feng

True truffle (Tuber spp.) is one group of ascomycetes with great economic importance. During the last 30 years, numerous fine-scale population genetics studies were conducted on different truffle species, aiming to answer several key questions regarding their life cycles; these questions are important for their cultivation. It is now evident that truffles are heterothallic, but with a prevalent haploid lifestyle. Strains forming ectomycorrhizas and germinating ascospores act as maternal and paternal partners respectively. At the same time, a number of large-scale studies were carried out, highlighting the influences of the last glaciation and river isolations on the genetic structure of truffles. A retreat to southern refugia during glaciation, and a northward expansion post glaciation, were revealed in all studied European truffles. The Mediterranean Sea, acting as a barrier, has led to the existence of several refugia in different peninsulas for a single species. Similarly, large rivers in southwestern China act as physical barriers to gene flow for truffles in this region. Further studies can pay special attention to population genetics of species with a wide distribution range, such as T. himalayense, and the correlation between truffle genetic structure and the community composition of truffle-associated bacteria.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Grégoy Y. Bédécarrats ◽  
Charlene Hanlon ◽  
Kazuyoshi Tsutsui

Since its discovery as a novel gonadotropin inhibitory peptide in 2000, the central and peripheral roles played by gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone (GnIH) have been significantly expanded. This is highlighted by the wide distribution of its receptor (GnIH-R) within the brain and throughout multiple peripheral organs and tissues. Furthermore, as GnIH is part of the wider RF-amide peptides family, many orthologues have been characterized across vertebrate species, and due to the promiscuity between ligands and receptors within this family, confusion over the nomenclature and function has arisen. In this review, we intend to first clarify the nomenclature, prevalence, and distribution of the GnIH-Rs, and by reviewing specific localization and ligand availability, we propose an integrative role for GnIH in the coordination of reproductive and metabolic processes. Specifically, we propose that GnIH participates in the central regulation of feed intake while modulating the impact of thyroid hormones and the stress axis to allow active reproduction to proceed depending on the availability of resources. Furthermore, beyond the central nervous system, we also propose a peripheral role for GnIH in the control of glucose and lipid metabolism at the level of the liver, pancreas, and adipose tissue. Taken together, evidence from the literature strongly suggests that, in fact, the inhibitory effect of GnIH on the reproductive axis is based on the integration of environmental cues and internal metabolic status.

Amr Ibrahim ◽  
Emad Elqalshy ◽  
Ahmed El-Mohamadi ◽  
Kamal Abd El-Rahman ◽  
Magdy Alazzazi

Background: The present study was carried out to evaluate the roles of proliferation and angiogenesis in locally aggressive biologic behavior of ameloblastoma versus ameloblastic fibroma; Methods: 30 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded blocks (15 cases of ameloblastoma & 15 cases of ameloblastic fibroma) were used. To evaluate the proliferation, the tissue sections were stained with AgNORs stain. CD105 was used as immunohistochemical marker of angiogenesis. Quantitative evaluations of AgNORs were performed. The mean vascular density was evaluated as a measure for CD105 protein expression by using image analyzer computer system; Results: The mean number of AgNORs dots per nucleus was significantly higher in ameloblastoma as compared to ameloblastic fibroma. Also, the protein level of CD105 showed positive expression and wide distribution that the mean vascular density was significantly higher in ameloblastoma as compared to ameloblastic fibroma; Conclusion: Quantitative evaluation of AgNORs stain & the mean vascular density utilizing CD105 protein expression may reflect a higher proliferative activity and a more locally aggressive biologic behavior of ameloblastoma when compared to ameloblastic fibroma, that other factors may be involved in biologic behavior of ameloblastic fibroma.

Phytotaxa ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 530 (2) ◽  
pp. 198-204

Teucrium montanum is a species widely distributed in Europe, occurring also in North Africa and Asia Minor. Because of its wide distribution and high morphological variability, many taxa related to T. montanum have been described. In this paper we discuss and lectotypify the following six names of taxa described or reported for the Balkan Peninsula: T. helianthemoides, T. montanum var. hirsutum, T. montanum var. modestum, T. montanum var. parnassicum, T. pannonicum, and T. skorpilii.

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
pp. 229-240
Natália Soares Martins ◽  
Sara Patron da Motta ◽  
Carolina Caetano dos Santos ◽  
Andrios da Silva Moreira ◽  

Eimeria infections are common in sheep industry worldwide, however information about their epidemiology is scarce in southern state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence, species characterization, and associated risk factors between Eimeria species and sheep flocks. Fecal samples from 428 sheep from 21 farms were tested for the presence of oocysts. The overall prevalence of Eimeria spp. was 68.69% and was significantly affected by age of the sheep, with highest prevalence in animals under 18 months of age. Eight Eimeria species were identified. Eimeria ovinoidalis (85.71%) was the most common, followed by Eimeria crandallis (80.95%), Eimeria granulosa (78.95%), Eimeria ahsata (61.90%), Eimeria faurei (42.86%), Eimeria bakuensis (38.10%), Eimeria punctata (14.29%), and Eimeria pallida (9.52%). All herds were positive, with concomitant infections. Among management and husbandry practices; farm size, animal density, farming system, breeding objectives, and pasture system influenced the prevalence of Eimeria species. The infection was more prevalent on small farms with high animal density, in sheep raised for meat, semi-intensive system, and rotational grazing (p < 0.05). The wide distribution of this protozoan and the high frequency of pathogenic species show the importance and potential damage of coccidiosis in sheep flocks in Rio Grande do Sul.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Efthymia Stamelou ◽  
Ioannis A. Giantsis ◽  
Konstantinos V. Papageorgiou ◽  
Evanthia Petridou ◽  
Irit Davidson ◽  

Abstract Backround Astrovirus, Norovirus and Sapovirus exhibit a wide distribution in swine pig herds worldwide. However, the association of porcine Astrovirus (PAstV), porcine Norovirus (PoNoV) and porcine Sapovirus (PoSaV) with disease in pigs remains uncertain. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of PAstV, PoNoV and PoSaV in Greek pig farms using both conventional RT-PCR and SYBR-Green Real-time RT-PCR in an effort to compare the sensitivity of the two methods. We examined 1400 stool samples of asymptomatic pigs originating from 28 swine farms throughout Greece in pools of five. Results PAstV was detected in all 28 swine farms examined, with an overall prevalence of 267/280 positive pools (95.4%). Porcine Caliciviruses prevalence was found at 36 and 57 out of the 280 examined samples, by the conventional and SYBR-Green Real time RT-PCR, respectively. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the positive samples revealed that the detected PAstV sequences are clustered within PAstV1, 3 and 4 lineages, with PAstV3 being the predominant haplotype (91.2%). Interestingly, sequencing of the Calicivirus positive samples demonstrated the presence of non-target viruses, i.e. Sapovirus, Kobuvirus and Sapelovirus sequences and one sequence highly similar to bat Astrovirus, while no Norovirus sequence was detected. Conclusions The high prevalence of PAstV in Greek pig farms poses a necessity for further investigation of the pathogenicity of this virus and its inclusion in surveillance programs in case that it proves to be important. To our knowledge, this is the first epidemiological study of these viruses in pig farms in Greece.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 595
Collin J. Weber ◽  
Jens Hahn ◽  
Christian Opp

Soils contain an increasing number of different pollutants, which are often released into the environment by human activity. Among the “new” potential pollutants are plastics and microplastics. “Recognized” pollutants such as heavy metals, of geogenic and anthropogenic origin, now meet purely anthropogenic contaminants such as plastic particles. Those can meet especially in floodplain landscapes and floodplain soils, because of their function as a temporary sink for sediments, nutrients, and pollutants. Based on a geospatial sampling approach, we analyzed the soil properties and heavy metal contents (ICP-MS) in soil material and macroplastic particles, and calculated total plastic concentrations (Ptot) from preliminary studies. Those data were used to investigate spatial connections between both groups of pollutants. Our results from the example of the Lahn river catchment show a low-to-moderate contamination of the floodplain soils with heavy metals and a wide distribution of plastic contents up to a depth of two meters. Furthermore, we were able to document heavy metal contents in macroplastic particles. Spatial and statistical correlations between both pollutants were found. Those correlations are mainly expressed by a comparable variability in concentrations across the catchment and in a common accumulation in topsoil and upper soil or sediment layers (0–50 cm). The results indicate comparable deposition conditions of both pollutants in the floodplain system.

2022 ◽  
Vol 787 ◽  
Víctor Manuel Conde-Vela

Perinereis anderssoni Kinberg, 1865 originally described from Brazil has been attributed with a wide distribution on the American Atlantic coasts, ranging from Brazil to Bermuda, due to the synonymy of Nereis bairdii Webster, 1884 and Nereis (Perinereis) melanocephala McIntosh, 1885. In this paper, the synonymy of Nereis bairdii with Perinereis anderssoni is rejected based on a re-examination of the syntypes of N. bairdii which are found to contain two species requiring designation of a lectotype and paralectotypes here redescribed as Perinereis bairdii (Webster, 1884) and the remaining specimens are here described as Perinereis websteri sp. nov. The synonymy of Nereis (Perinereis) melanocephala with P. anderssoni is rejected and the synonymy with P. bairdii proposed by previous authors is accepted here. A description of P. anderssoni, a redescription of P. floridana, and a description of the males of P. cariboea with additional material are provided for comparison. A key to identifying all Atlantic Perinereis species is also included.

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