Soil And Water
Recently Published Documents





Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 232
Yeon-Joong Kim ◽  
Jong-Sung Yoon

The severe coastal erosions are being accelerated along the east coast of South Korea owing to the intermittent erosions and depositions caused by the imbalance between the effective sediment volume supplied from coasts and rivers and the sediment transport rate. Consequently, many studies are being conducted to develop coastal-erosion reduction measures. To accurately determine the cause of coastal erosion, the causes of the erosion and deposition should be accurately diagnosed, and a comprehensive evaluation system for the sediment transport mechanism in the watershed and sea while considering regional characteristics is required. In particular, realizing the evaluation of the effective sediment volume that flows from the river to the sea through observations is a highly challenging task, and various research and developments are required to realize it, as it is still in the basic research stage. The purpose of this study was to systematically analyze the comprehensive sediment budget for coastal areas. First, an analytical system was developed. Then, a shoreline model was constructed by considering the size of the mixed particles. The parameters required for developing the model were determined using the observation data to improve the shoreline model. A sediment runoff model was applied to evaluate the effective sediment volume supplied from the river to the sea, and the applicability of this model was evaluated by comparing it with the sediment supply volume according to the soil and water assessment tool model. The representative wave and the input parameters of the model were set using the observation data of several years. It was found that the prediction performance of the shoreline change model improved when the effective sediment volume was considered, and the particles of the sediment on the shore were assumed to comprise multiple sizes. In particular, the prediction performance improved when the balance of the sediment budget was adjusted by applying a groin having a structurally similar performance to take into consideration the geographic features of the Deokbongsan (island) in front of the river mouth bar. The model demonstrated a good performance in reproducing long-term shoreline changes when the characteristics of the sea waves and the effective sediment volume were considered.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 226
Tamás Mester ◽  
György Szabó ◽  
Zsófi Sajtos ◽  
Edina Baranyai ◽  
Gergely Szabó ◽  

Disposal sites without adequate engineering controls pose a significant risk to the environment. In the present study, the environmental hazards of an abandoned and unrecultivated liquid waste disposal are investigated with a special focus on soil and shallow groundwater contamination. After a period of operation from 1994 to 2010, when the wastewater collection of the municipality was regulated, the disposal site was subsequently decommissioned without further action. Eight monitoring wells have been established in the disposal basins and in the surrounding area to determine the contamination of the site. Sampling took place in the summers of 2020 and 2021. The results of the analysis of the soil and water samples collected showed a high level of contamination in the area. In the borehole profile of the infiltration basin, a well-developed leachate nitrate profile was observed, with a concentration above 3000 mg/kg NO3−. The soil phosphate content was also significant, with a value of over 1900 mg/kg in the upper 40 cm layer. Extremely high concentrations of ammonium (>45 mg/L) and organic matter (>90 mg/L) were detected in the groundwater of the basins, indicating that contaminated soil remains a major source of pollutants more than 10 years after closure. For all micro- and macroelements present in detectable concentrations, a significant increase was observed in the infiltration basin. Our results have revealed that the surroundings are also heavily contaminated. NO3− concentrations above the contamination limit were measured outside the basins. Recultivation of liquid waste disposal sites of similar characteristics is therefore strongly recommended.

Lina Saraswati ◽  
Sugeng Prijono ◽  
Budi Prasetya

Background: The study of the moisture balance can be used to suppose the plants water requirement and the plants water use efficiency. The moisture balance influenced by climate factor, therefore climate change can affect the moisture balance especially in rainfed. Therefore, an effort is needed to manage soil moisture in rainfed as a climate change mitigation measure: soil and water conservation. This study aimed to determine the influence of soil and water conservation on the moisture balance in the coffee root zone. Methods: This study was conducted at people’s coffee plantation of Argotirto village, Sumbermanjing Wetan District, Malang Regency, located between 8.2411-8.1443 S and 112.4031-112.4634 E. Observation were made on February to November 2020, divided into observations in the wet season, dry seasons and flowering period. The observation plots consisted of terraced plot (P0), terraced + straight silt pit (P1), terraced + L-shaped silt pit (P2) and terrace + biopore (P3). The observation variables were: soil physical characteristics and moisture balance components there were precipitation, percolation, runoff, evapotranspiration and soil moisture storage. Result: At P1, the runoff depth was 80.89% lower and the percolation was 44.22% higher than P0. The total soil moisture storage at P1 was 20.06% higher than P0 in the dry season, indicating that P1 could increase the period of surplus moisture in the dry season.

Sarvat Gull ◽  
Shagoofta Rasool Shah

Abstract In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to examine the spatial variability of sediment yield, quantify runoff, and soil loss at the sub-basin level and prioritize sub-basins in the Sindh watershed due to its computational efficiency in complex watersheds. The Sequential Uncertainty Fitting-2 approach was used to determine the sensitivity and uncertainty of model parameters. The parameter sensitivity analysis showed that Soil Conservation Services Curve Number II is the most sensitive model parameter for streamflow simulation, whereas linear parameters for sediment re-entrainment is the most significant parameter for sediment yield simulation. This study used daily runoff and sediment event data from 2003 to 2013; data from 2003 to 2008 were utilized for calibration and data from 2009 to 2013 were used for validation. In general, the model performance statistics showed good agreement between observed and simulated values of streamflow and sediment yield for both calibration and validation periods. The noticed insights of this research show the ability of the SWAT model in simulating the hydrology of the Sindh watershed and its reliability to be utilized as a decision-making tool by decision-makers and researchers to influence strategies in the management of watershed processes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Ashish Khandelwal ◽  
Ramya Sugavanam ◽  
B. Ramakrishnan ◽  
Anirban Dutta ◽  
Eldho Varghese ◽  

Crude oil contamination of soil and water resources is a widespread issue. The present study evaluated the degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons (C11–C36) in crude oil by 17 bacteria isolated from a crude oil–contaminated soil. The results suggested that Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were the best hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the presence of surfactant Tween-80 (0.1% w/v). Based on the present investigation and a previous study, Pseudomonas sp. + B. amyloliquefaciens and fungus Aspergillus sydowii were identified as best oil degraders and were immobilized in alginate–bentonite beads, guargum–nanobenonite water dispersible granules (WDGs), and carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC)–bentonite composite. Sandy loam soil was fortified with 1, 2, and 5% crude oil, and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) degradation efficiency of free cultures and bio-formulations was evaluated in sandy loam soils. Compared to a half-life (t1/2) of 69.7 days in the control soil (1% oil), free cultures of Pseudomonas sp. + B. amyloliquefaciens and A. sydowii degraded TPH with t1/2 of 10.8 and 19.4 days, respectively. Increasing the oil content slowed down degradation, and the t1/2 in the control and soils inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. + B. amyloliquefaciens and A. sydowii was 72.9, 14.7, and 22.2 days (2%) and 87.0, 23.4, and 30.8 days (5%), respectively. Supplementing soil with ammonium sulfate (1%) enhanced TPH degradation by Pseudomonas sp. + B. amyloliquefaciens (t1/2–10 days) and A. sydowii (t1/2–12.7 days). All three bio-formulations were effective in degrading TPH (1%), and the t1/2 was 10.7–11.9 days (Pseudomonas sp. + B. amyloliquefaciens and 14–20.2 days (A. sydowii) and were at par with free cultures. Microbial diversity analysis based on taxonomic markers and functional markers suggested that the bioaugmentation process helped keep soil in the active stage and restored the original microbial population to some extent. The present study concluded that bio-formulations of crude oil–degrading microbes can be exploited for its degradation in the contaminated environment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Myeonghwan Kim ◽  
Seongjun Eom

The building materials used by mankind in the past, such as stone, soil, and wood, have been environment-friendly. However, the various building materials invented over time with the development of the industrial age pose problems such as environmental hormone generation and waste generation/disposal. To overcome these problems, building materials based on soil, a traditional building material, are being developed by researchers. However, the improvement in soil’s structural characteristics is insufficient as it excessively emphasizes efficacy and function only. In this study, lime and Dobak-glue were mixed with soil to solve the structural problems and improve the strength of soil, and water content and change in strength in accordance with curing time were tested. In order to understand the change in strength, a compaction test was performed by preparing a standard specimen based on the optimum water content and maximum dry density. The lime mix required optimum water content and quantity of lime equal to 3% of soil weight, while the Dobak-glue mix was prepared by soil mixing in the same weight ratio as optimum water content. Changes in water content and compressive strength were measured over curing time of 3, 7, and 28 days. Three specimens, lime mixed specimen, Dobak-glue mixed specimen, and standard specimen, were prepared, and their water content and compressive strength values were averaged. Although the change in water content according to the curing period differed depending on the material mixed with soil, there was no significant difference between 7.12% and 2.82% after 7 days. As for the change in compressive strength, the initial compressive strength in lime mixed specimen was excellent, but the Dobak-glue mixed specimen displayed the greatest strength after 7 days. To conclude, Dobak-glue is an eco-friendly material, and it can be very useful in compensating for the structural shortcomings of soil.

2022 ◽  
Chunhui Liu ◽  
Yanjie Wang ◽  
Xiaoding Ma ◽  
Di Cui ◽  
Bing Han ◽  

Abstract Background: The Dong people mainly live in Hunan, Guangxi and Guizhou provinces, China, with a long history of glutinous rice cultivation, among which Kam Sweet Rice (KSR) is a group of rice landraces that has been domesticated for thousands of years by the Dong people. The core distribution area of KSR is Liping, Congjiang and Rongjiang County of southeast, Guizhou Province. Paddy fields, forests, livestock and cottages have formed a special artificial wetland ecosystem in local area, and the Dong people have also formed a set of traditional farming systems of KSR for variety breeding, field management, and soil and water conservation. However, this traditional agricultural management has not been reported at multiple levels based on landraces, species and ecosystems.Methods: Fieldwork was conducted in ten villages in southeast Guizhou from 2019-2021. A total of 229 informants were interviewed from the villages. Semi-structured and key informant interviews were administered to collect ethnoecological data on the characteristics and traditional utilization of KSR, traditional farming systems and agricultural management of the Dong people. Results: (1): A total of 57 KSR varieties were recorded as used by the Dong people in southeast Guizhou. We analyzed the cultural importance index (CII) of all KSRs. Varieties with high CII often have a pleasant taste, special biological characteristics of cold resistance, disease and insect resistance and high utilization in the traditional culture of Dong people. (2) There is a clear division of labor between men and women in the breeding, seed retention, field management and grain storage management of different varieties of KSR in Dong communities. In order to resist natural disasters and insect pests, the cultivation of KSR is usually managed by multi-variety mixed planting. These agricultural management modes are the result of Dong people's understanding and adaptation to the local natural geographical environment, as well as the experience and wisdom crystallization of Dong people's long-term practice. (3) The traditional farmland of Dong People is a typical artificial wetland ecosystem that is planted with mixed KSR varieties with rich traditional wisdom. In addition, the economic benefit of the rice-fish-duck symbiotic system was 3.07 times that of hybrid rice alone; therefore, the rice-fish-duck system not only has the function of maintaining soil, water and ecological balance but also improves the income of Dong people.Conclusion: KSR is a special kind of rice that has been domesticated and cultivated by Dong people for thousands of years. Dong people have also formed traditional agriculture dominated by KSR cultivation. The traditional agricultural management of Dong people provides suitable habitats for flora and fauna with biodiversity protection, and convenient conditions for rational utilization and distribution of water resources were also provided. This traditional management mode is of great significance for environmental protection, climate change response, community resource management, sustainable utilization, and agricultural transformation in modern society. Therefore, we call for interdisciplinary research in natural and social sciences, in-depth study of the ecological culture of ethnic areas, and sort out treasures conducive to the development of all mankind.

Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 31
Maria Luisa Fernandez-Marcos

The presence of toxic substances is one of the major causes of degradation of soil quality. Wildfires, besides affecting various chemical, physical, and biological soil properties, produce a mixture of potentially toxic substances which can reach the soil and water bodies and cause harm to these media. This review intends to summarise the current knowledge on the generation by wildfires of potentially toxic substances, their effects on soil organisms, and other associated risks, addressing the effects of fire on metal mobilisation, the pyrolytic production of potentially toxic compounds, and the detoxifying effect of charcoal. Numerous studies ascertained inhibitory effects of ash on seed germination and seedling growth as well as its toxicity to soil and aquatic organisms. Abundant publications addressed the mobilisation of heavy metals and trace elements by fire, including analyses of total concentrations, speciation, availability, and risk of exportation to water bodies. Many publications studied the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and other organic pollutants in soils after fire, their composition, decline over time, the risk of contamination of surface and ground waters, and their toxicity to plants, soil, and water organisms. Finally, the review addresses the possible detoxifying role of charcoal in soils affected by fire.

Weed Science ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-22
Liberty B. Galvin ◽  
Deniz Inci ◽  
Mohsen Mesgaran ◽  
Whitney Brim-DeForest ◽  
Kassim Al-Khatib

Abstract Weedy rice (Oryza sativa f. spontanea Roshev.) has recently become a significant botanical pest in California rice (Oryza sativa L.) production systems. The conspecificity of this pest with cultivated rice, Oryza sativa (L.), negates the use of selective herbicides, rendering the development of non-chemical methods a necessary component of creating management strategies for this weed. Experiments were conducted to determine the emergence and early growth responses of O. sativa spontanea to flooding soil and burial conditions. Treatment combinations of four flooding depths (0, 5, 10, and 15 cm) and four burial depths (1.3, 2.5, 5, and 10 cm) were applied to test the emergence of five O. sativa spontanea accessions as well as ‘M-206’, a commonly used rice cultivar in California, for comparison. Results revealed that burial depth had a significant effect on seedling emergence. There was a 43-91% decrease in emergence between seedlings buried at 1.3 and 2.5 cm depending on the flooding depth and accession, and an absence of emergence from seedlings buried at or below 5 cm. Flooding depth did not affect emergence, but there was a significant interaction between burial and flooding treatments. There was no significant difference between total O. sativa spontanea emergence from the soil and water surfaces regardless of burial or flooding depths, implying that once the various accessions have emerged from the soil they will also emerge from the floodwater. Most accessions had similar total emergence compared to M-206 cultivated rice, but produced more dry weight than M-206 when planted at 1.3 cm in the soil. The results of this experiment can be used to inform stakeholders of the flooding conditions necessary as well as soil burial depths that will promote or inhibit the emergence of California O. sativa spontanea accessions from the weed seedbank.

2022 ◽  
Laurie C. Van De Werfhorst ◽  
Christopher L. Jerde ◽  
Marc W. Beutel ◽  
Andrew Brooks ◽  
Van Butsic ◽  

Abstract Tobacco and cannabis product use can result in debris (a.k.a. litter) on the landscape, with implications to soil and water quality and thus potential impacts to ecosystems. More information is needed regarding how much debris exists on the landscape, such that the magnitude of potential associated environment problems can be quantified. Such information can raise awareness in the public about environmental hazards from tobacco and cannabis product use. The goal of this protocol is to quantify, via a timed survey approach, the tobacco and cannabis debris load (i.e. cigarette butts, cannabis or e-cigarette waste) at study sites. Multiple sites in a geographical location may be of interest for comparative analysis, for example sites used regularly by humans (e.g. trails, parking lots, around buildings, garbage cans) versus other sites that are suspected to have low human use. In any case, the same survey data sheet would be used (included with this protocol). Each survey will take 15 minutes per site to conduct. In the process of surveying, debris is collected and retained for later sorting, counting, and photographic documentation. The time to sort and count the collected debris will depend on the quantity and diversity of debris collected.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document