acquired resistance
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Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 301
Khalid Zoghebi ◽  
Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi ◽  
Rakesh Kumar Tiwari ◽  
Keykavous Parang

Doxorubicin (Dox) is an anthracycline chemotherapeutic agent used to treat breast, leukemia, and lymphoma malignancies. However, cardiotoxicity and inherent acquired resistance are major drawbacks, limiting its clinical application. We have previously shown that cyclic peptide [WR]9 containing alternate tryptophan (W) and arginine (R) residues acts as an efficient molecular transporter. An amphiphilic cyclic peptide containing a lysine (K) residue and alternative W and R was conjugated through a free side chain amino group with Dox via a glutarate linker to afford [(WR)8WKβA]-Dox conjugate. Antiproliferative assays were performed in different cancer cell lines using the conjugate and the corresponding physical mixture of the peptide and Dox to evaluate the effectiveness of synthesized conjugate compared to the parent drug alone. [(WR)8WKβA]-Dox conjugate showed higher antiproliferative activity at 10 µM and 5 µM than Dox alone at 5 μM. The conjugate inhibited the cell viability of ovarian adenocarcinoma (SK-OV-3) by 59% and the triple-negative breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 by 71% and 77%, respectively, at a concentration of 5 μM after 72 h of incubation. In contrast, Dox inhibited the proliferation of SK-OV-3, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-7 by 35%, 63%, and 57%, respectively. Furthermore, [(WR)8WKβA]-Dox conjugate (5 µM) inhibited the cell viability of Dox-resistant cells (MES-SA/MX2) by 92%, while the viability of cells incubated with free Dox was only 15% at 5 μM. Confocal microscopy images confirmed the ability of both Dox conjugate and the physical mixture of the peptide with the drug to deliver Dox through an endocytosis-independent pathway, as the uptake was not inhibited in the presence of endocytosis inhibitors. The stability of Dox conjugate was observed at different time intervals using analytical HPLC when the conjugate was incubated with 25% human serum. Half-life (t1/2) for [(WR)8WKβA]-Dox conjugate was (∼6 h), and more than 80% of the conjugate was degraded at 12 h. The release of free Dox was assessed intracellularly using the CCRF-CEM cell line. The experiment demonstrated that approximately 100% of free Dox was released from the conjugate intracellularly within 72 h. These data confirm the ability of the cyclic cell-penetrating peptide containing tryptophan and arginine residues as an efficient tool for delivery of Dox and for overcoming resistance to it.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 880
Chuwei Lin ◽  
Aneirin Alan Lott ◽  
Wei Zhu ◽  
Craig P. Dufresne ◽  
Sixue Chen

Mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 (MPK4) was first identified as a negative regulator of systemic acquired resistance. It is also an important kinase involved in many other biological processes in plants, including cytokinesis, reproduction, and photosynthesis. Arabidopsis thaliana mpk4 mutant is dwarf and sterile. Previous omics studies including genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics have revealed new functions of MPK4 in different biological processes. However, due to challenges in metabolomics, no study has touched upon the metabolomic profiles of the mpk4 mutant. What metabolites and metabolic pathways are potentially regulated by MPK4 are not known. Metabolites are crucial components of plants, and they play important roles in plant growth and development, signaling, and defense. Here we used targeted and untargeted metabolomics to profile metabolites in the wild type and the mpk4 mutant. We found that in addition to the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid pathways, MPK4 is involved in polyamine synthesis and photosynthesis. In addition, we also conducted label-free proteomics of the two genotypes. The integration of metabolomics and proteomics data allows for an insight into the metabolomic networks that are potentially regulated by MPK4.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 369
Saidu Sani ◽  
Nikita Pallaoro ◽  
Mélissa Messe ◽  
Chloé Bernhard ◽  
Nelly Etienne-Selloum ◽  

Despite extensive treatment, glioblastoma inevitably recurs, leading to an overall survival of around 16 months. Understanding why and how tumours resist to radio/chemotherapies is crucial to overcome this unmet oncological challenge. Primary and acquired resistance to Temozolomide (TMZ), the standard-of-care chemotherapeutic drug, have been the subjects of several studies. This work aimed to evaluate molecular and phenotypic changes occurring during and after TMZ treatment in a glioblastoma cell model, the U87MG. These initially TMZ-sensitive cells acquire long-lasting resistance even after removal of the drug. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that profound changes occurred between parental and resistant cells, particularly at the level of the integrin repertoire. Focusing on α5β1 integrin, which we proposed earlier as a glioblastoma therapeutic target, we demonstrated that its expression was decreased in the presence of TMZ but restored after removal of the drug. In this glioblastoma model of recurrence, α5β1 integrin plays an important role in the proliferation and migration of tumoral cells. We also demonstrated that reactivating p53 by MDM2 inhibitors concomitantly with the inhibition of this integrin in recurrent cells may overcome the TMZ resistance. Our results may explain some integrin-based targeted therapy failure as integrin expressions are highly switchable during the time of treatment. We also propose an alternative way to alter the viability of recurrent glioblastoma cells expressing a high level of α5β1 integrin.

Lukas Donix ◽  
Holger H. H. Erb ◽  
Claudia Peitzsch ◽  
Anna Dubrovska ◽  
Manuel Pfeifer ◽  

Abstract Purpose Platinum chemotherapy can be considered to treat metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) with features of neuroendocrine differentiation. However, platinum compounds are generally only applied after the failure of multiple prior-line treatment options. This study investigated whether acquired resistance against ionizing radiation or docetaxel chemotherapy—two commonly applied treatment modalities in prostate cancer—influences the cisplatin (CDDP) tolerance in mCRPC cell line models. Methods Age-matched parental as well as radio- or docetaxel-resistant DU145 and PC-3 cell lines were treated with CDDP and their sensitivity was assessed by measurements of growth rates, viability, apoptosis, metabolic activity and colony formation ability. Results The data suggest that docetaxel resistance does not influence CDDP tolerance in all tested docetaxel-resistant cell lines. Radio-resistance was associated with sensitization to CDDP in PC-3, but not in DU145 cells. In general, DU145 cells tolerated higher CDDP concentrations than PC-3 cells regardless of acquired resistances. Furthermore, non-age-matched treatment-naïve PC-3 cells exhibited significantly different CDDP tolerances. Conclusion Like patients, different mCRPC cell lines exhibit significant variability regarding CDDP tolerance. The presented in vitro data suggest that previous radiation treatment may be associated with a moderate sensitization to CDDP in an isogenic and age-matched setting. Therefore, previous radiotherapy or docetaxel chemotherapy might be no contraindication against initiation of platinum chemotherapy in selected mCRPC patients.

2022 ◽  
Sandra Misale ◽  
Rona Yaeger ◽  
Riccardo Mezzadra ◽  
Jenna Sinopoli ◽  
Yu Bian ◽  

Abstract KRAS G12C inhibitors, such as sotorasib, have rapidly moved through clinical development and are poised to transform care of patients with KRAS G12C mutant cancers, in particular non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and colorectal cancer (CRC). Clinical efficacy is achieved in NSCLC as a single agent and in CRC in combination with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies, however, secondary resistance impairs the effects of KRAS G12C blockade. In this work, we sought to determine the mechanisms of acquired resistance to concomitant KRAS-EGFR inhibition. In cell lines, patient-derived xenograft, and patient samples, a heterogeneous pattern of putative resistance alterations expected primarily to prevent inhibition of ERK signalling by drug can be detected at progression. Serial analysis of patient blood samples on treatment demonstrates that most of these alterations are detected at a low frequency that does not increase substantially and sometimes disappears over time, with the exception of KRAS G12C amplification which rises in step with tumour marker levels and clinical progression. Here we show that a CRC cell line that acquired resistance to sotorasib-cetuximab combination through KRAS G12C amplification became addicted to these agents and undergoes oncogene-induced senescence upon drug withdrawal. Accordingly, the KRAS G12C signal in circulating DNA from relapsed patients harbouring G12C amplification rapidly recedes upon treatment holiday. These data indicate that KRAS G12C amplification is a recurrent resistance mechanism to KRAS-EGFR co-inhibition and suggest a potential therapeutic vulnerability, whereby therapies that target this senescence response at drug withdrawal may overcome resistance to KRAS G12C-EGFR inhibition.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 304
Eros Azzalini ◽  
Domenico Tierno ◽  
Michele Bartoletti ◽  
Renzo Barbazza ◽  
Giorgio Giorda ◽  

High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is among the deadliest gynecological malignancies. The acquired resistance to platinum-based therapies and the intrinsic heterogeneity of the disease contribute to the low survival rate. To improve patients’ outcomes, new combinatorial approaches able to target different tumor vulnerabilities and enhance the efficacy of the current therapies are required. AKT inhibitors are promising antineoplastic agents able to act in synergy with PARP inhibitors, but the spectrum of patients who can benefit from this combination is unclear, since the role of the three different isoforms of AKT is still unknown. Here, we study the expression of AKT isoforms on a retrospective cohort of archive tissue by RT-droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) analyzing their association with the clinicopathological features of patients. Based on AKT1/AKT2 and AKT1/AKT3 ratios, we define four AKT classes which were related to patients’ survival, tumor morphology and BRCA1 expression. Moreover, our results show that high AKT3 expression levels were frequently associated with tumors having classic features, a low number of mitoses and the presence of psammoma bodies. Overall, our study obtains new insights on AKT isoforms and their associations with the clinicopathological features of HGSOC patients. These evidences could help to better define the subsets of patients who can benefit from AKT and PARP inhibitors therapy in future clinical trials.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 271
Francesca Comito ◽  
Rachele Pagani ◽  
Giada Grilli ◽  
Francesca Sperandi ◽  
Andrea Ardizzoni ◽  

The prognosis of patients with advanced cutaneous melanoma has radically changed in the past decade. Nevertheless, primary or acquired resistance to systemic treatment occurs in many cases, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies. This review has the purpose of summarizing the current area of interest for the treatment of metastatic or unresectable advanced cutaneous melanoma, including data from recently completed or ongoing clinical trials. The main fields of investigation include the identification of new immune checkpoint inhibitors (anti-LAG3, GITR agonist and anti-TIGIT), adoptive cell therapy, vaccines, engineered TCR therapy, IL-2 agonists, novel targets for targeted therapy (new MEK or RAF inhibitors, HDAC, IDO, ERK, Axl, ATR and PARP inhibitors), or combination strategies (antiangiogenetic agents plus immune checkpoint inhibitors, intra-tumoral immunotherapy in combination with systemic therapy). In many cases, only preliminary efficacy data from early phase trials are available, which require confirmation in larger patient cohorts. A more in-depth knowledge of the biological effects of the molecules and identifying predictive biomarkers remain crucial for selecting patient populations most likely to benefit from novel emerging treatment strategies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Stefania Fiorcari ◽  
Rossana Maffei ◽  
Claudio Giacinto Atene ◽  
Nicolò Mesini ◽  
Monica Maccaferri ◽  

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has experienced a clinical revolution—thanks to the discovery of crucial pathogenic mechanisms. CLL is still an incurable disease due to intrinsic or acquired resistance of the leukemic clone. Venetoclax is a Bcl-2 inhibitor with a marked activity in CLL, but emerging patterns of resistance are being described. We hypothesize that intrinsic features of CLL cells may contribute to drive mechanisms of resistance to venetoclax. We analyzed the expression of Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 (IRF4), Notch2, and Mcl-1 in a cohort of CLL patients. We evaluated CLL cell viability after genetic and pharmaceutical modulation of Notch2 expression in patients harboring trisomy 12. We tested venetoclax in trisomy 12 CLL cells either silenced or not for Notch2 expression or in combination with an inhibitor of Mcl-1, AMG-176. Trisomy 12 CLL cells were characterized by low expression of IRF4 associated with high levels of Notch2 and Mcl-1. Notch2 and Mcl-1 expression determined protection of CLL cells from spontaneous and drug-induced apoptosis. Considering the involvement of Mcl-1 in venetoclax resistance, our data demonstrated a contribution of high levels of Notch2 and Mcl-1 in a reduced response to venetoclax in CLL cells carrying trisomy 12. Furthermore, reduction of Mcl-1 expression by silencing Notch2 or by treatment with AMG-176 was able to restore the response of CLL cells to venetoclax. The expression of Notch2 identifies a subset of CLL patients, mainly harboring trisomy 12, characterized by high levels of Mcl-1. This biological mechanism may compromise an effective response to venetoclax.

Antonio Passaro ◽  
Julie Brahmer ◽  
Scott Antonia ◽  
Tony Mok ◽  
Solange Peters

A proportion of patients with lung cancer experience long-term clinical benefit with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). However, most patients develop disease progression during treatment or after treatment discontinuation. Definitions of immune resistance are heterogeneous according to different clinical and biologic features. Primary resistance and acquired resistance, related to tumor-intrinsic and tumor-extrinsic mechanisms, are identified according to previous response patterns and timing of occurrence. The clinical resistance patterns determine differential clinical approaches. To date, several combination therapies are under development to delay or prevent the occurrence of resistance to ICIs, including the blockade of immune coinhibitory signals, the activation of those with costimulatory functions, the modulation of the tumor microenvironment, and the targeting T-cell priming. Tailoring the specific treatments with distinctive biologic resistance mechanisms would be ideal to improve the design and results of clinical trial. In this review, we reviewed the available evidence on immune resistance mechanisms, clinical definitions, and management of resistance to ICIs in lung cancer. We also reviewed data on novel strategies under investigation in this setting.

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