obese women
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Kamila Pokorska-Niewiada ◽  
Agnieszka Brodowska ◽  
Jacek Brodowski ◽  
Małgorzata Szczuko

Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most commonly recognized endocrinopathies in women. The literature lacks clear data that allow any meaningful conclusions to be drawn about the influence of trace elements in erythrocytes on the biochemical parameters of PCOS. Materials and methods: This study was conducted among 47 women meeting the Rotterdam criteria for the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome. The research groups included women with PCOS with different BMI values (body mass index): obese women with PCOS (PCOS with BMI ≥ 30, mean BMI index 35.4 ± 4.4 kg/m2), nonobese PCOS women (PCOS with BMI < 30, mean BMI index 25.2 ± 2.8 kg/m2), and healthy control group (CG) with a mean BMI of 23.57 ± 0.9 kg/m2. The contents of trace elements in erythrocytes were determined with an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. Results: The only trace element showing significant differences in concentration between the studied groups was nickel (Ni). The level of nickel in the obese women with PCOS (BMI ≥ 30) was significantly higher than in nonobese women (BMI < 30). The content of other trace elements in erythrocytes did not differ significantly between the studied groups. Several significant correlations were found within each of the studied PCOS groups: in the group of obese women, the content of zinc (Zn) in erythrocytes positively correlated with prolactin, the content of magnesium (Mg) positively correlated with testosterone, and the content of manganese (Mn) negatively correlated with thyroid-stimulating hormone. In the group of nonobese women, Zn content correlated positively with testosterone, Ni with luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol, and Mg negatively correlated with estradiol. Conclusions: The relationship between the level of trace elements and the level of hormones suggests that, in obese women with PCOS, nickel may play a role in inhibiting the processes of folliculogenesis and ovulation. Research on trace elements and their relationship to ovulatory cycles and the development of PCOS may contribute to reducing the consequences of PCOS and, therefore, should be extended.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 235
Min Jung Kim ◽  
Sunmin Park ◽  
Hye Jeong Yang ◽  
Phil-Kyung Shin ◽  
Haeng Jeon Hur ◽  

A traditional balanced Korean diet (K-diet) may improve energy, glucose, and lipid metabolism. To evaluate this, we conducted a randomized crossover clinical trial, involving participants aged 30–40 years, who were randomly assigned to two groups—a K-diet or westernized Korean control diet daily, with an estimated energy requirement (EER) of 1900 kcal. After a 4-week washout period, they switched the diet and followed it for 4 weeks. The carbohydrate, protein, and fat ratios based on energy intake were close to the target values for the K-diet (65:15:20) and control diet (60:15:25). The glycemic index of the control diet and the K-diet was 50.3 ± 3.6 and 68.1 ± 2.9, respectively, and daily cholesterol contents in the control diet and K-diet were 280 and 150 mg, respectively. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters involved in energy, glucose, and lipid metabolism were measured while plasma metabolites were determined using UPLC-QTOF-MS before and after the 4-week intervention. After the four-week intervention, both diets improved anthropometric and biochemical variables, but the K-diet significantly reduced them compared to the control diet. Serum total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations were significantly lower in the K-diet group than in the control diet group. The waist circumference (p = 0.108) and insulin resistance index (QUICKI, p = 0.089) tended to be lower in the K-diet group than in the control diet group. Plasma metabolites indicated that participants in the K-diet group tended to reduce insulin resistance compared to those in the control diet group. Amino acids, especially branched-chain amino acids, tyrosine, tryptophan, and glutamate, and L-homocysteine concentrations were considerably lower in the K-diet group than in the control diet group (p < 0.05). Plasma glutathione concentrations, an index of antioxidant status, and 3-hydroxybutyric acid concentrations, were higher in the K-diet group than in the control diet group. In conclusion, a K-diet with adequate calories to meet EER alleviated dyslipidemia by decreasing insulin resistance-related amino acids and increasing ketones in the circulation of obese women.

Obesity Facts ◽  
2022 ◽  
Isabel Viola Wagner ◽  
Iuliia Savchuk ◽  
Lena Sahlin ◽  
Alexandra Kulle ◽  
Nora Klöting ◽  

Introduction: Obesity in women is often associated with hyperandrogenism but the role of adipose tissue (AT) in androgen synthesis remains unclear. Therefore, we studied whether AT could be a source of androgens promoting hyperandrogenism. Methods: Subcutaneous and visceral AT was collected from lean and obese women. Androgen levels were evaluated in serum, AT and cell culture supernatant. Gene and protein expression of steroidogenic enzymes were determined. Results: Obese subjects had elevated serum androgen levels, which reduced after weight loss. Androgens were measurable in AT and in cell culture supernatants of adipocytes. Steroids were higher in AT from obese women, with the highest difference for testosterone in visceral AT (+7.9 fold, p=0.032). Steroidogenic enzymes were expressed in human AT with depot-specific differences. Obese women showed a significantly higher expression of genes of the backdoor pathway and of CYP19 in visceral AT. Conclusion: The whole steroidogenic machinery of the classical and backdoor pathways of steroidogenesis, and the capacity for androgen biosynthesis, were found in both AT depots and cultured adipocytes. Therefore, we hypothesize that AT is a de novo site of androgen production and the backdoor pathway of steroidogenesis might be a new pathomechanism for hyperandrogenism in women with obesity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 226 (1) ◽  
pp. S571
Madeline Wetterhahn ◽  
Kathleen M. Antony ◽  
Brad Bosse ◽  
Jacquelyn H. Adams

2022 ◽  
Vol 226 (1) ◽  
pp. S444-S445
Anthony O. Odibo ◽  
Rachel G. Sinkey ◽  
Fan Zhang ◽  
Noha Salama ◽  
Molly J. Stout ◽  

Victoria R. Greenberg ◽  
Lisbet S. Lundsberg ◽  
Uma M. Reddy ◽  
William A. Grobman ◽  
Corette B. Parker ◽  

Objective This study aimed to determine if one abnormal value of four on the diagnostic 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes in obese women. Study Design This is a secondary analysis of a prospective study of nulliparous women in eight geographic regions. Women with body mass index <30 kg/m2 and pregestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were excluded. Four groups were compared: (1) normal 50-g 1-hour glucose screen, (2) elevated 1-hour glucose screen with normal 100-g 3-hour diagnostic OGTT, (3) elevated 1-hour glucose screen and one of four abnormal values on 3-hour OGTT, and (4) GDM. Using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for covariates, the women in the groups with dysglycemia were compared with those in the normal screen group for maternal and neonatal outcomes. Results Among 1,713 obese women, 1,418 (82.8%) had a normal 1-hour glucose screen, 125 (7.3%) had a normal 3-hour diagnostic OGTT, 72 (4.2%) had one abnormal value on their diagnostic OGTT, and 98 (5.7%) were diagnosed with GDM. The one abnormal value group had increased risk of large for gestational age (LGA) neonates (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31–3.82), cesarean delivery (aOR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.34–3.58), and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (aOR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.32–3.63) compared with normal screens. The one abnormal value group also had an increased risk of preterm birth <37 weeks (aOR = 2.63, 95% CI: 1.43–4.84), neonatal respiratory support (aOR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.23–4.60), and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (aOR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.08–3.71). There was no association between one abnormal value with shoulder dystocia and neonatal hypoglycemia. Conclusion For obese women, one abnormal value on the 3-hour OGTT confers increased perinatal adverse outcomes. These women should be studied further to determine if nutrition counseling and closer fetal monitoring improve outcomes even in the absence of a diagnosis of GDM. Key Points

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 013-020
Guillermina Arenas Montaño ◽  
Ramírez Cortes Ariel

Introduction: Obesity and overweight are the most dominant chronic non-communicable pathologies of the century, causing metabolic diseases, such as Diabetes Mellitus and Arterial Hypertension. With WHO data indicating that since 1980 it has more than doubled worldwide, in 2008 1.5 billion adults were overweight, of this number 200 million men were obese and 300 million were obese women. Such is the impact that the WHO declared obesity and overweight as a worldwide epidemic. Objective: To identify the integral health status of university students by means of a clinical history, healthy and unhealthy lifestyles related to nutrition and physical activity. Method: We studied a population of 50 students, 19 males and 31 females, of different degrees of the Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, with overweight and obesity, and interested in improving their eating habits and lifestyles and are attended in the clinics of the disease prevention program (PROSALUD). Results: There was a statistical reduction in the average BMI and abdominal circumference, but no decrease in the percentage of body fat. Conclusions: Constancy in physical activity is a vital constant in weight reduction, along with diet, however described this in the literature that more time is required with this discipline to obtain statistical significance in the reduction of body fat, it is highly recommended the intervention plan used in the PROSALUD program to attend students with overweight and metabolic problems

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0261749
Yun-Hsuan Wu ◽  
Spencer Moore ◽  
Yu Ma ◽  
Laurette Dube

There is increasing interest in the effect that food environments may have on obesity, particularly through mechanisms related to the marketing and consumption of calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and sugary beverages. Price promotions, such as temporary price discounts, have been particularly effective in the marketing of carbonated soft drinks (CSDs) among consumers. Research has also suggested that the purchasing behavior of consumer groups may be differentially sensitive to price discounts on CSDs, with obese women particularly sensitive. In addition, the intensity of price discount in a person’s food environment may also vary across geography and over time. This study examines whether the weight change of obese women, compared to overweight or normal BMI women, is more sensitive to the intensity of price discounts on CSDs in the food environment. This study used longitudinal survey data from 1622 women in the Montreal Neighborhood Networks and Health Aging (MoNNET-HA) Panel. Women were asked to report their height and weight in 2008, 2010 and 2013 in order to calculate women’s BMI in 2008 and their change of weight between 2008 and 2013. Women’s exposure to an unhealthy food environment was based on the frequency in which their neighborhood food stores placed price discounts on CSDs in 2008. The price discount frequency on CSDs within women’s neighborhoods was calculated from Nielsen point-of sales transaction data in 2008 and geocoded to participant’s forward sortation area. The prevalence of obesity and overweight among MoNNET-HA female participants was 18.3% in 2008, 19.9% in 2010 and 20.7% in 2013 respectively. Results showed that among obese women, exposure to unhealthy food environments was associated with a 3.25 kilogram (SE = 1.35, p-value = 0.02) weight gain over the five-year study period. Exposure to price discounts on CSDs may disproportionately affect and reinforce weight gain in women who are already obese.

2021 ◽  
Hye In Kim ◽  
So Hyun Ahn ◽  
Yup Kim ◽  
Ji Eun Lee ◽  
Seok Kyo Seo

Abstract This study aimed to identify the prevalence of sarcopenia, obesity, and sarcopenic obesity and examine their association with radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA) and knee pain in Korean menopausal women. This cross-sectional study utilized the data from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2009–2011. The participants were categorized based on body composition. The prevalence of radiographic knee OA and knee pain was calculated. The effect of hormone therapy (HT) was also evaluated. The prevalence of radiographic knee OA, knee pain, and both were all highest in the sarcopenic obese group and lowest in the non-sarcopenic non-obese group. Without sarcopenia, obese women showed higher ratio of radiographic knee OA. With sarcopenia, the coexistence of obesity presented higher ratio of radiographic knee OA, knee pain, and both compared to sarcopenia without obesity. The use of HT for more than one year was not associated with radiographic knee OA, knee pain, or both. Obesity with sarcopenia had greater effect on knee OA compared to obesity without sarcopenia. Moreover, HT use for more than one year was not associated with the prevalence of knee OA. Therefore, more efforts should focus on reducing body fat and increasing muscle in postmenopausal women with knee OA.

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