Carpal tunnel syndrome is a sensitive neuropathy of the upper limb caused by chronic compression of the median nerve. The presented study focused on highlighting the value of morphological changes of the median nerve - shown by MRI in the management of carpal tunnel syndrome. The study group included 23 patients, adults, treated in the Plastic Surgery Clinic of the County Emergency Clinical Hospital in Constanta - prospective study. Magnetic resonance imaging allowed accurate measurement of the median nerve diameter and showed significant decreases in most cases, which suggested an advanced stage of the disease - morphological changes being corroborated with clinical ones. This imagistic investigation opens a new way in establishing the surgical indication, which is required in case of reduction of the nerve diameter by at least 1.5mm at the site of compression. The criterion of diameter decrease can be a benchmark in order to establish a therapeutic algorithm in carpal tunnel syndrome.
Aim: To study WDR36 gene polymorphism (rs10038177 , rs1971050) and its association with clinical parameters in patients of primary open angle glaucoma. Methods: A cross sectional study conducted on 105 cases of POAG to study its association with WDR36 gene polymorphisms (rs 10038177, rs 1971050). The study subjects underwent complete ophthalmic examination, slit lamp examination, IOP measurement by Goldmann’s Applanation Tonometer, gonioscopy, fundus evaluation by 90D lens. RNFL thickness was measured using cirrus 500 OCT by Carl Zeiss. Peripheral blood samples were collected in EDTA-anticoagulant tubes, then DNA was extracted using the genomic DNA extraction and genotyped by PCR-RFLP by using (AluI) enzyme.Data analysis by SPSS, version 21.0. Chi-square and Independent sample ‘t’-tests used for comparison. Results: The association of genotypic expression of rs10038177 polymorphism with different clinical variables in POAG patients, and the mean IOP (31.66 + 5.88) and CDR (0.72+ 0.15) for heterozygous genotype TC was significantly higher as compared to homozygous de33eeeee4(p<0.05) while in rs1971050 polymorphism, Diabetic history was significantly higher in genotype TC(60%)(p=0.012) as compared to genotype TT (19.1%). Conclusion: Our study shows that WDR 36 polymorphism (rs10038177) and (rs1971050) have an association with higher IOP and RNFL thinning which could be the underlying factors in pathogenesis and progression of POAG.
Background: Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is widely prevalent across the globe and significantly high level of Cholesterol in circulation is a single major risk factor associated with coronary heart disease. It is well established that cardiovascular disease is associated with hypertension and elevated blood levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol, and triglycerides. In disparity, a low level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a risk factor for mortality from cardiovascular disease. Aim: The present study was conducted with the aim to assess the lipid profile in patients of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) undergoing coronary angiography (CAG) in rural coastal population. Patients and Methods: The present study was done on 62 patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) undergoing coronary angiography (CAG) Serum levels of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were examined in biochemical laboratory of the hospital. Coronary angiography was performed for the presence of lesions. Results: 43.5% of the patients (n=27) were elderly (age>60 years). Approximately 82% of the patients (n=51) aged more than 50 years. Males outnumbered females with a ratio of 2.4:1. 71% of the patients were males. Mean cholesterol levels were 177.86 mg/dl. Approx 3/4th of the patients (n=41) had cholesterol level <200 mg/Dl. Mean triglycerides levels in the patients were 158.29 mg/dl. Only 11 patients out of 62 CAD patients had abnormal triglycerides. Mean LDL level was 119.5 mg and Mean HDL level was 34.5 mg %. The high plasma concentration of low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) in 30% and the low plasma concentration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) n 33% of patients were important abnormal findings in our patients. Conclusion: Dyslipidemia as in form of very low levels of HDL cholesterol with comparatively high levels of LDL-c with near normal total Cholesterol and triglyceride levels associated with ACS in our rural costal region of Maharashtra.
Parathyroid carcinoma is an exceptionally uncommon endocrine neoplasm, accounting for less than 1% of parathyroid tumours and also a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. Although this malignant lesion is usually slowly progressive, it is frequently associated with local recurrences and also with metastases involving the local lymph nodes or distant sites. We present a 59-year-old male patient who developed a parathyroid carcinoma metastasis involving the anterior mediastinal lymph nodes and thymus remnants, 3 years after the primary tumour was identified and treated by surgical excision followed by chemo and radiotherapy. The patient presented with severe, symptomatic hyperparathyroidism and a gamma scan revealed increased uptake hyperfixation in the paratracheal lymph nodes. A lymphadenectomy was performed and the gross examination of the specimen showed a pinkish – white, firm, poorly circumscribed mass. The microscopic examination revealed an epithelial proliferation with a predominantly nodular/solid growth pattern, composed of cells exhibiting moderate nuclear pleomorphism, prominent nucleoli and high mitotic activity, involving two lymph nodes and thymus remnants. Upon immunohistochemical analysis, the proliferation showed positive staining for GATA 3, as well as a high Ki 67 index, whereas TTF 1 and thyroglobulin were negative in the tumour cells. Thus, the diagnosis of metastatic parathyroid carcinoma was established. The aim of this paper is to gain further knowledge about the histopathological and immunohistochemical features, as well as about the clinical behaviour of parathyroid malignant lesions, especially considering their rarity.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate how can we predict success in poor responder patients in terms of pregnancy rate and live birth rate. Material and method: This study is a review of the newest papers that have in the center the poor responders undergoing treatment involving assisted reproductive techniques (ART). Outcomes: The results show that the most reliable factors when counseling a poor responder patient are age and Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level. Conclusions: The most important factors that influence pregnancy rate are age and ovarian reserve, but other factors such as male pathology and laboratory techniques must be studied deeper.
There are international protocols for the management of hypothyroidism induced by autoimmune thyroid disease during pregnancy. In this descriptive study, we analyzed the implementation of international protocols regarding these pathologies, in local clinical practice. Analyzing the cases admitted to the Obstetrics and Gynecology department of Bucharest University Emergency Hospital on a period of 55 months, we identified the pregnancies with autoimmune hypothyroidism treated with Levothyroxine (LT4). We determined the prevalence of specific immunological markers for autoimmune hypothyroidism in pregnant women, we analyzed whether they are associated with distinct clinical phenotypes and ultrasound characteristics, and also, we evaluated the treatment of choice. Measurement of thyroglobulin antibodies, thyroid peroxidase antibodies, Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, free fractions of Triiodothyronine and Thyroxine with substitute treatment instituted early (in the first 2 weeks postnatal) determine the normalization of cognitive development, especially in areas known for iodine deficiency, including Romania.
Pathogenic bacteria, originating in the inflamed periodontium, can make their way into the body through the vascular system, either by entering the bloodstream or lymph directly or as internalized particles of immune cells. This research aims to investigate the existence of a potential connection between two pathologies – periodontitis and ischemic heart disease – by utilizing a DNA-DNA hybridization technique to highlight the presence of seven periodontal pathogens: A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, P. endodontalis, P. intermedia, T. forsythia, C. rectus and F. Nucleatum. The study was conducted over a period of 3 years on a sample consisting of 119 patients with cardiovascular disease and periodontal disease, divided into 3 groups by pathologies, as follows: the first group consisted of 31 patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, the second group consisted of 43 patients with periodontal disease and ischemic cardiomyopathy, and the third group consisted of 45 patients with periodontal disease. The results show the possibility of a correlation between the composition of the bacterial flora in the group of patients with cardiac disease and those with associated pathologies. In conclusion, we may state that periodontitis may be seen as a risk factor in heart disease, which may certify the possibility of an etiological connection between the two pathologies.
Lymphedema represents a chronic condition with impaired lymphatic transport, having primary and secondary etiologies. The most common type of secondary lymphedema in western countries is represented by breast cancer related upper limb lymphedema. This condition, once installed, determines limb structure changes, progressive functional impairment, specific complications, consequently impacting the quality of patient’s life. An accurate diagnosis is mandatory, using both clinical and imagistic methods with clear definition disease extent as per standardized staging systems, in order to further provide an adequate therapeutic strategy. The main therapeutic goal in patients with lymphedema is represented by limb volume reduction with subsequent symptoms relief, improving quality of life and avoiding complications such as recurrent infections. Through this paper, we aim to present a comprehensive overview of current therapeutic options of breast cancer upper limb related lymphedema. Therapeutic approach comprises of non-surgical (conservative) therapy, which is mandatory as initial therapy and surgical procedures for selected cases. Most patients with lymphedema benefit from conservative treatment alone. In non-responsive cases, in patients with progressive disease, in late stage complicated lymphedema, and also recently added as prophylactic strategy, surgical treatment, trough recent developed techniques, offer very good results in long-term control of disease. Surgical options are classified firstly in physiologic procedures that aim to create new lymphatic channels, promote physiologic drainage of the lymph and should be considered early in the course of the disease, and secondly ablative procedures that reduce through liposuction or various excision techniques the volume of the affected limb. Both types of techniques can be combined to ensure the best functional outcome of the patient.
Injuries to the upper limb may determine unexpected simple or complex soft tissue defects, due to different types of underlying injury mechanism, clean cut/stabs, crushing, torsion, avulsion or mixed types, which pose a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. Ideally, all arterial, venous and nervous lesions, in the distal upper limb should be repaired in an end-to-end technique, outside of injury zones, with healthy ends, in a tension free manner. However, situations arise where, either a tension-free repair is not possible, or a considerable defect is met, often representing a challenge to the surgeon. Therefore, a timely decision is imposed in order to find the most favorable approach to restore limb or segment perfusion, ensuring efficient venous return, as well as providing a sensate repair. Usage of vein grafts represents an essential tool comprised in the reconstructive surgeon’s armamentarium, with high versatility in nerve, arterial and venous reconstruction. Not only does it provide an ideal solution, with high adaptability to each case, but it also may enhance short- and long-term outcome, offering an optimal reconstructive option in any upper limb trauma situation, regardless of etiology. We aim to describe our therapeutic strategies in a series of challenging trauma cases involving digital structures from the upper limb. Interposed vein grafts were used to re-stablish sensate function in a patient with a collateral digital nerve defect, but also to bridge vital digit arterial defect in a torsion-avulsion thumb amputation, as well as re-establishing venous flow in patients with Urbaniak II finger degloving injury.
A 67 years old female developed cognitive defficits, depression and anxiety as first symptoms of multiple system atrophy (MSA). In the course of an year autonomic failure, parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia also developed. The case is particular because of the somatic symptoms that were initially categorised as psychogenic, the presence of confusional and vertigo episodes that were recurring but not permanent.