endometrial thickness
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2022 ◽  
Recep Polat ◽  
Erdem Çokluk ◽  
Özcan Budak ◽  
Fatıma Betül Tuncer

Abstract Introduction: Nutrition and exposure to various chemicals, including environmental pollution, insecticides, and plant phytoestrogens (having oestrogen-like effects), are environmental factors that affect puberty onset. We aimed to identify the effects of propolis on precocious puberty and the reproductive system in prepubertal female rats (ovary, endometrium, breast).Methods: Thirty-four 25-day-old prepubertal female Sprague-Dawley rats were included in the study. Rats were randomly divided into the propolis (n 17) and control groups (n 17). The primary endpoint was the number of rats that developed vaginal opening (It's a sign of puberty) at 12-day follow-up. In addition, the effect of propolis on ovary, uterus and breast tissue was evaluated.Results: Vaginal patency occurred earlier in the propolis group. At the same time, a greater number of rats developed vaginal opening. The number of ovarian follicles (in all follicles), endometrial thickness, and mammary gland secretory gland area were significantly higher in the propolis group than in the control group (p-values <0.001, <0.001, <0.001, respectively). In addition, Ki-67 activity in the endometrium, breast tissue and ovary was more intense in the propolis group compared to the control group (p-values <0.001, <0.001, <0.001, respectively).Conclusion: Propolis triggers precocious puberty in female rats, possibly by interacting with the oestrogen receptor. The mechanism of action of propolis should be considered before prescribing it. In addition, further studies are needed to explore the mechanism of action of propolis and to determine the component of propolis that triggers puberty.

2022 ◽  
Pattraporn Chera-aree ◽  
Sirikul Tanpong ◽  
Isarin Thanaboonyawat ◽  
Pitak Laokirkkiat

Abstract Objective To compare the efficacy of combination clomiphene citrate (CC) plus letrozole with that of CC alone for ovulation induction in infertile women with chronic anovulation. Material and methods This randomized controlled trial was conducted at the Infertility and Reproductive Biology Unit of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand during the August 2020-September 2021 study period. Anovulatory women aged 18-40 years were equally allocated into either the CC 50 mg plus letrozole 2.5 mg once daily group or the CC 50 mg once daily group. The study drugs were administered on days 3-7 of each study patient’s menstrual cycle. The primary outcome was the ovulation rate defined by serum progesterone >3 ng/mL at mid-luteal phase. The secondary outcomes were menstrual cycle characteristics, endometrial thickness, conception rate, and adverse events. Results One hundred women (50 per group) were enrolled. The mean age and prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome were non-significantly different between groups. The ovulation rate according to intention-to-treat analysis was 78% and 70% in the combination and CC alone groups, respectively (p>0.05). There was no significant difference between groups for either mean endometrial thickness or number of dominant follicles. No serious adverse events were observed in either group. Conclusion There was no significant difference between combination CC plus letrozole and CC alone relative to their ability to induce ovulation in infertile women with chronic anovulation. The small number of live births (1 per group) was too low to be statistically analyzed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Prity Kumari ◽  
Harsha S. Gaikwad ◽  
Banashree Nath

Purpose. We aim to determine the predictive value of endometrial thickness by transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS) in diagnosing endometrial pathology and to evaluate whether Doppler complements its diagnostic efficacy in perimenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding. Methods. This cross-sectional observational study was conducted among 70 perimenopausal women with AUB who underwent TVS measurement of endometrial thickness (ET) and Doppler flow indices followed by endometrial sampling and histopathological examination (HPE). Results. In HPE, 51 (73%) women had normal diagnosis while 19 (27%) women had neoplastic histology either benign or malignant. They were categorised into group I and group II, respectively. There was a significant difference in age ( P = 0.001 ) and incidence of obesity ( P = 0.01 ) between the two groups. The ETs measured in group I and group II were 7.89 ± 2.62 mm and 14.07 ± 3.96 mm, respectively, with significant difference ( P < 0.001 ). A TVS-ET of 10.5 mm had the highest sensitivity and specificity of 89.5% and 86.3%, respectively, PPV of 70.68%, NPV of 95.68%, LR+ of 6.52, and LR− of 0.12. Doppler flow velocimetric study of endometrial and uterine vessels did not demonstrate a significant difference. Conclusions. Women in perimenopause with AUB should be offered to undergo endometrial sampling for histopathological examination if TVS ET ≥10.5 mm. The coexisting risk factors especially higher age (>45 years) and obesity (BMI>30) significantly escalate the chances of developing endometrial pathology.

2022 ◽  
Vol 67 (4) ◽  
pp. 376-381
Milat Ismail Haje ◽  
Nazar P. Shabila

Freezing embryos is the best way to increase fertility for women with ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome and women at risk for ovarian dysfunction. Due to the importance of freezing and pregnancy embryos, the present study was conducted to compare the fertility rate and the affecting factors following fresh embryos and frozen embryos in women treated with assisted reproductive techniques. In this study, 250 infertile women and IVF/ICSI candidates were studied. Embryos were used in fresh or frozen groups for transfer to the uterus. The expression of the caspase-3 gene was also examined for further evaluation. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 16 software, Chi-square, independent t-test, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Out of 250 infertile women, 96 (38.4%) became pregnant, of which 54 were in the fresh embryo group and 42 were in the frozen embryo group, which was not statistically significant (P=0.32). Infertility causes, number of embryonic cells and grading of transferred embryos, delivery complications, embryo implantation methods, number of produced embryos after delivery, and endometrial thickness were not significantly different between the two groups (P=0.53). The difference between the mean number of transferred embryos in the two groups was significant (P<0.05), which was no longer significant after excluding non-pregnant women, and in comparing with only pregnant women (P=0.36). The result of caspase-3 gene expression showed that there was significant differences between fresh embryos, healthy thawed frozen embryos, and destroyed thawed frozen embryos. But these results were totally different from the results of the Pregnancy rate section. Therefore, it is inferred that although caspase-3 genes are expressed in frozen embryos after thawing and are ready to destroy the embryo, there are probably a number of involved factors that prevent the activity of caspase-3 and do not allow the apoptotic process to occur. What these factors are and how they prevent this process needs further study.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 136-141
Rajib Roy ◽  
Agniv Sarkar ◽  
Bibhas Saha Dalal

Background: A combination of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and intrauterine insemination (IUI) remains an important treatment option for couple having infertility. Success rate of IUI with ovulation induction ranges from 8-20% depending on many factors. Aims and Objectives: To assess the factors affecting the success rate of IUI and to evaluate the success of ovulation Induction by different methods of controlled stimulation protocol. Materials and Methods: It is a duration-based prospective cross-sectional study where total of 67 couples were included by inclusion and exclusion criteria. They underwent 90 cycles of IUI with each couple having a maximum of three cycles. Ovulation induction was done by clomiphene citrate or letrozole or gonadotrophins. Semen preparation was done by density gradient method. The outcomewas measured by positive urine pregnancy test. Range, percentage, confidence interval, mean with standard deviation, median, range, and P-value were calculated. P<0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: Out of 90 IUI cycles 8 were successful resulting in a success rate of 8.8% per cycle and 11.9% per couple. Factors that had a positive impact were follicle size >21 sqmm, endometrial thickness >9 mm, post wash count >15 million/ml, >2 cycles of IUI and on the number of follicles 2 or more on the day of trigger. Conclusion: The study concluded that IUI after ovulation induction can be a simple and safe cost-effective procedure in selected group of infertile couple. Clinical significance IUI following ovulation induction can be a successful approach for specific indications in a low-resource setting where options for other ART interventions are absent or limited.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (3) ◽  
pp. e24
Rupalakshmi Vijayan ◽  
Rajalakshmi Kamath ◽  
Krunal Pandav ◽  
Meghana Mehendale ◽  

Objective: Abnormal uterine bleeding is any deviation from a normal menstrual pattern. Transvaginal ultrasonography is useful in determining endometrial thickness but cannot conclusively exclude sessile and pedunculated lesions. Hysteroscopy is an invasive procedure that detects discrete lesions. This study was aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 2-dimensional transvaginal ultrasonography and hysteroscopy in evaluating endometrial lesions in women with abnormal uterine bleeding, by determining the sensitivity and specificity of the two methods in diagnosing the lesions. Methods: Eighty-four cases of abnormal uterine bleeding were chosen based on inclusion criteria. The patients were subjected to routine investigations. The findings of transvaginal ultrasonography, hysteroscopy, and dilatation and curettage were compared and analyzed. Results: Maximum incidence of abnormal uterine bleeding was observed in women between 41 and 50 years of age (73.8%). The most common presenting complaint was menorrhagia (76.1%). 76% of patients experienced symptoms for less than six months. The sensitivity and specificity of transvaginal ultrasonography were 60% and 96.3%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of hysteroscopy were 80.4% and 93.1%, respectively. The accuracy of transvaginal ultrasonography was 60.3%, and that of hysteroscopy was 83.3%. Conclusion: Transvaginal ultrasonography and hysteroscopy can be used as first-line diagnostic modalities to rule out and find the causes of abnormal uterine bleeding, which can aid in instituting prompt and appropriate medical treatment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
Sabatina Windyaningrum ◽  
Tri Yudani Mardining Raras ◽  
Bambang Rahardjo ◽  
Rose Khasana Dewi

Background: kefir is a fermented milk product that demonstrates numerous health benefits including antioxidant and immunomodulatory. Aim: to study the protective effect kefir on the expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in endometrial stromal cells and endometrial thickness on female rats that were exposed to arsenic. Methods: twenty-five female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were divided into five groups (CRL, As, T1, T2, T3). Control group (given a normal diet), As group (given the normal diet and exposed to arsenic trioxide 2 mg/kgBW/day). The T1; T2; T3 were exposed to arsenic trioxide 2 mg/kgBW/day and treated with different doses of kefir (1.25; 2.5; and 5 mL/kgBW/day, respectively) for 35 days. The rats of group As treated with arsenic trioxide only and group CRL served as control with normal feed in water. Cytological samples were taken after 35 days of treatment and examined every day to see the rat oestrus phase, and the proestrus phase of the oestrous cycle was chosen for termination. Uterine tissue fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for tissue preparation. ERα expression in endometrial stromal cells was analized using immunohistochemistry method, endometrial thickness was observed using histopathological methods. Results: significant reduction of ERα expression in endometrial stromal cells and endometrial thickness in female rats exposed to arsenic were observed in groups on treated rats (p ≤ 0.000; 0.009, respectively). Conclusion: the administration of kefir in female Wistar rats exposed to arsenic had shown significantly differences on ERα expressions and endometrial thickness. The smallest dose of kefir (1.25 mL/kgBW/day) could increase ERα expression and endometrial thickness in female Wistar rats with arsenic exposure. Therefore kefir has protective effect related to female reproductive system.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 149-156
Gbaguidi Ahotondji Bertin ◽  
Avocefohoun Sako Alphonse ◽  
Gbaguidi Nonvignon Magloire ◽  
Komahoue Komabou Fulbert ◽  
Youssao Abdou Karim Alassane ◽  

The thickness of the endometrium is also an important parameter in the clinical management of women. It is often influenced by several parameters which are important to determine. This is why the present study looked at the factors that influence the variation in the thickness of the endometrium of women in Lokossa in the Republic of Benin. This descriptive, prospective and cross-sectional study concerns 166 women aged 15 to 40 in Lokossa. Ultrasound examination measured the thickness of the endometrium on the longitudinal section through the suprapubic route. Anthropometric parameters were taken by other equipment from each woman. Analysis of one-way proc glm ANOVA variants and Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) tests identified factors associated with variation in endometrial thickness in women. At the end of the study, the minimum, average and maximum values ​​of the thickness of the endometrium obtained are respectively Vm = 3.50 mm, VMoy = 6.73 ± 1.38 mm, MV = 10.00 mm during the pre-ovulatory phase, Vm = 7.30 mm, MV avg = 10.75 ± 2.11 mm, MV = 16.00 mm during the post-ovulatory period. There is an association between the thickness of the endometrium and parameters such as age, weight, Body Mass Index, parity. BMI has been found to be associated with changes in endometrial thickness. And this variation in the thickness of the endometrium of the woman's uterus is related to the number of deliveries. Thus, the higher the number of childbirth, the greater the thickness of the endometrium deprived.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Lei Jiang ◽  
Xin Xu ◽  
Ziyu Cao ◽  
Ni Yang ◽  
Shaoqing Wang ◽  

ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of two treatments on the outcome of freeze-thaw embryo transfer for pregnancy assistance in thin endometrium.MethodsA retrospective study was conducted on 66 patients who failed in the first cycle treated in the reproductive medicine center of the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University from January 2018 to December 2019. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) was used through cavity infusion in one group (n=25, and growth hormone (GH) was subcutaneously injected in the group (n=41). The clinical data of the two groups were compared, including morphology and thickness of the endometrium, biochemical pregnancy rate, clinical pregnancy rate, implantation rate, miscarriage rate, and live birth rate in each period of the hormone replacement cycle.ResultsThere was no significant difference in age, BMI, AMH, FSH, LH, E2, infertility years, number of transferred embryos, basal endometrium, and thickness of endometrium on the day of P administration before and after treatment (P&gt; 0.05). After treatment, compared to the GH group, the G-CSF group presented higher biochemical pregnancy rate (56% versus 48.8%; P=0.569), clinical pregnancy rate (52% versus 46.3%; P=0.655), implantation rate (34.8% versus 27.5%; P=0.391), and live birth rate (40% versus 31.7%; P=0.493), but the differences were not statistically significant (P &gt; 0.05). On the 5th day of treatment, the endometrial thickness in the G-CSF group was thinner than that in the GH group (4.83 ± 0.85 versus 5.75 ± 1.27; P&lt; 0.05), but it had no correlation with pregnancy outcome (P &gt; 0.05). There was no significant difference in endometrial thickness between the two groups on the 7th, 9th day of treatment and the day of P administration (P &gt; 0.05). On the 5th day of treatment, the proportion of endometrial type A morphology in the GH group was significantly higher than that in the G-CSF group (P &lt; 0.05), while the type B morphology in the G-CSF group was significantly higher than that in the GH group (P&lt; 0.05).ConclusionAlthough G-CSF and GH may not have a role in increasing endometrium, both of them can improve the pregnancy outcomes of patients with thin endometrium in the FET cycle. And the effects of the two treatments were similar.

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