salix alba
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
B. Javed ◽  
F. Farooq ◽  
M. Ibrahim ◽  
H. A. B. Abbas ◽  
H. Jawwad ◽  

Abstract The present study was aimed to manifest the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of Salix alba L. against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens e.g. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), S. aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), E. coli (2) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and three fungal isolates from the air such as Aspergillus terreus, A. ornatus, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Two different serotypes of S. aureus and E. coli were used. The agar well-diffusion method results showed the dose-dependent response of plant extracts against bacterial and fungal strains while some organisms were found resistant e.g. E. coli (1), S. sonnei, A. terreus and R. stolonifer. The highest antibacterial activity was recorded at 17.000±1.732 mm from 100 mg/mL of leaves methanolic extracts against S. pyogenes while the activity of most of the pathogens decreased after 24 h of incubation. The highest antifungal activity was reported at 11.833±1.0 mm against A. ornatus at 50 mg/mL after 48 h of the incubation period. These experimental findings endorse the use of S. alba in ethnopharmacological formulations and suggest the use of methanolic extracts of the said plant to develop drugs to control the proliferation of resistant disease causing pathogenic microbes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (3) ◽  
pp. 62-74
Juan Carlos Pinilla ◽  
Francisca Riquelme Espergue ◽  
Bernardo Acuña Aroca

La utilización eficiente de la biomasa forestal en procesos de generación de energía es una de las líneas de trabajo del Instituto Forestal, caracterizando especies adaptadas a distintas situaciones de crecimiento y de una productividad que permitan su utilización en la generación de energía. Esto es particularmente importante para la comuna de Coyhaique, debido a la dependencia de la leña como fuente de calefacción y a la creciente necesidad de abastecimiento de biomasa para energía. Se evaluó plantaciones experimentales de Salix alba y S. cinerea establecidos en la Región de Aysén, obteniendo antecedentes de crecimiento y biomasa, caracterización energética y de análisis elemental. Los resultados generales indican que, a los ocho años, S. alba desarrolló un mayor crecimiento en variables del árbol como en biomasa aérea, con un DAP medio de 4,7 cm y altura de 6,7 m, mientras que S. cinérea registró valores de 2,8 cm y 5,5 m para DAP y altura, respectivamente. En biomasa aérea verde, S. alba presentó un valor de 18 kg por árbol, mientras que S. cinérea registró 10,4 kg, con un valor de 41% para el peso seco en relación al peso verde de la biomasa. El Poder Calorífico Inferior fue de 18.009 y 18.163 J/g para S. alba y S. cinérea, respectivamente, y los valores del Análisis Elemental indican que es posible su utilización como materia prima para energía. Se requiere de ampliar estos estudios en Coyhaique y contribuir a la oferta de biomasa para su uso en energía.

2021 ◽  
Vol 52 (6) ◽  
pp. 1318-1325
A. A. Yaseen ◽  
M. T. Hajos

Based on the regulation (EU) No 2015/1107 in 8 July 2015, Willow (Salix alba) bark extract is a recent approved basic substance in Europe as a safe and effective environmentally friendly fungicide to be used in plant protection. Because of having indole butyric acid content, it is also used as a growth hormone to promote rooting in cutting propagation of wooden part in horticultural plants. This research aimed to evaluate the effect of willow extract and Ferbanat L (Bistep) on lettuce leaves. Bistep is an organic solution of nano fertilizer which is produced in Hungary and allowed as „Bistep plant conditioner”. Furthermore, the experiment evaluated their interaction on some bioactive compounds in different lettuce varieties, too. Three different lettuce varieties (King of May, Kobak and Great Lakes) were evaluated for total polyphenols, vitamin C and nitrate content in fresh leaves. The results indicate that the contents were significantly affected by the used biostimulants rather than varieties. Significantly difference of the total polyphenols was recorded in the plants treated with Willow + Bistep (80.64 mg GAE / 100g) in comparison to the control (55.85 mg GAE / 100g) in the mean of varieties. Similar result was recorded for the vitamin C. However, plants treated with Willow extract resulted in the highest level of nitrate content (692.00 mg/100g), while the lowest amount was measured in the control (488.00 mg/100g). According to our results, Willow bark extract can be a beneficial source of natural growth regulator or fungicide; however, when it is used alone for vegetables, the nutrient content (mainly nitrate level) must be checked before consuming and delivering to the market.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 78-88
Gabriel Murariu ◽  
Raluca Enescu ◽  
Diana Vasile ◽  
Lucian Dinca ◽  

The inventory and evaluation of growth rates for afforested surfaces is extremely important in estimating production levels and in determining the wood quantities that can be harvested. The present research was realized in southeast Romania, on a surface that contains 375h of afforested fields. The monitored surfaces are situated in Hanu-Conachi Independenta Forest, at a relatively low altitude. The study took into account only the surfaces afforested with willow (Salix alba) and extended between 2010 and 2015. The afforested surfaces’ consistency and age were evaluated based on direct observations and measurements. The used numerical analysis on different optimization methods was selected from amongst the most used series from the specialty literature. Our results have shown that evaluations of estimated production growth rates can vary significantly when different statistical analyses and numeric methods are used. By using numerical optimizing models, computer simulations can offer precise estimations regarding growth rates, and consequently, for the efficiency of a given forest inventory. Common numerical interpolation methods or the usage of neuronal networks do not always lead to consistent results. Specific numeric methods are preferable for a better evaluation of growth rates and current inventory. In addition, investments in computer simulation methods and software should be encouraged in order to reach a permanent inventory, improve the efficiency of exploitation operations, and sustain environmental protection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 49 (4) ◽  
pp. 12487
Duško L. BRKOVIĆ ◽  
Jelena D. MLADENOVIĆ ◽  
Zoran B. SIMIĆ ◽  
Radmila M. GLIŠIĆ ◽  

This study aimed to determine the concentrations of ten metals (Mn, Ni, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, Cu) in the soil at depths of 10 and 20 cm and selected plant species (Populus nigra L., Fraxinus ornus L., Salix alba L., Salix caprea L.), as well as to assess the ability of these plants of metal bioaccumulation, translocation and phytoremediation on the location of the mine pit and flotation tailings of the selected mine (in the center of the Republic of Serbia). The concentrations of Pb and Cu in the investigated soil at a depth of 10 cm were above remediation values stated in the regulations of the Republic of Serbia. At the same time, the concentration of Cd, Cr, Pb and Cu was above the limit values in both of the examined soil depths, while Ni in the soil at a depth of 10 cm was above the limit value determined in the Directives of the European Union. The species F. ornus shows the ability to phytoextract Ca, species P. nigra Zn, Ca and Cd, while both Salix species have the capacity to phytoextract Zn and Ca. The results showed that species S. alba is an efficient bioaccumulator of Mn, Fe, Cr, Pb, Zn and Ca, S. caprea of Fe, Cu, Cr, Mg and Pb, and P. nigra of Mn and Cd. The bioaccumulation and translocation of the investigated elements depend on plant species and their organ. The selection of plant species adequate for remediation should take this into account.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. e0260086
Xin Ran ◽  
Xiao Wang ◽  
Xiaokuan Gao ◽  
Haiyong Liang ◽  
Bingxiang Liu ◽  

Objective The purpose of this study was to explore the adaptive mechanism underlying the photosynthetic characteristics and the ion absorption and distribution of white willow (Salix alba L.) in a salt stress environment in cutting seedlings. The results lay a foundation for further understanding the distribution of sodium chloride and its effect on the photosynthetic system. Method A salt stress environment was simulated in a hydroponics system with different NaCl concentrations in one-year-old Salix alba L.branches as the test materials. Their growth, ion absorption, transport and distribution in the roots and leaves, and the changes in the photosynthetic fluorescence parameters were studied after 20 days under hydroponics. Results The results show that The germination and elongation of roots are promoted in the presence of 171mM NaCl, but root growth is comprehensively inhibited under increasing salt stress. Under salt stress, Na+ accumulates significantly in the roots and leaves, and the Na+ content and the Na+/K+ and Na+/Ca2+ root ratios are significantly greater than those in the leaves. When the NaCl concentration is ≤ 342mM, Salix alba can maintain relatively stable K+ and Ca2+ contents in its leaves by improving the selective absorption and accumulation of K+ and Ca2+ and adjusting the transport capacity of mineral ions to aboveground parts, while K+ and Ca2+ levels are clearly decreased under high salt stress. With increasing salt concentrations, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance (gs) of leaves decrease gradually overall, and the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) first decreases and then increases. When the NaCl concentration is < 342mM, the decrease in leaf Pn is primarily restricted by the stomata. When the NaCl concentration is > 342mM, the decrease in the Pn is largely inhibited by non-stomatal factors. Due to the salt stress environment, the OJIP curve (Rapid chlorophyll fluorescence) of Salix alba turns into an OKJIP curve. When the NaCl concentration is > 171mM, the fluorescence values of points I and P decrease significantly, which is accompanied by a clear inflection point (K). The quantum yield and energy distribution ratio of the PSⅡ reaction center change significantly (φPo, Ψo and φEo show an overall downward trend while φDo is promoted). The performance index and driving force (PIABS, PICSm and DFCSm) decrease significantly when the NaCl concentration is > 171mM, indicating that salt stress causes a partial inactivation of the PSII reaction center, and the functions of the donor side and the recipient side are damaged. Conclusion The above results indicate that Salix alba can respond to salt stress by intercepting Na+ in the roots, improving the selective absorption of K+ and Ca2+ and the transport capacity to the above ground parts of the plant, and increasing φDo, thus shows an ability to self-regulate and adapt.

2021 ◽  
Jessica Landgraf ◽  
Dörthe Tetzlaff ◽  
Maren Dubbert ◽  
David Dubbert ◽  
Aaron Smith ◽  

Abstract. Root water uptake is an important critical zone process, as plants can tap various water sources and transpire these back into the atmosphere. However, knowledge about the spatial and temporal dynamics of root water uptake and associated water sources at both high temporal resolution (e.g. daily) and over longer time periods (e.g. seasonal) is still limited. We used cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) for continuous in situ monitoring of stable water isotopes in soil and xylem water for two riparian willow (Salix alba) trees over the growing season (May to October) of 2020. This was complemented by isotopic sampling of local precipitation, groundwater and stream water in order to help constrain the potential sources of root water uptake. A local flux tower, together with sap flow monitoring, soil moisture measurements and dendrometry were also used to provide the hydroclimatic and ecohydrological contexts for in situ isotope monitoring. In addition, bulk samples of soil water and xylem water were collected to corroborate the continuous in situ data. The monitoring period was characterised by frequent inputs of precipitation, interspersed by warm dry periods which resulted in variable moisture storage in the upper 20 cm of the soil profile and dynamic isotope signatures. This variability was greatly damped in 40 cm and the isotopic composition of the sub-soil and groundwater was relatively stable. The isotopic composition and dynamics of xylem water was very similar to that of the upper soil and analysis using a Bayesian mixing model inferred that overall ~90 % of root water uptake was derived from the upper soil profile. Sap flow and dendrometry data indicated that soil water availability did not seriously limit transpiration during the study period, though there was a suggestion that deeper (> 40 cm) soil water might provide a higher proportion of root water uptake (~30 %) in a drier period in the late summer. The study demonstrates the utility of prolonged real time monitoring of natural stable isotope abundance in soil-vegetation systems, which has great potential for further understanding of ecohydrological partitioning under changing hydroclimatic conditions.

Edson Luis Maistro ◽  
Peterson Menezes Terrazzas ◽  
Alexandra Christinie Helena Frankland Sawaya ◽  
Paulo Cesar Pires Rosa ◽  
Fábio Ferreira Perazzo ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Parvaneh Mehrbod ◽  
Hanieh Safari ◽  
Zeinab Mollai ◽  
Fatemeh Fotouhi ◽  
Yasaman Mirfakhraei ◽  

Abstract Background Influenza A virus (IAV) infection is a continual threat to the health of animals and humans globally. Consumption of the conventional drugs has shown several side effects and drug resistance. This study was aimed to screen some Iranian medicinal plants extracts and their fractions against influenza A virus. Methods Glycyrrhiza glabra (rhizome), Myrtus  commonis (leaves), Melissa officinalis (leaves), Hypericum perforatum (aerial parts), Tilia platyphyllos (flower), Salix alba (bark), and Camellia sinensis (green and fermented leaves) were extracted with 80% methanol and fractionated with chloroform and methanol, respectively. The cytotoxicity of the compounds were determined by MTT colorimetric assay on MDCK cells. The effective concentrations (EC50) of the compounds were calculated from the MTT results compared to the negative control with no significant effects on cell viability. The effects of EC50 of the compounds on viral surface glycoproteins and viral titer were tested by HI and HA virological assays, respectively and compared with oseltamivir and amantadine. Preliminary phytochemical analysis were done for promising anti-IAV extracts and fractions. Results The most effective samples against IAV titer (P ≤ 0.05) were crude extracts of G. glabra, M. officinalis and S. alba; methanol fractions of M. communis and M. officinalis; and chloroform fractions of M. communis and C. sinensis (fermented) mostly in co- and pre-penetration combined treatments. The potential extracts and fractions were rich in flavonoids, tannins, steroids and triterpenoids. Conclusion The outcomes confirmed a scientific basis for anti-influenza A virus capacity of the extracts and fractions from the selected plants for the first time, and correlated their effects with their phytochemical constituents. It is worth focusing on elucidating pure compounds and identifying their mechanism(s) of action.

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