histopathological study
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Author(s):  
Lilian de Paula Gonçalves Reis ◽  
Antonio Jesús Lora-Benítez ◽  
Ana Mª Molina-López ◽  
Rafael Mora-Medina ◽  
Nahúm Ayala-Soldado ◽  
...  

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical substance commonly used in the manufacture of plastic products. Its inhalation or ingestion from particles in suspension, water, and/or polluted foods can trigger toxic effects related to endocrine disruption, resulting in hormonal, reproduction, and immunological alterations in humans and animals. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an ideal experimental model frequently used in toxicity studies. In order to assess the toxic effects of BPA on reproduction and embryonic development in one generation after parental exposure to it, a total of 80 zebrafish, males and females, divided into four groups in duplicate (n = 20) were exposed to BPA concentrations of 500, 50, and 5 µg L−1, along with a control group. The fish were kept in reproduction aquariums for 21 days. The embryos obtained in the crosses were incubated in a BPA-free medium and observed for signs of embryotoxicity. A histopathological study (under optical and electron microscopes) was performed of adult fish gonads. The embryos of reproducers exposed to BPA were those most frequently presenting signs of embryotoxicity, such as mortality and cardiac and musculoskeletal malformations. In the histopathological studies of adult individuals, alterations were found in ovocyte maturation and in spermatazoid formation in the groups exposed to the chemical. Those alterations were directly related to BPA action, affecting fertility in both sexes, as well as the viability of their offspring, proportionally to the BPA levels to which they were exposed, so that our results provide more information by associating toxic effects on the offspring and on the next generation.


Author(s):  
Amin Abdulkarem Okbah ◽  
Azhar Azher Mohammed Al-Ankoshy ◽  
Hassan Abdulwahab Al-Shamahy

 Background:  Urinary bladder cancer (UBC) is the ninth most common cancer in the world, and the third most common cancer among men in West Asian countries, including Arab countries. Despite the increasing prevalence of UBC in developing countries, many places, including Yemen, do not have representative studies showing the true impact of these tumors on the population. Aims: To describe the different types of bladder cancers, and their distributions with age, and sex and to correlated different types with gradation, invasion muscles; and schistosomiasis in the last ten years in a single Yemini institute. Materials and methods:  An observational descriptive study was performed on UBC patients who were subsequently diagnosed selectively by histopathological study in the Department of Pathology at the National Center for Public Health Laboratories (NCPHL) Sana'a, Yemen, over a period of about 10 years from January 1, 2012 to October 31, 2021. The study variables were cancer histological type, sex, grades and age. Types, grading and histological diagnoses were formed in line with the World Health Organization classification of bladder cancer. Results: Most of the cases were in the age group 60-69 years (32%), followed by 70 years (22.3%), and 50-59 years (20%).  The most common UBCs were urothelial neoplasms (UNs) (71.5%), followed by squamous neoplasms (SNs) (24.4%) while other types were less frequent. There was a cytologically high grade with a significance rate (64.2%) with UNs. There was a significance rate of:  schistosomiasis (43.8%) with SNs as OR=19.5 (p < 0.001), and invasion of muscle fibers  (66.4%) with SNs as OR=3.3,  UNs (37.1%) as OR=11.2 (p < 0.001). Also there was a significance rate of GII grade (46.1%) with SNs as OR=64.1 (p<0.001) and GNs (33.3%) as  OR=3.8 (p =0.02).  Conclusion:  The present study verification data congruence with those in the international literature and reports of neighboring countries, with some minor differences. This study documents a high incidence of urothelial neoplasms, with a male predominance and a peak incidence in the sixth decade of life. Imminent studies are needed to identify risk factors that increase cystitis in more detail and to study genetic susceptibility to inflammation and inflammatory markers before cancer is diagnosed.              Peer Review History: Received: 1 November 2021; Revised: 17 December; Accepted: 31 December, Available online: 15 January 2022 Academic Editor: Dr. Nuray Arı, Ankara University, Turkiye, [email protected] UJPR follows the most transparent and toughest ‘Advanced OPEN peer review’ system. The identity of the authors and, reviewers will be known to each other. This transparent process will help to eradicate any possible malicious/purposeful interference by any person (publishing staff, reviewer, editor, author, etc) during peer review. As a result of this unique system, all reviewers will get their due recognition and respect, once their names are published in the papers. We expect that, by publishing peer review reports with published papers, will be helpful to many authors for drafting their article according to the specifications. Auhors will remove any error of their article and they will improve their article(s) according to the previous reports displayed with published article(s). The main purpose of it is ‘to improve the quality of a candidate manuscript’. Our reviewers check the ‘strength and weakness of a manuscript honestly’. There will increase in the perfection, and transparency.  Received file:                Reviewer's Comments: Average Peer review marks at initial stage: 6.0/10 Average Peer review marks at publication stage: 7.0/10 Reviewers: Dr. Bilge Ahsen KARA, Ankara Gazi Mustafa Kemal Hospital, Turkey, [email protected] Dr. Eyassu Mathewos, School of public health, college of health sciences and medicine, Wolaita Soddo university- P.O. Box 158, Wolaita Soddo, Ethiopia.    Md. Monirul Islam, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Northern University Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh.  [email protected] Dr. Rawaa Souhil Al-Kayali, Aleppo University, Syria, [email protected] Similar Articles: EVALUATION OF CURRENT SCENARIO OF CANCER DISEASE AT CHATTAGRAM IN BANGLADESH ACCESS TO MEDICINES STRATEGIES OF THE NATIONAL CANCER CONTROL PROGRAMME IN CAMEROON


2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 495-498
Author(s):  
Parvathi Pillai

Introduction: Some of the ovarian lesions become functional and secrete hormones that bring endometrial changes like hyperplasias and polyps. This study aimed to find endometrial changes associated with different types of cystic lesions of the ovary. Materials and Methods: A histopathological study done from 2010 -2013 on all the total abdominal hysterectomy specimens with bilateral oophorectomy having cyst size more than 3cms, with a detailed clinical history received in the Department of Pathology, Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital, Pondicherry. A total of 112 cases were collected analyzed and statistically correlated. Results: Out of the 112 cases of cystic lesions of the ovary 67% showed endometrium within normal limits, 33% of cystic lesions of ovary showed polyps, simple hyperplasia without atypia, complex hyperplasia without atypia. Among non-neoplastic lesions, follicular cyst produced the most endometrial changes, followed by benign surface epithelial lesions. Granulosa cell tumor was found to induce polyp as well as simple hyperplasia without atypia. Two out of three malignant lesions showed endometrial changes followed by benign lesions. The majority of the cystic lesions of the ovary encountered are non-neoplastic lesions (59%) and follicular cysts were more common (97%). Endometrial hyperplasia of both simple and complex types without atypia was found with serous cystadenoma. Conclusions:  From the current study it implicates the necessity of assessing cystic lesions of the ovary like a follicular cyst, luteal cyst, granulosa cell tumors as they can become functional leading to endometrial changes that can form a fertile ground for carcinomas.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-3
Author(s):  
Mohammad Nasir Hematian ◽  
Kamran Hessami ◽  
Maasoumeh Saleh ◽  
Abolfazl Shirdel Abdolmaleki ◽  
Shirin Torabi ◽  
...  

Calcified amorphous tumor (CAT) of the heart is a rare nonneoplastic cardiac mass that may exhibit symptoms resembling malignancy. In this report, we presented a 4-month-old male baby with repeated attacks of cyanosis and a cardiac murmur. Echocardiography revealed a tumoral noncircumscribed mass in the right atrium adhering to the interatrial septum which extends to the inferior vena cava. Cardiac exploration was carried out to excise the tumor. A histopathological study demonstrated the presence of thrombus-like tissue with extensive calcification and foreign body type giant cell reactions. After operation, the patient had an uneventful hospitalization. Although CAT is mainly diagnosed in adult patients, it should be considered in the causes of cardiac mass in the neonatal period.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (6) ◽  
pp. 12-16
Author(s):  
Adhave Swati Sheshrao ◽  
Ingole Rajesh Kundlikrao

Introduction: Many herbal drugs are used to treat liver diseases, but the dose of the herbal drug is high, and they have lesser palatability. An ideal medicine is a medicine that is effective, easy palatable and produces quick action in a low dose. It is possible by adding metals like Lauha (Iron) to the herbal drugs. Objective: To compare the hepatoprotective effect of Nisha Lauha (NL) and Nisha Lauha without Lauha Bhasma (NLWL) in experimental rats. Materials and methods: 40 rats were taken divided into five groups, and each group contained eight rats. Among these groups, four groups receive 0.2 ml of injection containing the 0.1 ml CCL4 plus 0.1 ml liquid paraffin given intraperitoneally for 28 days to induce Hepatotoxicity. Both Test groups received NL and NLWL at a dose of 45mg/kg bd. wt. and 450mg/kg bd. wt. respectively for 28 days. The standard group receives silymarin at a 100 mg/kg bd dose. wt. for 28 days by oral route. The hepatoprotective effect was analyzed using biochemical parameters and histopathological study of the liver. Results: Both the Test and standard groups do not show toxic effects against CCL4 induced hepatotoxicity and lower the dose of the herbal drug due to the addition of Lauha. Conclusion: The result suggests that both test group NL and NL without Lauha Bhasma shows the hepatoprotective activity as equivalent to standard drug silymarin. The addition of Lauha Bhasma to herbal drugs decreases the dose without affecting the drug’s efficacy against the hepatoprotective effect.


2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (2) ◽  
Author(s):  
M. Mostaree ◽  
N. Sultana ◽  
M. I slam

Background Newcastle disease (ND) is a contagious and often deadly viral disease caused by the Newcastle disease virus (NDV), affecting a wide variety of domestic and wild birds. The outbreak of this fatal disease is one of the greatest constraints to the expansion of poultry farms, resulting in significant financial losses. Here we report the clinical and pathological features of a ND case from an outbreak in a commercial broiler farm. Materials and Methods A broiler farm with a population of 850 birds aged 27 days reported the death of 100 chickens within 4 days of the onset of the disease in 2019. For investigation, one dead chicken was brought to the department of pathology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. The case history was recorded, and an autopsy was performed. Portion of the samples were kept in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histopathological study. Results The morbidity and mortality rates were reported to be 17.65% and 11.47%, respectively. Recorded clinical history were depression, off-feed, huddling, gasping, ruffled feathers, greenish diarrhea, soiled vent and the birds were unvaccinated. On external examination, the birds appeared dehydrated, dyspneic and had nasal exudates, ruffled feathers, and soiled vents. Autopsy exhibited prominent gross lesions in the trachea, lungs, proventriculus, gizzard, intestine, cecal tonsil, liver, spleen and cloacal bursa. Grossly, tracheal hemorrhage, severe congestion in the lungs, pin point hemorrhages on the tip of the proventriculur glands, hemorrhage in the cecal tonsil, button-like ulceration in the intestine and mottled spleen were suggestive of ND. Histopathologically, severe enteritis, necrotic mass in the cecal tonsil and proventriculus, lymphoid depletion in the spleen supported the infection of NDV. The clinicopathological findings of the ND outbreak in broiler farm confirmed that it was velogenic viscerotropic in nature. Conclusion ND in commercial flocks remains a threat to the poultry industry in Bangladesh. Implementation of strict biosecurity, husbandry practice and effective vaccination are required to prevent diseases and improve economic stability.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Elisa Robustelli Test ◽  
Paolo Sena ◽  
Andrea Gustavo Locatelli ◽  
Andrea Carugno ◽  
Marco Mercurio ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
Maha M. Abdel-Fattah ◽  
Abeer A. A. Salama ◽  
Basim A. S. Messiha

Abstract Background Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-5 (IL-5) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) as well as immunoglobulin-E (IgE) appear to play a role in asthma. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, might have clinical benefits in asthma prevention. The possible preventive effects of NAC against experimentally induced asthma in rats are investigated. The rats were allocated into five groups: a normal control, asthma control, a standard dexamethasone (DEXA, 1 mg/kg, orally) group, and two NAC groups (300 and 500 mg/kg, orally, respectively). Ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization was used to trigger asthma, which was then followed by an intra-nasal challenge. Test gents were administrated for 14 days before the challenge and during the three challenge days (20, 21, and 22). The tidal volume (TV) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) as respiratory functions were determined. The pro-inflammatory cytokines as IL-5 and TNF-α were evaluated in lung homogenate. Serum IgE and absolute eosinophil count (AEC) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. In addition, the oxidative markers in lung tissue and nitrosative marker in BALF were assessed; finally, lungs were isolated for histopathological study. Results NAC restored lung functions, inhibited the asthma-dependent increase in TNF-α, IL-5, IgE, AEC, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde levels. NAC further re-established lung glutathione content and superoxide dismutase activity, resulting in milder overall lung pathology. Conclusions Experimental bronchial asthma may be protected by NAC. The anti-asthmatic potential of NAC may be explained by its suppressant influence on IgE antibody formation, pro-inflammatory cytokines production, eosinophil infiltration, and oxidative stress.


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