Dry Cured Ham
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Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 298
Silvia Montoro-García ◽  
Ángeles Velasco-Soria ◽  
Leticia Mora ◽  
Carmen Carazo-Díaz ◽  
David Prieto-Merino ◽  

Background: Evidence suggests that bioactive peptides reduce hypertension and affect certain metabolic pathways. Methods: Fifty-four volunteers with stage 1 prehypertension and/or hypercholesterolemia and/or basal glucose >100 mg/dL were recruited and randomized to pork dry-cured ham (n = 35) or cooked ham (placebo group; n = 19) for 28 days. After a wash-out period, meat products were changed for 28 additional days. Bioactive peptides composition and enzyme inhibitory activities of both products were characterized. Treatment comparisons for the main effects were made using a two (treatment) × two (times) repeated measures minus the effect of cooked ham (placebo). Results: 24 h mean systolic and diastolic pressures decreased up to 2.4 mmHg in the dry-cured ham period (treatment effect, p = 0.0382 y p = 0.0233, respectively) as well as the number of systolic pressure measures > 135 mmHg (treatment effect, p = 0.0070). Total cholesterol levels also decreased significantly after dry-cured ham intake (p = 0.049). No significant differences were observed between the two treatments for basal glucose, HOMA-IR index and insulin levels (p > 0.05). However, a significant rise of ghrelin levels was observed (treatment effect, p = 0.0350), while leptin plasma values slightly decreased (treatment effect, p = 0.0628). Conclusions: This study suggested the beneficial effects of regular dry-cured ham consumption on the improvement of systolic/diastolic blood pressures and facilitated the maintenance of metabolic pathways, which may be beneficial in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-11
Aida Pérez-Baltar ◽  
Margarita Medina ◽  
Raquel Montiel

Dry-cured ham can be contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes during its industrial processing. The use of bacteriocins could ensure the safety of such meat products, but their effect on pathogen physiology is unknown. Therefore, the impact of enterocins A and B on the L. monocytogenes population, and the expression patterns of five genes (inlA, inlB, clpC, fbpA and prfA) related to adhesion/invasion and virulence regulation have been monitored in sliced dry-cured ham during 30 d of storage in refrigeration (4 °C) and temperature-abuse conditions (20 °C). L. monocytogenes strains S2 (serotype 1/2a) and S7-2 (serotype 4b) counts were reduced by 0.5 and 0.6 log units immediately after the application of enterocins A and B, a decrease lower than previously reported. Differences in gene expression were found between the two strains. For strain S2, expression tended to increase for almost all genes up to day seven of storage, whereas this increase was observed immediately after application for strain S7-2; however, overall gene expression was repressed from day one onwards, mainly under temperature-abuse conditions. L. monocytogenes strains investigated in the present work exhibited a mild sensitivity to enterocins A and B in sliced dry-cured ham. Bacteriocins caused changes in the expression patterns of virulence genes associated with adhesion and invasion, although the potential virulence of surviving cells was not enhanced.

María Jesús Gracia Salinas ◽  

Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent of the parasitic disease toxoplasmosis, which is an important food borne zoonosis. Eating undercooked meat of infected animals has been considered the major transmission route of T. gondii to humans. The present study evaluates the efficacy of domestic freezing on the inactivation of T. gondii bradyzoites in raw and dry-cured ham. Meat (raw and dry-cured ham) of a pig experimentally orally inoculated with 4,000 oocysts of T. gondii VEG strain was subjected to domestic freezing of -20 ºC at different days. The effect was evaluated by bioassay in mice followed by qPCR. In raw ham and dry-cured ham, temperature of -20 ºC for 7 and 14 days respectively did not inactivate T. gondii . More studies are needed to find the right temperature and time needed to render the bradyzoites non-infectious for human. Meanwhile, the recommendations of freezing to inactivate T. gondii in raw or dry-cured meats must be revisited considered that it does not reduce the risk of infection.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 3355
Leticia Pérez-Ciria ◽  
Francisco Javier Miana-Mena ◽  
María Carmen López-Mendoza ◽  
Javier Álvarez-Rodríguez ◽  
Maria Angeles Latorre

Two experiments were carried out; one with female pigs and the other with male pigs destined for Teruel dry-cured ham production, to evaluate the effect of immunocastration (entire gilts-EG vs. immunocastrated gilts-IG and surgically castrated males vs. immunocastrated males-IM) and diet (control vs. high energy vs. low crude protein and amino acids) on meat quality and fat composition. Fifteen meat samples and eight fat samples of each treatment were analyzed in both experiments. In the case of males, six fat samples per treatment were analyzed to determine boar taint. Immunocastration is a good strategy in gilts intended for dry-cured ham production because improves meat composition; however, in males, immunocastration impairs the results of pork chemical composition compared with surgical castration. The IG presented a lower polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio than EG, improving fat technological quality. Diets had little effect on pork or fat quality in gilts, but a high-energy level using oilseeds and a low-crude-protein and -amino-acids diet from 80 to 137 kg of body weight could be interesting in IM to maintain or increase fat consistency, respectively. Moreover, in general, immunocastration is effective in avoiding boar taint in males.

2021 ◽  
Vol 87 ◽  
pp. 104818
Alejandro Heres ◽  
Issei Yokoyama ◽  
Marta Gallego ◽  
Fidel Toldrá ◽  
Keizo Arihara ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 87 ◽  
pp. 104827
Lijuan Fu ◽  
Lujuan Xing ◽  
Yuejing Hao ◽  
Ziyi Yang ◽  
Shuang Teng ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 94 ◽  
pp. 101889
Mia Kurek ◽  
Ivna Poljanec ◽  
Nives Marušić Radovčić ◽  
Kata Galić ◽  
Helga Medić

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (17) ◽  
pp. 8268
Alejandro Heres ◽  
Fidel Toldrá ◽  
Leticia Mora

Dry-cured ham-derived dipeptides, generated along a dry-curing process, are of high importance since they play a role in flavor development of dry-cured ham. The objective of this study was to analyze the residues of the less-studied metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) implicated in the recognition of umami dry-cured ham dipeptides by molecular docking simulation using the AutoDock Suite tool. AH, DA, DG, EE, ES, EV, and VG (and glutamate) were found to attach the enzyme with inhibition constants ranging from 12.32 µM (AH) to 875.75 µM (ES) in the case if Rattus norvegicus mGluR1 and 17.44 µM (VG) to 294.68 µM (DG) in the case of Homo sapiens, in the open–open conformations. Main interactions were done with key receptor residues Tyr74, Ser186, Glu292, and Lys409; and Ser165, Ser186, and Asp318, respectively, for the two receptors in the open–open conformations. However, more residues may be involved in the complex stabilization. Specifically, AH, EE and ES relatively established a higher number of H-bonds, but AH, EV, and VG presented relatively lower Ki values in all cases. The results obtained here could provide information about structure and taste relationships and constitute a theoretical reference for the interactions of novel umami food-derived peptides.

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