food borne
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PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262308
Woyinshet Worku ◽  
Moges Desta ◽  
Tadesse Menjetta

Background Food-borne diseases related to the consumption of meat and its products had public health importance worldwide. The problem became worst in Ethiopia as the result of the tradition of eating raw cattle meat. Salmonella species and Escherichia coli are important food-borne pathogens associated with meat contamination. Hence the current study aimed to assess the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella species and Extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli from raw cattle meat at butcher houses in Hawassa city, Sidama regional state, Ethiopia. Method A cross-sectional study was done on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species and Extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing E.coli from raw cattle meat at butcher houses in Hawassa city from September to December 2020. Socio-demographic data were collected using a structured questionnaire and raw cattle meat and swab samples were collected from meat cutting equipment. The collected samples transported using icebox to Hawassa University College of Medicine and Health Sciences Microbiology Laboratory for identification. Samples were grown on different culture media and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were determined by using Kirby disc diffusion method. Data were entered and analyzed into SPSS version 23. Descriptive statistics were done and P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Result The overall prevalence of salmonella and ESBL producing E.coli among 556 samples collected from 278 butcher houses was 36 (6.47%) (95% CI: 1.68–1.79) of which 13 (2.3%) were ESBL producing E.coli and 23(4.1%) were salmonella species. Poor hand washing practice (AOR = 2.208; 95% CI: 1.249–3.904) and touching birr while selling meat (AOR = 0.75; 95% CI: (0.433–1.299) were found to be significantly associated with the prevalence of salmonella species and E.coli on cattle meat. The isolates showed moderate levels of resistance (60–70%) against Amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid and high susceptibility (85–100%) against gentamicin, cotrimoxazole, ceftazidime, and tetracycline and the overall multidrug resistance was 33.3%. Conclusion This study revealed moderately high prevalence of salmonella and E.coli due to poor hygiene and sanitation practices in the butcher shops. Furthermore, the existence of ESBL producing E.coli isolates clearly indicate the possible threat to public health. Therefore, inspection by the right agencies must be implemented in order to prevent food-borne outbreaks and antimicrobial resistance.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 90
Miguel Mendes Costa ◽  
Miguel Cardo ◽  
Patricia Soares ◽  
Maria Cara d’Anjo ◽  
Andreia Leite

Animal and food sources are seen as a potential transmission pathway of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to humans. The aim of this study is to describe Campylobacter, Salmonella, and commensal Escherichia coli multi-drug resistance (MDR) in the food chain between 2014 and 2019 in Portugal. AMR surveillance data from food-producing animals and food were assessed. MDR relative frequencies were estimated by bacterial genus and year. AMR profiles were created using observations of resistance to antimicrobial classes from each isolate. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing results were clustered using k-modes. Clusters were described by population, AMR classification, β-lactamases, sample stage, sample type, season, and year. Overall, MDR was more prevalent for E. coli, ranging from 74–90% in animal and 94–100% in food samples. MDR was found to be more widespread in resistance profiles that were common among E. coli and Salmonella isolates and in those exclusively observed for E. coli, frequently including (fluoro)quinolones and cephalosporins resistance. β-lactam resistance was observed around 75% to 3rd/4th-generation cephalosporins in E. coli. Clusters suggest an escalating MDR behaviour from farm to post-farm stages in all bacteria and that Salmonella (fluoro)quinolones resistance may be associated with broilers. These findings support policy and decision making to tackle MDR in farm and post-farm stages.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 137
Ning Liu ◽  
Xue Wang ◽  
Qiang Shan ◽  
Le Xu ◽  
Yanan Li ◽  

Bacillus cereus, considered a worldwide human food-borne pathogen, has brought serious health risks to humans and animals and huge losses to animal husbandry. The plethora of diverse toxins and drug resistance are the focus for B. cereus. As an alternative treatment to antibiotics, probiotics can effectively alleviate the hazards of super bacteria, food safety, and antibiotic resistance. This study aimed to investigate the frequency and distribution of B. cereus in dairy cows and to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in a model of endometritis induced by multi-drug-resistant B. cereus. A strong poisonous strain with a variety of drug resistances was used to establish an endometrial epithelial cell infection model. B. cereus was shown to cause damage to the internal structure, impair the integrity of cells, and activate the inflammatory response, while L. rhamnosus could inhibit cell apoptosis and alleviate this damage. This study indicates that the B. cereus-induced activation of the NLRP3 signal pathway involves K+ efflux. We conclude that LGR-1 may relieve cell destruction by reducing K+ efflux to the extracellular caused by the perforation of the toxins secreted by B. cereus on the cell membrane surface.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xenia Vázquez ◽  
Vanesa García ◽  
Javier Fernández ◽  
Margarita Bances ◽  
María de Toro ◽  

Colistin is a last-resort antibiotic in fighting severe infections caused by multidrug resistant Gram negative pathogens in hospitals. Zoonotic bacteria acquire colistin resistance in animal reservoirs and mediate its spread along the food chain. This is the case of non-typhoid serovars of Salmonella enterica. Colistin-resistant S. enterica in foods represents a threat to human health. Here, we assessed the prevalence of colistin-resistance in food-borne isolates of S. enterica (2014–2019; Asturias, Spain), and established the genetic basis and transferability of this resistance. Five out of 231 isolates tested (2.2%) were resistant to colistin. Four of them, belonging to the European monophasic ST34 clone of S. Typhimurium, were characterized in the present study. They were collected from pork or pork and beef meat-derived products, either in 2015 (three isolates) or 2019 (one isolate). Molecular typing with XbaI-PFGE and plasmid profiling revealed distinct patterns for each isolate, even though two of the 2015 isolates derived from the same sample. The MICs of colistin ranged from 8 to 16 mg/L. All isolates carried the mcr-1.1 gene located on conjugative plasmids of the incompatibility groups IncX4 (2015 isolates) or IncHI2 (2019 isolate). Apart from colistin resistance, the four isolates carried chromosomal genes conferring resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides and tetracycline [blaTEM–1, strA-strB, sul2, and tet(B)] and heavy metals, including copper and silver (silESRCFBAGP and pcoGE1ABCDRSE2), arsenic (arsRSD2A2BCA1D1) ± mercury (merEDACPTR), which are characteristically associated with the European ST34 monophasic clone. The 2019 isolate was also resistant to other antibiotics, comprising third generation cephalosporins and cephamycins. The latter phenotype was conferred by the blaCMY–2 gene located on an IncI1-I(α)-ST2 plasmid. Results in the present study identified meat-derived products as a reservoir of a highly successful clone harboring transferable plasmids which confer resistance to colistin and other clinically important antibiotics. An important reduction in the number of food-borne S. enterica detected during the period of the study, together with the low frequency of colistin resistance, underlines the success of One Health initiatives, such as those implemented at the UE, to control zoonotic bacteria along the food chain and to halt the spread of antimicrobial resistance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Anella Saggese ◽  
Ylenia De Luca ◽  
Loredana Baccigalupi ◽  
Ezio Ricca

Abstract Background Members of the Bacillus genus produce a large variety of antimicrobial peptides including linear or cyclic lipopeptides and thiopeptides, that often have a broad spectrum of action against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We have recently reported that SF214, a marine isolated strain of Bacillus pumilus, produces two different antimicrobials specifically active against either Staphylococcus aureus or Listeria monocytogenes. The anti-Staphylococcus molecule has been previously characterized as a pumilacidin, a nonribosomally synthesized lipopetide composed of a mixture of cyclic heptapeptides linked to fatty acids of variable length. Results Our analysis on the anti-Listeria molecule of B. pumilus SF214 indicated that it is a peptide slightly smaller than 10 kDa, produced during the exponential phase of growth, stable at a wide range of pH conditions and resistant to various chemical treatments. The peptide showed a lytic activity against growing but not resting cells of Listeria monocytogenes and appeared extremely specific being inactive also against L. innocua, a close relative of L. monocytogenes. Conclusions These findings indicate that the B. pumilus peptide is unusual with respect to other antimicrobials both for its time of synthesis and secretion and for its strict specificity against L. monocytogenes. Such specificity, together with its stability, propose this new antimicrobial as a tool for potential biotechnological applications in the fight against the dangerous food-borne pathogen L. monocytogenes.

2022 ◽  
Suzan Nakayiza ◽  
Abel Wilson Walekhwa ◽  
Gabriel Tumwine ◽  
James Muleme ◽  
Angella Musewa

Abstract Poor fruit handling practices causes physical damage to fruits and exposes them to pathogenic microbial contamination with Salmonella spp, E. coli and Vibrio spp. These contribute to food borne illnesses such as Salmonellosis, Shigellosis, Cholera, E. coli O157:H7 infection Campylobacteriosis among others. An estimated 14 percent of all diseases registered at health centers are food borne related in Uganda making this a public health concern. The economic burden of foodborne diseases was estimated at about 300 million United States Dollars in 2016. A rapid cross-sectional study was conducted using a SWOT framework to understand the fruit handling practices by traders in one of the markets in Uganda’s Capital City (Kampala). Our study showed that there existed some strengths such as Presence of an established market leadership and presence of organized registered and unregistered trade and social groups. Furthermore, there existed weaknesses that needed immediate attention such as (a) lack of clean water, (b) selling fruits on dirty market floor which exposes consumers to contaminated fruits, (c) disposal of spoilt fruits in open waste areas contaminates the soil, clogs drainage channels, creates a bad smell in the market and attracts rodents to feed on disposed fruits. We therefore recommend, establishing a ‘One Health’ market task force made up of traders, suppliers, farmers, consumers, local council, public health scientists and Kampala Capital City Authority (KCCA) that can work with Ministry of Local Governments and Ministry of Health to train traders to implement appropriate fruit handling practices as detailed in KCCA market laws. The One Health task force can work with Ministry of Science and Technology to design and develop tools such as insulated fruit crates, raised fruit stands, and closed waste bins that could be used by market traders to improve fruit hygiene practices. The One health market taskforce will be in position to link with private international organizations such WASH international to draft proposals to provision for free clean water for the market which could improve fruit hygiene and market sanitation.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-25
Ruby Siwach

Food safety has gained global attention due to rising issues of food-borne illnesses, adulteration, and increased consumer awareness about food safety worldwide. It is a challenge for the governments and the food industry itself to maintain food safety throughout the food and supply chain. There are several systems and processes adopted by various countries to ensure food safety, and the food safety audits are one of the indispensable tools to achieve the goals of food quality and safety. Rising trends of consuming processed foods, eating out in restaurants and cafes, home deliveries of food from outside worldwide have made the auditing process very essential to ensure that the food products are being manufactured, stored, and sold in compliance with national and international standards. This chapter aims at providing an overview of the food audit processes, scope, importance, challenges, and future trends.

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