Photobacterium Damselae
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Marta A. Lages ◽  
M. Carmen de la Fuente ◽  
Lucía Ageitos ◽  
Diana Martínez-Matamoros ◽  
Jaime Rodríguez ◽  

AbstractPiscibactin (Pcb) is a labile siderophore widespread among Vibrionaceae. Its production is a major virulence factor of some fish pathogens such as Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and Vibrio anguillarum. Although FrpA was previously suggested as the putative outer membrane transporter (OMT) for ferri-piscibactin, its role in piscibactin uptake was never demonstrated. In this work, we generated mutants of V. anguillarum defective in FrpA and analyzed their ability to use piscibactin as iron source. The results showed that inactivation of frpA completely disables piscibactin utilization, and the original phenotype could be restored by gene complementation, confirming that FrpA is the OMT that mediates ferri-Pcb uptake. Additionally, the ability of several Pcb thiazole analogues, with different configurations at positions 9, 10, and 13, to be internalized through FrpA, was evaluated measuring their ability to promote growth under iron deficiency of several indicator strains. The results showed that while those analogues with a thiazole ring maintain almost the same activity as Pcb, the maintenance of the hydroxyl group present in natural piscibactin configuration at position C-13 is crucial for Fe3+ chelation and, in consequence, for the recognition of the ferri-siderophore by the cognate OMT. All these findings allowed us to propose a Pcb analogue as a good candidate to vectorize antimicrobial compounds, through the Trojan horse strategy, to develop novel compounds against bacterial fish diseases. Graphical abstract

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2793
Athanasios Lattos ◽  
Ilias Chaligiannis ◽  
Dimitrios Papadopoulos ◽  
Ioannis A. Giantsis ◽  
Evanthia I. Petridou ◽  

Raw-bivalves consumption is a wide trend in Mediterranean countries. Despite the unambiguous nutritional value of seafood, raw consumption of bivalves may involve risks that could pose a significant threat to consumers’ health. Their filter-feeding behavior is responsible for the potential hosting of a wide variety of microorganisms, either pathogenic for the bivalves or public health threats. Under this prism, the current study was conducted in an effort to evaluate the risk of eating raw bivalves originating from the two biggest seafood markets in Thessaloniki, the largest production area of bivalves in Greece. Both microbiological and molecular methodologies were applied in order to assess the presence of various harmful microbes, including noroviruses, Bonamia, Marteilia, Esherichia coli, Salmonella, and Vibrio. Results indicated the presence of several Vibrio strains in the analyzed samples, of which the halophilic Vibrio harveyi was verified by 16S rRNA sequencing; other than this, no enteropathogenic Vibrio spp. was detected. Furthermore, although Esherichia coli was detected in several samples, it was mostly below the European Union (EU) legislation thresholds. Interestingly, the non-target Photobacterium damselae was also detected, which is associated with both wound infections in human and aquatic animals. Regarding host pathogenic microorganisms, apart from Vibrio harveyi, the protozoan parasite Marteilia refrigens was identified in oysters, highlighting the continuous infection of this bivalve in Greece. In conclusion, bivalves can be generally characterized as a safe-to-eat raw food, hosting more bivalve pathogenic microbes than those of public health concern.

Marine Drugs ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (11) ◽  
pp. 602
Rafaela A. Santos ◽  
Marta Monteiro ◽  
Fábio Rangel ◽  
Russell Jerusik ◽  
Maria J. Saavedra ◽  

The disruption of pathogen communication or quorum-sensing (QS) via quorum-quenching (QQ) molecules has been proposed as a promising strategy to fight bacterial infections. Bacillus spp. have recognizable biotechnology applications, namely as probiotic health-promoting agents or as a source of natural antimicrobial molecules, including QQ molecules. This study characterized the QQ potential of 200 Bacillus spp., isolated from the gut of different aquaculture fish species, to suppress fish pathogens QS. Approximately 12% of the tested Bacillus spp. fish isolates (FI). were able to interfere with synthetic QS molecules. Ten isolates were further selected as producers of extracellular QQ-molecules and their QQ capacity was evaluated against the QS of important aquaculture bacterial pathogens, namely Aeromonas spp., Vibrio spp., Photobacterium damselae, Edwardsiela tarda, and Shigella sonnei. The results revealed that A. veronii and E. tarda produce QS molecules that are detectable by the Chr. violaceum biosensor, and which were degraded when exposed to the extracellular extracts of three FI isolates. Moreover, the same isolates, identified as B. subtilis, B. vezelensis, and B. pumilus, significantly reduced the pathogenicity of E. tarda in zebrafish larvae, increasing its survival by 50%. Taken together, these results identified three Bacillus spp. capable of extracellularly quenching aquaculture pathogen communication, and thus become a promising source of bioactive molecules for use in the biocontrol of aquaculture bacterial diseases.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (7) ◽  
pp. 2029
Ana Gutiérrez Falcón ◽  
Daniel Padilla ◽  
Fernando Real ◽  
María José Ramos Sosa ◽  
Begoña Acosta-Hernández ◽  

On intensive fish farms, 10% of the population dies exclusively from pathogens, and Photobacterium damselae subsp. Piscicida (Ph. damselae subsp. Piscicida), the bacteria causing pasteurellosis in marine aquaculture, is one of the major pathogens involved. The objective of this study was to obtain new probiotic strains against pasteurellosis in order to limit the use of chemotherapy, avoiding the environmental repercussions generated by the abusive use of these products. In this study, 122 strains were isolated from the gills and intestines of different marine fish species and were later evaluated in vitro to demonstrate the production of antagonistic effects, the production of antibacterial substances, adhesion and growth to mucus, resistance to bile and resistance to pH gradients, as well as its harmlessness and the dynamic of expression of immune-related genes by real-time PCR after administration of the potential probiotic in the fish diet. Only 1/122 strains showed excellent results to be considered as a potential probiotic strain and continue its characterization against Ph. damselae subsp. piscicida to determine its protective effect and elucidating in future studies its use as a possible probiotic strain for marine aquaculture.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (6) ◽  
pp. e242580
Satoshi Hayano ◽  
Takayuki Masaki ◽  
Risako Tadakuma ◽  
Masayuki Kashima

Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae is a family of Vibrionaceae and exists in the marine environment. The organism rarely causes soft-tissue infection in humans; moreover, most of the infected individuals have a history of fishing or exposure to brackish water. We experienced the case of a 63-year-old patient with a history of liver cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class B) who presented with a fever and swelling of the left leg with pain. His symptoms developed after fishing and eating raw fish with exposure of brackish water. He was diagnosed with cellulitis, and Photobacterium damselae spp. damselae was detected in blood culture. The patient was treated with ceftazidime and minocycline and he was discharged after recovery. We need to be aware that in immunocompromised patients with cellulitis exposed to brackish water, organisms other than Staphylococci and Streptococci may be the causative organisms.

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