Major Pathogens
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Hongqiang Lou ◽  
Xusheng Li ◽  
Xiusheng Sheng ◽  
Shuiqin Fang ◽  
Shaoye Wan ◽  

Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is one of the major pathogens contributing to the enteritis in humans. Infection can lead to numerous complications, including but not limited to Guillain-Barre syndrome, reactive arthritis, and Reiter’s syndrome. Over the past two decades, joint efforts have been made toward developing a proper strategy of limiting the transmission of C. jejuni to humans. Nevertheless, except for biosecurity measures, no available vaccine has been developed so far. Judging from the research findings, Omp18, AhpC outer membrane protein, and FlgH flagellin subunits of C. jejuni could be adopted as surface protein antigens of C. jejuni for screening dominant epitope thanks to their strong antigenicity, expression of varying strains, and conservative sequence. In this study, bioinformatics technology was adopted to analyze the T-B antigenic epitopes of Omp18, AhpC, and FlgH in C. jejuni strain NCTC11168. Both ELISA and Western Blot methods were adopted to screen the dominant T-B combined epitope. GGS (GGCGGTAGC) sequence was adopted to connect the dominant T-B combined epitope peptides and to construct the prokaryotic expression system of tandem repeats of antigenic epitope peptides. The mouse infection model was adopted to assess the immunoprotective effect imposed by the trivalent T-B combined with antigen epitope peptide based on Omp18/AhpC/FlgH. In this study, a tandem epitope AhpC-2/Omp18-1/FlgH-1 was developed, which was composed of three epitopes and could effectively enhance the stability and antigenicity of the epitope while preserving its structure. The immunization of BALB/c mice with a tandem epitope could induce protective immunity accompanied by the generation of IgG2a antibody response through the in vitro synthesis of IFN-γ cytokines. Judging from the results of immune protection experiments, the colonization of C. jejuni declined to a significant extent, and it was expected that AhpC-2/Omp18-1/FlgH-1 could be adopted as a candidate antigen for genetic engineering vaccine of C. jejuni MAP.

2022 ◽  
Léa Bariod ◽  
Sonia Saïd ◽  
Clément Calenge ◽  
Vincent Badeau ◽  
Stéphane Chabot ◽  

Ixodes ricinus , the most common species of tick in Europe, is known to transmit major pathogens to animals and humans such as Babesia spp. or Borrelia spp.. Its abundance and distribution have been steadily increasing in Europe during recent decades, due to global environmental changes. Indeed, as ticks spend most of their life in the environment, their activity and life cycle are highly dependent on environmental conditions, and therefore on climate or habitat changes. Simultaneously, wild ungulates have expanded their range and increased dramatically in abundance worldwide, in particular roe deer ( Capreolus capreolus ), have allowed tick populations to grow and spread. Currently, tick infestation on newborn wild ungulates is poorly documented. However, newborn ungulates are considered more sensitive to tick bites and pathogen transmission because of their immature immune system. Thus, improving knowledge about the factors influencing tick infestation on newborns is essential to better understand their health risks. This study was conducted at Trois-Fontaines forest, Champagne-Ardenne, France (1992-2018). Based on a long-term monitoring of roe deer fawns, we used a novel Bayesian model of the infestation of fawns to identify which biotic or abiotic factors are likely to modify the level of infestation by ticks of 965 fawns over time. We show that tick burden increased faster during the first days of life of the fawns and became constant when fawns were 5 days old and more, which could be explained by the depletion of questing ticks or the turnover of ticks feeding on fawns. Moreover, the humidity, which favors tick activity, was weakly positively related to the tick burden. Our results demonstrate that tick infestation was highly variable among years, particularly between 2000 and 2009. We hypothesize that this results from a modification of habitat caused by hurricane Lothar.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Edris Nabizadeh ◽  
Anahita Ghotaslou ◽  
Behnaz Salahi ◽  
Reza Ghotaslou

Objectives. The organisms of Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella virus, Cytomegalovirus, and Herpes simplex virus as an acronym of TORCH are major pathogens in prepregnancy and reproductive-age women. These microorganisms are considered a serious problem and cause 2-3% of all birth defects in the fetus. Our study was aimed at screening the seroprevalence of TORCH antibodies among prepregnancy and reproductive-age women in Tabriz, Iran. Design and Setting. This study was carried out in 2726 prepregnancy and reproductive-age women, who were referred to the laboratory for prenatal TORCH screening. To detect the presence of IgG, IgM antibodies and Hepatitis B surface antigen against these microorganisms were carried out using a chemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer (CLIA). Results. In the current study, the rates of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG, anti-Rubella virus IgG, and anti-Cytomegalovirus IgG were found in 722 cases (26.5%), 2579 cases (94.6%0), and 2718 cases (99.7%), respectively. Moreover, the rates of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM, anti-Rubella virus IgM, and anti-Cytomegalovirus IgM were discovered in 10 cases (0.4%), 13 cases (0.5%), and 16 cases (0.6%), respectively. The Hepatitis B surface antigen was found in 32 cases (1.2%). The dissemination of positive TORCH in various ages was different ( P < 0.05 ). Conclusions. In our study, the seroprevalence of acute TORCH infections was relatively low. Due to the probability of vertical transmission to the fetus during pregnancy and the unpleasant complication of these pathogens, it is essential to be screened for detection of specific IgG and IgM antibodies in reproductive ages.

Ed Dixon ◽  
Kimberly Leonberger ◽  
Desiree Szarka ◽  
Bernadette Amsden ◽  
Henry S Smith ◽  

Upon reintroduction of hemp in 2014 and legalization in 2018, labeled pesticides have remained limited. Further, consumer demand has aimed the market toward organic or chemical-free production systems. In efforts to manage diseases and pests in fields and greenhouses, producers turn toward biological and biorational formulations. Efficacy of these fungicides against common aerial diseases of hemp is largely unpublished. Challenges of efficacy testing, however, further delay or discourage research. In this study, we evaluated screening methods against some common biological products. The aim was to test a screening model in order to examine products against fungal pathogens and to identify demonstrable differences under controlled conditions. Thus, in this study, we prescreen 11 biological and biorational fungicides against four common fungal leaf and flower pathogens using three bioassays. Confirmation that the major modes of action for these products have measurable activity against major pathogens of hemp serves as a first step toward more complex field studies.

T.N. Luchkina ◽  
L.P. Zbrailova ◽  
E.A. Krat-Kravchenko ◽  

Brown mustard is one of the valuable oil crops which allows increasing the production of edible vegetable oil. In the conditions of insufficient moisture in the Rostov region, new cultivars of brown mustard are being developed, which combine yield, early maturity with high product quality and are resistant to stress factors. A new cultivar of brown mustard Alisa was bred by the method of individual selection from the hybrid population G-2384 (G-2319 × 50041). According to the results of competitive trials for 2017–2019, the cultivar Alisa exceeded the standard cultivar Lux by seed yield by 0.31 t per ha, seed oil content – by 0.8%. The brown mustard cultivar Alisa is characterized by a lower plant height, increased tolerance to major pathogens, and greater resistance to lodging. Plants are well uniformed in height, blooming and maturity. The cultivar was registered in 2020 in the State Register of breeding achievements approved for production. It is recommended for cultivation for grain in all regions of the Russian Federation.

2021 ◽  
Joshua Miller ◽  
Tessa M Burch-Smith ◽  
Vitaly V Ganusov

Viruses are major pathogens of agricultural crops. Viral infections often start after the virus enters the outer layer of a tissue or surface and many successful viruses, after local replication in the infected tissue, are able to spread systemically. Quantitative details of virus dynamics in plants, however, have been poorly understood, in part, because of the lack of experimental methods allowing to accurately measure the degree of infection in individual plant tissues. Recently, by using flow cytometry and two different flourescently-labeled strains of the Tobacco etch virus (TEV), Venus and BFP, kinetics of viral infection of individual cells in leaves of {\it Nicotiana tabacum} plants was followed over time \cite{Tromas.pg14}. A simple mathematical model, assuming that viral spread occurs from lower to upper leaves, was fitted to these data. While the the original model could accurately describe the kinetics of viral spread locally and systemically, we also found that many alternative versions of the model, for example, if viral spread starts at upper leaves and progresses to lower leaves or when virus dissemination is stopped due to an immune response, provided fits of the data with reasonable quality, and yet with different parameter estimates. These results strongly suggest that experimental measurements of the virus infection in individual leaves may not be sufficient to identify the pathways of viral dissemination between different leaves and reasons for viral control; we propose experiments that may allow discrimination between the alternatives. By analyzing the kinetics of coinfection of individual cells by Venus and BFP strains of TEV we found a strong deviation from the random infection model, suggesting cooperation between the two strains when infecting plant cells. Importantly, we showed that many mathematical models on the kinetics of coinfection of cells with two strains could not adequately describe the data, and the best fit model needed to assume i) different susceptibility of uninfected cells to infection by two viruses locally in the leaf vs. systemically from other leaves, and ii) decrease in the infection rate depending on the fraction of uninfected cells which could be due to a systemic immune response. Our results thus demonstrate the difficulty in reaching definite conclusions from extensive and yet limited experimental data and provide evidence of potential cooperation between different viral variants infecting individual cells in plants.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (24) ◽  
pp. 13574
Sehrish Akbar ◽  
Wei Yao ◽  
Lifang Qin ◽  
Yuan Yuan ◽  
Charles A. Powell ◽  

Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) is one of the major pathogens of sugarcane. SCMV infection causes dynamic changes in plant cells, including decreased photosynthetic rate, respiration, and sugar metabolism. To understand the basics of pathogenicity mechanism, we performed transcriptome and proteomics analysis in two sugarcane genotypes (Badila: susceptible to SCMV and B-48: SCMV resistant). Using Saccharum spontaneum L. genome as a reference, we identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) that participate in sugar metabolism, transport of their metabolites, and Carbohydrate Activating enZYmes (CAZymes). Sequencing data revealed 287 DEGs directly or indirectly involved in sugar metabolism, transport, and storage, while 323 DEGs are associated with CAZymes. Significant upregulation of glucose, sucrose, fructose, starch, and SWEET-related transcripts was observed in the Badila after infection of SCMV. B-48 showed resistance against SCMV with a limited number of sugar transcripts up-regulation at the post-infection stage. For CAZymes, only glycosyltransferase (GT)1 and glycosyl hydrolase (GH)17 were upregulated in B-48. Regulation of DEGs was analyzed at the proteomics level as well. Starch, fructose, glucose, GT1, and GH17 transcripts were expressed at the post-translational level. We verified our transcriptomic results with proteomics and qPCR data. Comprehensively, this study proved that Badila upregulated sugar metabolizing and transporting transcripts and proteins, which enhance virus multiplication and infectionl.

Friederike Wiebe ◽  
Stefan Handtke ◽  
Jan Wesche ◽  
Annabel Schnarre ◽  
Raghavendra Palankar ◽  

Platelets play an important role in the development and progression of respiratory distress. Functional platelets are known to seal inflammatory endothelial gaps and loss of platelet function has been shown to result in loss of integrity of pulmonary vessels. This leads to fluid accumulation in the pulmonary interstitium, eventually resulting in respiratory distress. Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the major pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia. Previously, we have shown that its major toxin pneumolysin forms pores in platelet membranes and renders them non-functional. In vitro, this process was inhibited by polyvalent intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG). In this study, we compared the efficacy of a standard intravenous immunoglobulin preparation (IVIG, 98% IgG; Privigen, CSL Behring, USA) and an IgM/IgA-enriched immunoglobulin preparation (21% IgA, 23% IgM, 56% IgG; trimodulin, Biotest AG, Germany) to inhibit pneumolysin-induced platelet destruction. Platelet destruction and functionality were assessed by flow cytometry, intracellular calcium release, aggregometry, platelet viability, transwell, and flow chamber assays. Overall, both immunoglobulin preparations efficiently inhibited pneumolysin-induced platelet destruction. The capacity to antagonize pneumolysin mainly depended on the final IgG content. As both polyvalent immunoglobulin preparations efficiently prevent pneumolysin-induced platelet destruction and maintain platelet function in vitro, they represent promising candidates for clinical studies on supportive treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia to reduce progression of respiratory distress.

2021 ◽  
Vol 57 (4) ◽  
pp. 283
Ardhiya Puspita ◽  
Radita Yuniar Arizandy ◽  
Eddy Bagus Wasito ◽  
Kuntaman Kuntaman

Highlight :Bacteriologically for colonization of  ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae in cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) were analyzed.The prevalence of ESBL producing bacteria among cockroaches in hospitals is bigger than in households.Abstract: Cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is one of the vectors in the environment that can transmit disease. Cockroaches can act as potential mechanical vectors of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Enterobacteriaceae is a gram-negative bacteria that has natural habitats in the digestive tract of humans and animals. Enterobacteriaceae that produce Extended Spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have emerged as major pathogens in hospitals. The study analyzed the prevalence of ESBL producing bacteria in cockroaches that lived in hospitals and residential homes. In this study, a total of 200 cockroaches consisting of 100 cockroaches from the hospital environment and 100 cockroaches from the residential environment were analyzed bacteriologically for colonization of  ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae. The specimen of the alimentary tract was taken and sub-cultured in MacConkey agar supplemented with cefotaxime 2 ug/ml. Growth colonies were suggested as an ESBL-producing bacteria, then were confirmed as ESBL producers by the Double Disk Synergy Test (DDST). The ESBL gene was detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Among 100 household cockroach samples, 14 (14%) were identified as ESBL producers, while 100 hospital cockroaches were 26 (26%) positive ESBL. The ESBL gene, in hospital cockroach were identified of CTXM 19 (19%), SHV 7 (7%), and not any TEM gene, while among household cockroaches were identified CTXM 2 (2%), SHV 11 (11%), and also not detected TEM ESBL gene. Among ESBL genes, only the CTXM gene was significantly different between household and hospital cockroaches.

2021 ◽  
Deirdre Church ◽  
Ranjani Somayaji ◽  
Jeannine Viczko ◽  
Dan Gregson ◽  
Christopher Naugler

Aim: To study the predictors of mortality from nine major pathogens causing approximately 70% of cases over a 7-year period. Materials & methods: A population-based surveillance cohort of all adult and pediatric patients in the Calgary Zone with an initial episode of bloodstream infections (BSI). Results: The 1-year mortality was 29.2% among 9524 patients (5164 males [54%]). Incidence rates for BSI increased annually to 119.7/100,000 persons by 2016. Distinct survival curves were found for each specific pathogen. Age, comorbidity burden and infecting organism were significantly associated with increased hazard of death. No relationship occurred between the time to positivity for blood cultures and overall mortality. Conclusion: BSI has a high mortality, but overall survival depends on underlying host health and the type of pathogen acquired.

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