Vegf Signaling
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Author(s):  
Cheng-gui Wang ◽  
Yi-ting Lou ◽  
Min-ji Tong ◽  
Li-lian Zhang ◽  
Zeng-jie Zhang ◽  
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2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (17) ◽  
pp. 9580
Author(s):  
Hannah Murray ◽  
Beiying Qiu ◽  
Sze Yuan Ho ◽  
Xiaomeng Wang

Complement factor B (CFB), a 95-kDa protein, is a crucial catalytic element of the alternative pathway (AP) of complement. After binding of CFB to C3b, activation of the AP depends on the proteolytic cleavage of CFB by factor D to generate the C3 convertase (C3bBb). The C3 convertase contains the catalytic subunit of CFB (Bb), the enzymatic site for the cleavage of a new molecule of C3 into C3b. In addition to its role in activating the AP, CFB has been implicated in pathological ocular neovascularization, a common feature of several blinding eye diseases, however, with somewhat conflicting results. The focus of this study was to investigate the direct impact of CFB on ocular neovascularization in a tightly controlled environment. Using mouse models of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), our study demonstrated an increase in CFB expression during pathological angiogenesis. Results from several in vitro and ex vivo functionality assays indicated a promoting effect of CFB in angiogenesis. Mechanistically, CFB exerts this pro-angiogenic effect by mediating the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway. In summary, we demonstrate compelling evidence for the role of CFB in driving ocular angiogenesis in a VEGF-dependent manner. This work provides a framework for a more in-depth exploration of CFB-mediated effects in ocular angiogenesis in the future.


PLoS Genetics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (8) ◽  
pp. e1009769
Author(s):  
Charlene Watterston ◽  
Rami Halabi ◽  
Sarah McFarlane ◽  
Sarah J. Childs

Vessel growth integrates diverse extrinsic signals with intrinsic signaling cascades to coordinate cell migration and sprouting morphogenesis. The pro-angiogenic effects of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) are carefully controlled during sprouting to generate an efficiently patterned vascular network. We identify crosstalk between VEGF signaling and that of the secreted ligand Semaphorin 3fb (Sema3fb), one of two zebrafish paralogs of mammalian Sema3F. The sema3fb gene is expressed by endothelial cells in actively sprouting vessels. Loss of sema3fb results in abnormally wide and stunted intersegmental vessel artery sprouts. Although the sprouts initiate at the correct developmental time, they have a reduced migration speed. These sprouts have persistent filopodia and abnormally spaced nuclei suggesting dysregulated control of actin assembly. sema3fb mutants show simultaneously higher expression of pro-angiogenic (VEGF receptor 2 (vegfr2) and delta-like 4 (dll4)) and anti-angiogenic (soluble VEGF receptor 1 (svegfr1)/ soluble Fms Related Receptor Tyrosine Kinase 1 (sflt1)) pathway components. We show increased phospho-ERK staining in migrating angioblasts, consistent with enhanced Vegf activity. Reducing Vegfr2 kinase activity in sema3fb mutants rescues angiogenic sprouting. Our data suggest that Sema3fb plays a critical role in promoting endothelial sprouting through modulating the VEGF signaling pathway, acting as an autocrine cue that modulates intrinsic growth factor signaling.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Charlene Watterston ◽  
Rami Halabi ◽  
Sarah McFarlane ◽  
Sarah J Childs

Vessel growth integrates diverse extrinsic signals with intrinsic signaling cascades to coordinate cell migration and sprouting morphogenesis. The pro-angiogenic effects of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) are carefully controlled during sprouting to generate an efficiently patterned vascular network. We identify crosstalk between VEGF signaling and that of the secreted ligand Semaphorin 3fb (Sema3fb), one of two zebrafish paralogs of mammalian Sema3F. The sema3fb gene is expressed by endothelial cells in actively sprouting vessels. Loss of sema3fb results in abnormally wide and stunted intersegmental vessel artery sprouts. Although the sprouts initiate at the correct developmental time, they have a reduced migration speed. These sprouts have persistent filopodia and abnormally spaced nuclei suggesting dysregulated control of actin assembly. sema3fb mutants show simultaneously higher expression of pro-angiogenic (VEGF receptor 2 (vegfr2) and delta-like 4 (dll4)) and anti-angiogenic (soluble VEGF receptor 1 (svegfr1)/ soluble Fms Related Receptor Tyrosine Kinase 1 (sflt1)) pathway components. We show increased phospho-ERK staining in migrating angioblasts, consistent with enhanced Vegf activity. Reducing Vegfr2 kinase activity in sema3fb mutants rescues angiogenic sprouting. Our data suggest that Sema3fb plays a critical role in promoting endothelial sprouting through modulating the VEGF signaling pathway, acting as an autocrine cue that modulates intrinsic growth factor signaling.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Maryam Farzaneh Behelgardi ◽  
Zahra Gholami Shahvir ◽  
S.Mohsen Asghari

Abstract There is ample evidence to suggest that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent mitogen factor in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis and that blockade of VEGF-mediated signals can also prevent tumor growth via enforcing cell apoptosis. In the current study, we assessed the suppressing effect of VGB4, a VEGF antagonist peptide with the binding ability to both VEGF receptor1 and VEGF receptor2, on VEGF-induced proliferation and migration of the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 and the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT29 using MTT assay, colony formation assay, and Scratch-wound assay. To evaluate the apoptotic inductive effect of VGB4 on A549 and HT29 cells, apoptosis assay was carried out by flow cytometry analysis. Likewise, p53 and PTEN expression level was examined by immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, the level of proteins involved in VEGF signaling pathways related to apoptosis was investigated using western blot analysis. Our results indicated that VGB4 markedly inhibited VEGF-induced proliferation and migration, and induced apoptosis of A549 and HT29 cells dose dependently. Encouragingly, significant downregulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2), X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis (XIAP), Procaspase9, and procaspase3, as well as upregulation of PTEN and P53 tumor suppressors, BCL2 Associated X (BAX), Cytochrome c, cleaved caspase9, and cleaved caspase3 in VGB4-treated A549 and HT29 cells, further confirmed the profound inductive influence of VGB4 on apoptotic pathways. These findings along with the results from our previous studies show that VGB4 may be considerable for cancer therapy.


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