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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 1065-1070
Jin Song ◽  
Jiahan Chang ◽  
Xue Lin ◽  
Cibo Fan ◽  
Lili Han ◽  

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains a threat to women’s life with a lack of targeted therapy. This study aimed to explore the role of PTEN derived from BMSCs in TNBC. We carried out a retrospective analysis of 65 TNBC patients and 30 healthy subjects from October 2016 to January 2021 with a 10-year follow up. PTEN expression in TNBC tissues and cells was determined by RTqPCR. Functional experiments were conducted to evaluate PTEN’s effect on TNBC cell biological behaviors using MTT assay and Transwell assay, as well as on PI3K-Akt-HIF-1α-VEGF signaling transduction. PTEN was up-regulated in TNBC tissues relative to healthy controls and it was negatively associated with the survival rate. In in vitro experiments, PTEN overexpression increased cell viability and invasion and knocking down of PTEN exerted opposite effect. The expression of PI3K was directly regulated by PTEN. Up-regulation of PTEN resulted in a decline in HIF-1α, Akt and VEGF expressions, which were elevated after knocking down of PTEN. In conclusion, PTEN derived from BMSCs promotes TNBC cell development through blocking PI3K-Akt-HIF-1α-VEGF signaling pathway, providing a new theoretical basis for targeted therapy of TNBC.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 254
Denisse A. Gutierrez ◽  
Lisett Contreras ◽  
Paulina J. Villanueva ◽  
Edgar A. Borrego ◽  
Karla Morán-Santibañez ◽  

In this study, we identified a novel pyrazole-based derivative (P3C) that displayed potent cytotoxicity against 27 human cancer cell lines derived from different tissue origins with 50% cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) in the low micromolar and nanomolar range, particularly in two triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines (from 0.25 to 0.49 µM). In vitro assays revealed that P3C induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation leading to mitochondrial depolarization and caspase-3/7 and -8 activation, suggesting the participation of both the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. P3C caused microtubule disruption, phosphatidylserine externalization, PARP cleavage, DNA fragmentation, and cell cycle arrest on TNBC cells. In addition, P3C triggered dephosphorylation of CREB, p38, ERK, STAT3, and Fyn, and hyperphosphorylation of JNK and NF-kB in TNBC cells, indicating the inactivation of both p38MAPK/STAT3 and ERK1/2/CREB signaling pathways. In support of our in vitro assays, transcriptome analyses of two distinct TNBC cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells) treated with P3C revealed 28 genes similarly affected by the treatment implicated in apoptosis, oxidative stress, protein kinase modulation, and microtubule stability.

2022 ◽  
Jasmine M Manouchehri ◽  
Jharna Datta ◽  
Natalie Willingham ◽  
Robert Wesolowski ◽  
Daniel A Stover ◽  

Introduction: Breast cancer affects two million women worldwide every year and is the most common cause of cancer-related death among women. The triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) sub-type is associated with an especially poor prognosis because currently available therapies, fail to induce long-lasting responses. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapies that result in durable responses. One universal characteristic of the tumor microenvironment is a markedly elevated concentration of extracellular adenosine triphosphate (eATP). Chemotherapy exposure results in further increases in eATP through its release into the extracellular space of cancer cells via P2RX channels. eATP levels are reduced by eATPases. Given that high concentrations of eATP are cytotoxic, we hypothesized that augmenting the release of eATP through P2RX channels and inhibiting extracellular ATPases would sensitize TNBC cells to chemotherapy. Methods: TNBC cell lines MDA-MB 231, Hs 578t and MDA-MB 468 and non-tumorigenic immortalized mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells were treated with increasing concentrations the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel in the presence of eATPase inhibitors, specific agonists or antagonists of P2RXs with cell viability and eATP content being measured. Additionally, the mRNA, protein and cell surface expressions of the purinergic receptors P2RX4 and P2RX7 were evaluated in all examined cell lines via qRT-PCR, western blot, and flow cytometry analyses, respectively. Results: In the present study, we observed dose-dependent declines in cell viability and increases in eATP in paclitaxel-treated TNBC cell lines in the presence of inhibitors of eATPases. These effects were reversed by specific antagonists of P2RXs. Similar results were observed with P2RX activators. All examined cell lines expressed both P2RX4 and P2RX7 at the mRNA, protein and cell surface levels. Conclusion: These results reveal that eATP modulates the chemotherapeutic response in TNBC cell lines which could be exploited to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy regimens for TNBC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Wei Wang ◽  
Dong Han ◽  
Qinbo Cai ◽  
Tao Shen ◽  
Bingning Dong ◽  

AbstractAbout 15–20% of breast cancer (BCa) is triple-negative BCa (TNBC), a devastating disease with limited therapeutic options. Aberrations in the PI3K/PTEN signaling pathway are common in TNBC. However, the therapeutic impact of PI3K inhibitors in TNBC has been limited and the mechanism(s) underlying this lack of efficacy remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that a large subset of TNBC expresses significant levels of MAPK4, and this expression is critical for driving AKT activation independent of PI3K and promoting TNBC cell and xenograft growth. The ability of MAPK4 to bypass PI3K for AKT activation potentially provides a direct mechanism regulating tumor sensitivity to PI3K inhibition. Accordingly, repressing MAPK4 greatly sensitizes TNBC cells and xenografts to PI3K blockade. Altogether, we conclude that high MAPK4 expression defines a large subset or subtype of TNBC responsive to MAPK4 blockage. Targeting MAPK4 in this subset/subtype of TNBC both represses growth and sensitizes tumors to PI3K blockade.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Hengyu Li ◽  
Pinghua Yang ◽  
JingHan Wang ◽  
Jin Zhang ◽  
Qianyun Ma ◽  

AbstractTumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are major components of the tumor microenvironment (TME) which are closely associated with the tumor malignant progression. However, the regulatory mechanisms by which TAMs influence the progression of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remain unclear. Here, we report that hepatic leukemia factor (HLF) acts as a novel oncoprotein in TNBC. We found that HLF was regulated by transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) that is secreted by TAMs. Then, HLF transactivated gamma-glutamyltransferase 1 (GGT1) to promote the ferroptosis resistance, thus driving TNBC cell proliferation, metastasis and cisplatin resistance. Reciprocally, IL-6 produced by TNBC cells activated the JAK2/STAT3 axis to induce TGF-β1 secretion by TAMs, thus constituted a feed-forward circuit. The accuracy of TNBC patient prognosis could be improved by employing a combination of HLF and GGT1 values. Thus, our findings document that the interactive dialogue between TNBC cells and TAMs promotes sustained activation of HLF in tumor cells through the IL-6-TGF-β1 axis. Subsequently, HLF promotes the ferroptosis resistance in TNBC cells via GGT1 and ultimately facilitates the malignant tumor progression. Our study provides a potential target for the treatment of TNBC.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 230
Ramya Ambur Sankaranarayanan ◽  
Jennifer Peil ◽  
Andreas T. J. Vogg ◽  
Carsten Bolm ◽  
Steven Terhorst ◽  

PARP1 inhibitors (PARPi) are currently approved for BRCAmut metastatic breast cancer, but they have shown limited response in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. Combination of an Auger emitter with PARPis enables PARP inhibition and DNA strand break induction simultaneously. This will enhance cytotoxicity and additionally allow a theranostic approach. This study presents the radiosynthesis of the Auger emitter [125I] coupled olaparib derivative: [125I]-PARPi-01, and its therapeutic evaluation in a panel of TNBC cell lines. Specificity was tested by a blocking assay. DNA strand break induction was analysed by γH2AX immunofluorescence staining. Cell cycle analysis and apoptosis assays were studied using flow cytometry in TNBC cell lines (BRCAwt/mut). Anchorage independent growth potential was evaluated using soft agar assay. [125I]-PARPi-01 showed PARP1-specificity and higher cytotoxicity than olaparib in TNBC cell lines irrespective of BRCA their status. Cell lines harbouring DNA repair deficiency showed response to [125I]-PARPi-01 monotherapy. Combined treatment with Dox-NP further enhanced therapeutic efficiency in metastatic resistant BRCAwt cell lines. The clonogenic survival was significantly reduced after treatment with [125I]-PARPi-01 in all TNBC lines investigated. Therapeutic efficacy was further enhanced after combined treatment with chemotherapeutics. [125I]-PARPi-01 is a promising radiotherapeutic agent for low radiation dosages, and mono/combined therapies of TNBC.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 248
Wataru Nakajima ◽  
Kai Miyazaki ◽  
Masahiro Sakaguchi ◽  
Yumi Asano ◽  
Mariko Ishibashi ◽  

Epigenetic alterations caused by aberrant DNA methylation have a crucial role in cancer development, and the DNA-demethylating agent decitabine, is used to treat hematopoietic malignancy. Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) have shown sensitivity to decitabine; however, the underlying mechanism of its anticancer effect and its effectiveness in treating TNBCs are not fully understood. We analyzed the effects of decitabine on nine TNBC cell lines and examined genes associated with its cytotoxic effects. According to the effect of decitabine, we classified the cell lines into cell death (D)-type, growth inhibition (G)-type, and resistant (R)-type. In D-type cells, decitabine induced the expression of apoptotic regulators and, among them, NOXA was functionally involved in decitabine-induced apoptosis. In G-type cells, induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21, and cell cycle arrest were observed. Furthermore, decitabine enhanced the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin mediated by NOXA in D-type and G-type cells. In contrast, the sensitivity to cisplatin was high in R-type cells, and no enhancing effect by decitabine was observed. These results indicate that decitabine enhances the proapoptotic effect of cisplatin on TNBC cell lines that are less sensitive to cisplatin, indicating the potential for combination therapy in TNBC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Xinyu Zhou ◽  
Abel Soto-Gamez ◽  
Fleur Nijdam ◽  
Rita Setroikromo ◽  
Wim J. Quax

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly aggressive breast cancer subtype independent of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. It has a poor prognosis and high recurrence. Due to its limited treatment options in the clinic, novel therapies are urgently needed. Single treatment with the death receptor ligand TRAIL was shown to be poorly effective. Recently, we have shown that artemisinin derivatives enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Here, we utilized transferrin (TF) to enhance the effectiveness of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in inducing cell death in TNBC cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-436, MDA-MB-468 and BT549). We found that the combination of DHA-TF and the death receptor 5-specific TRAIL variant DHER leads to an increase in DR5 expression in all four TNBC cell lines, while higher cytotoxicity was observed in MDA-MB-231, and MDA-MB-436. All the data point to the finding that DHA-TF stimulates cell death in TNBC cells, while the combination of DHA-TF with TRAIL variants will trigger more cell death in TRAIL-sensitive cells. Overall, DHA-TF in combination with TRAIL variants represents a potential novel combination therapy for triple-negative breast cancer.

2022 ◽  
Venhar Cınar ◽  
Zuhal Hamurcu ◽  
Ahsen Guler ◽  
Nursultan Nurdinov ◽  
Bulent Ozpolat

Abstract Purpose: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer and associated with poor prognosis and shorter survival due to significant genetic heterogeneity, drug resistance and lack of effective targeted therapeutics. Therefore, novel molecular targets and therapeutic strategies are needed to improve patient survival. Serotonin (5-hydroxytriptamine, 5-HT) has been shown to induce growth stimulatory effects in breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms by which 5-HT exerts its oncogenic effects in TNBC still are not well understood. Methods: Normal breast epithelium (MCF10A) and two TNBC cells (MDA-MB-231, BT-546) and MCF-7 cells (ER+) were used to investigate effects of 5-HT7 receptor. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based knockdown and metergoline (5-HT7 antagonist) were used to inhibit the activity of 5-HT7. Cell proliferation and colony formation were evaluated using MTS cell viability and colony formation assays, respectively. Western blotting was used to investigate 5-HT7, FOXM1 and its downstream targets protein expressions.Results: We demonstrated that 5-HT induces cell proliferation of TNBC cells and expression of 5-HT7 receptor and FOXM1 oncogenic transcription factor. We found that expression of 5-HT7 receptor is upregulated in TNBC cells and higher 5-HT7 expression is associated with poor patient prognosis and shorter patient survival. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of 5-HT7 by siRNA and metergoline, respectively, suppressed TNBC cell proliferation and FOXM1 and its downstream mediators, including eEF2-Kinase (eEF2K) and cyclin-D1. Conclusion: Our findings suggest for the first time that the 5-HT7 receptor promotes FOXM1, eEF2K and cyclin D1 signaling to support TNBC cell proliferation, thus inhibition of 5-HT7/FOXM1 signaling may be used as a potential therapeutic strategy for targeting TNBC.

Sara Abdul Kader ◽  
Shaima Dib ◽  
Iman W. Achkar ◽  
Gaurav Thareja ◽  
Karsten Suhre ◽  

AbstractMetastasis is the primary cause of cancer related deaths due to the limited number of efficient druggable targets. Signatures of dysregulated cancer metabolism could serve as a roadmap for the determination of new treatment strategies. However, the metabolic signatures of metastatic cells remain vastly elusive. Our aim was to determine metabolic dysregulations associated with high metastatic potential in breast cancer cell lines. We have selected 5 triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines including three with high metastatic potential (HMP) (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-436, MDA-MB-468) and two with low metastatic potential (LMP) (BT549, HCC1143). The normal epithelial breast cell line (hTERT-HME1) was also investigated. The untargeted metabolic profiling of cells and growth media was conducted and total of 479 metabolites were quantified. First we characterized metabolic features differentiating TNBC cell lines from normal cells as well as identified cell line specific metabolic fingerprints. Next, we determined 92 metabolites in cells and 22 in growth medium that display significant differences between LMP and HMP. The HMP cell lines had elevated level of molecules involved in glycolysis, TCA cycle and lipid metabolism. We identified metabolic advantages of cell lines with HMP beyond enhanced glycolysis by pinpointing the role of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) catabolism as well as molecules supporting coagulation and platelet activation as important contributors to the metastatic cascade. The landscape of metabolic dysregulations, characterized in our study, could serve as a roadmap for the identification of treatment strategies targeting cancer cells with enhanced metastatic potential.

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