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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 437
Katharina Kuhn ◽  
David Zügel ◽  
Victor-Sebastian A. Korbay ◽  
Thomas Papas ◽  
Sigmar Schnutenhaus ◽  

This randomized clinical study aimed at quantifying the gingival displacement performance in the vertical and horizontal directions of the 3M™ Astringent Retraction Paste (3M Oral Care, Seefeld, Germany) in comparison with the double-cord technique with aluminum chloride as an astringent. Afterward, any soft-tissue changes were assessed for 12 months. After inducing mild gingivitis, 18 probands received the intervention ‘cord’ and 22 probands received the intervention ‘paste’ at the palatal half of upper premolars prior to conventional impression making. The resulting plaster casts were digitized and analyzed for the vertical and horizontal gingival displacement, applying a newly developed computer-assisted methodology. The entire palatal half of the tooth was evaluated instead of only single sites. Under the condition of mild gingivitis, the gingival displacement performance was comparable for both techniques in the horizontal direction (width) and only somewhat better for the cord technique in the vertical direction (depth). The magnitude of displacement was in a similar range in both directions, with somewhat higher values in the vertical direction. The marginal gingiva height changes were of such low extent during the follow-up period of 12 months with only minimally higher values for the paste that they cannot be considered as clinically relevant recessions.

А.Н. Гречухин ◽  
В.В. Куц ◽  
П.С. Щербаков

Статья посвящена изучению вопросов управления процессом аддитивного формообразования изделий. Представлены результаты исследования процесса аддитивного формообразования поверхности электрической дугой в среде защитного газа. Проведен анализ погрешности формы поверхностей, полученных с различным заполнением слоев. Подтверждено экспериментально, что такие параметры процесса, как ориентация слоев, коэффициент их перекрытия являются значимыми. Так, погрешность формообразования образцов наплавки слой на слой в вертикальном направлении выше по сравнению с другими способами наплавки, реализованными в эксперименте. Средние значения погрешности формы образцов составляют 0,75 мм, 0,88 мм, 1,15 мм, соответственно, для способов наплавки слой к слою на горизонтальную поверхность с коэффициентом перекрытия 0,3, слой к слою на горизонтальную поверхность с коэффициентом перекрытия 0,5, слой на слой в вертикальном направлении. Максимальные значения погрешности определены на уровне 0,85 мм, 1,2 мм, 1,5 мм для соответствующих способов наплавки, реализованных в эксперименте. Таким образом, пространственная ориентация слоев, а также коэффициент перекрытия слоев являются значимыми, оказывают влияние на численное значение погрешности формы получаемой поверхности, должны быть учтены при проектировании алгоритмов разделения на слои, их заполнения при аддитивном формообразовании электрической дугой в среде защитного газа The article is devoted to the study of the issues of managing the process of additive shaping of products. The paper presents the results of a study of the process of additive surface shaping by an electric arc in a protective gas medium. We analyzed the error of the shape of the surfaces obtained with different filling layers. We confirmed experimentally that such process parameters as the orientation of the layers, their overlap coefficient are significant. Thus, the error of forming samples of surfacing layer on layer in the vertical direction is higher compared to other methods of surfacing implemented in the experiment. The average values of the sample shape error are 0.75 mm, 0.88 mm, 1.15 mm, respectively, for methods of surfacing layer to layer on a horizontal surface with an overlap coefficient of 0.3, layer to layer on a horizontal surface with an overlap coefficient of 0.5, layer to layer in the vertical direction. The maximum error values are determined at the level of 0.85 mm, 1.2 mm, 1.5 mm for the corresponding surfacing methods implemented in the experiment. Thus, the spatial orientation of the layers, as well as the overlap coefficient of the layers, are significant, affect the numerical value of the shape error of the resulting surface, should be taken into account when designing algorithms for dividing into layers, filling them with additive shaping by an electric arc in a protective gas medium

Yue Ma ◽  
Jinshun Bi ◽  
Sandip Majumdar ◽  
Safdar Mehmood ◽  
Lanlong Ji ◽  

Abstract In this paper, we carried out detailed TCAD simulations to investigate the radiation effects, e.g., total ionizing dose (TID) and single-event effects (SEEs), on direct current (DC) and radio frequency (RF) characteristics of the gate-all-around (GAA) nanosheet field-effect transistor (FET). The simulation model used is composed of 7-layer stacked GAA nanosheet FET with Lg=22 nm, which was implemented in this study. The open current and the drain-induced barrier lowering of the device are ~ 3mA/μm and 47mV/V, respectively. The results indicate that the TID have little influence on the DC and RF characteristics when the transistor is working in an open state. During the SEEs simulation, we considered three incident directions for the high energy particle, including the lateral direction of the channels, the vertical direction of the channels and the top of the channels. The influence of the particle injecting along the lateral and vertical directions of the channels shows stronger relation with the distance from the incident point compared to the influence of the particle from the top. Besides, the general influence of the particle injecting along the lateral directions of the channels is higher than the other two directions. The total injected charge of the particle injecting along the lateral direction, along the vertical direction and from the top are 3 fC, 1.4 fC and 2.1 fC, respectively. As compared to the FinFET, the GAA nanosheet has superior RF performances and less sensitivity to TID effect. This work can provide a guideline for the GAA nanosheet devices in aerospace and avionic RF applications.

2022 ◽  
Jingwei Duan ◽  
Ping Zou ◽  
Shiyu Wei ◽  
Rui Fang ◽  
Liting Fang

Abstract To improve the machining performance of different processing materials, a three-excitation ultrasonic spatial vibration-assisted turning system is proposed, which realizes the non-unity of the plane where the cutting trajectory of the tool is located. The influence and formation law of three-excitation ultrasonic spatial vibration-assisted turning on the surface roughness of the workpiece under different vibration parameters (amplitude) and machining parameters (cutting speed, cutting depth, and feed) were analyzed by response surface methodology. The results show that in terms of vibration parameters, the influence of ultrasonic vibration applied in the horizontal direction on surface roughness is significantly greater than that of ultrasonic vibration applied in the vertical direction, while the feed has the greatest influence on surface roughness, followed by cutting speed. The surface roughness of common turning, one-dimensional ultrasonic vibration-assisted turning, ultrasonic elliptical vibration-assisted turning, and three-excitation ultrasonic spatial vibration-assisted turning were theoretically analyzed and experimentally compared. The results show that compared with the other three turning methods, the three-excitation ultrasonic spatial vibration-assisted turning can obtain a lower surface roughness and have good machinability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
M. M. Abdulkadieva ◽  
E. V. Sysolyatina ◽  
E. V. Vasilieva ◽  
A. I. Gusarov ◽  
P. A. Domnin ◽  

AbstractBacterial motility provides the ability for bacterial dissemination and surface exploration, apart from a choice between surface colonisation and further motion. In this study, we characterised the movement trajectories of pathogenic and probiotic Escherichia coli strains (ATCC43890 and M17, respectively) at the landing stage (i.e., leaving the bulk and approaching the surface) and its correlation with adhesion patterns and efficiency. A poorly motile strain JM109 was used as a control. Using specially designed and manufactured microfluidic chambers, we found that the motion behaviour near surfaces drastically varied between the strains, correlating with adhesion patterns. We consider two bacterial strategies for effective surface colonisation: horizontal and vertical, based on the obtained results. The horizontal strategy demonstrated by the M17 strain is characterised by collective directed movements within the horizontal layer during a relatively long period and non-uniform adhesion patterns, suggesting co-dependence of bacteria in the course of adhesion. The vertical strategy demonstrated by the pathogenic ATCC43890 strain implies the individual movement of bacteria mainly in the vertical direction, a faster transition from bulk to near-surface swimming, and independent bacterial behaviour during adhesion, providing a uniform distribution over the surface.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Chaoqun Peng ◽  
Jianfeng Chen ◽  
Qiumeng Qin ◽  
Zhi-Yuan Li

Topological one-way edge states have attracted increasing attention because of their intriguing fundamental physics and potential applications, particularly in the realm of photonics. In this paper, we present a theoretical and numerical demonstration of topological one-way edge states in an air-hole honeycomb gyromagnetic photonic crystal biased by an external magnetic field. Localized horizontally to the edge and confined in vertical direction by two parallel metallic plates, these unique states possess robust one-way propagation characteristics. They are strongly robust against various types of defects, imperfections and sharp corners on the path, and even can unidirectionally transport along the irregular edges of arbitrary geometries. We further utilize the one-way property of edge states to overcome entirely the issue of back-reflections and show the design of topological leaky wave antennas. Our results open a new door towards the observation of nontrivial edge states in air-hole topological photonic crystal systems, and offer useful prototype of robust topological photonic devices, such as geometry-independent topological energy flux loops and topological leaky wave antennas.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Xiaoming Zhao ◽  
Yulong Niu ◽  
Dongbin Cui ◽  
Mingming Hu

The distribution characteristics of hydraulic gradient in embankment are closely related to seepage failure. Seepage failures such as flowing soil and piping will lead to serious damage and even the overall failure of embankment. The hydraulic conductivity has strong spatial variability, which changes the distribution of hydraulic gradient in embankment and increases the difficulty for predicting the embankment seepage instability. In this study, the distribution of soil hydraulic conductivity in a section of Shijiu Lake embankment was obtained by the permeability test. Based on Local Average Subdivision technique, a three-dimensional multilayer random field of embankment hydraulic conductivity was generated. Then, the mean and standard deviation of overflow point height and hydraulic gradient were calculated by the Monte Carlo method, which combined the generated three-dimensional random model and the deterministic analysis method of seepage field. Finally, the coefficient of variation (COV) of hydraulic conductivity (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0), the fluctuation scale in vertical direction (3 m) and the fluctuation scale in horizontal plane (3 m, 6 m, 12 m, 24 m, 36 m, and 48 m) were selected respectively for analyzing the random characteristics of embankment overflow point height and hydraulic gradient under the influence of different COV and fluctuation scale of embankment soil hydraulic conductivity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Zhihui Zhang ◽  
Yangyi Liu ◽  
Wenwen Zhu ◽  
Jian Liu ◽  
Tian Ma ◽  

The control and prevention of rock burst in a steeply inclined coal seam are essential. In order to figure out the effects of filling and mining sequence on rock burst in the steeply inclined coal seam, B3+6 and B1+2 coal seams in Wudong coal mine are chosen as the research objects, and an in-house experiment system of similarity simulation is established in this study. Combined with numerical simulation, the characteristics of collapse, stress distribution, and displacement variations can be measured, which provide useful information to study the effects of the filling body and mining sequence on rock burst. Experimental results show that the key reason for rock burst in a steeply inclined coal seam is the stress concentration of the rock pillar between B3+6 and B1+2 coal seams instead of the stress-lever-effect of a deeper rock pillar. The filling body can support the middle rock pillar, share the geological structure stress in the horizontal and vertical direction, eliminate the stress concentration zone largely, and prevent the occurrence of rock burst. When multiple working faces are working, the opposite side of the coal seam should be mined first to release the energy in the rock in advance, thus preventing the rock burst effectively. The research results provide fundamental information for better understanding the reason for rock burst and preventing rock burst in the steeply inclined coal seam.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-18
Kunyu Teng ◽  
Hongke Cai ◽  
Xiubin Sun ◽  
Quanliang Chen

This paper examines the basic geometric and physical characteristics of precipitation clouds over the Tibetan Plateau, based on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) data from 1998 to 2015, using the minimum bounding rectangle (MBR) method. The results show that about 60% of the precipitation clouds occur with a scale of approximately 18 km (length) and 15 km (width), and the proportion of precipitation clouds with a length longer than 100 km and a width wider than 90 km is less than 1%. Most of the precipitation cloud exhibits a shape between square and long strips in the horizontal direction and lanky in the vertical direction. The average rainfall intensity of precipitation clouds is between 0.5 and 6 mm h−1. The average length and width of precipitation clouds show a logarithmic, linear relationship. The distribution of raindrops in precipitation clouds is relatively compact. With the expansion of the area, the precipitation clouds gradually become squatty. The relationship between physical and geometric parameters of precipitation clouds shows that with the precipitation cloud area expanding, the average rainfall rate of precipitation clouds also increases. Heavy convective rainfall is more likely to occur in larger precipitation clouds. For the precipitation clouds of the same size, the area fraction and contribution of convective precipitation are lower than that of stratiform precipitation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 505
Hsun-Yuan Chi ◽  
Wei Hong ◽  
Hsuan Lai ◽  
Shih-Hsiang Hsu ◽  
Che-Chang Chang

In this paper, a silicon ribbon (SR)-based microstructure is developed and added to a 32-channel optical phased array (OPA) to reduce the crosstalk between the antennas of grating waveguides. The spacing between the chirped grating antennas can be as close as 600 nm to effectively improve the field of view (FoV) of the OPA in the horizontal direction to 95 degrees. This SR-based approach substantially reduces the side lobe by 10 dB, effectively suppressing the noise and increasing the main lobe by 6 dB and considerably expanding the grating length with linear energy decay. The full width at the half maximum of the light spot reaches about 0.24 degrees. The antenna sites can simultaneously be scanned vertically by bi-directional inputs, effectively increasing the FoV to 30 degrees in the vertical direction.

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