countermovement jump
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Jelena Ivanović ◽  
Filip Kukić ◽  
Gianpiero Greco ◽  
Nenad Koropanovski ◽  
Saša Jakovljević ◽  

This study investigated the hierarchical structure of physical characteristics in elite young (i.e., U17-U19) basketball players according to playing positions. In addition, their predictive value of physical characteristics was determined for the evaluation of players’ physical preparedness. Sixty elite male basketball players performed 13 standardized specific field tests in order to assess the explosive power of lower limbs, speed, and change-of-direction speed. They were divided into three groups according to playing positions (guard [n = 28], forward [n = 22], center [n = 10]). The basic characteristics of the tested sample were: age = 17.36 ± 1.04 years, body height = 192.80 ± 4.49 cm, body mass = 79.83 ± 6.94 kg, and basketball experience = 9.38 ± 2.10 years for guards; age = 18.00 ± 1.00 years, body height = 201.48 ± 3.14 cm, body mass = 90.93 ± 9.85 kg, and basketball experience = 9.93 ± 2.28 years for forwards; and age = 17.60 ± 1.43 years; body height = 207.20 ± 3.29 cm, body mass = 104.00 ± 9.64 kg, and basketball experience = 9.20 ± 1.62 years for centers. For all playing positions factor analysis extracted three factors, which cumulatively explained 76.87, 88.12 and 87.63% of variance, respectively. The assessed performance measures were defined as significant (p < 0.001), with regression models of physical performance index (PPINDEX). PPINDEX of guards = −6.860 + (0.932 × t-test) − (1.656 × Acceleration 15 m) − (0.020 × Countermovement jump); PPINDEX of forwards = −3.436 − (0.046 × Countermovement jump with arm swing) − (1.295 × Acceleration 15 m) + (0.582 × Control of dribbling); PPINDEX of centers = −4.126 + (0.604 × Control of dribbling) − (1.315 × Acceleration 15 m) − (0.037 × Sargent jump). A model for the evaluation of physical performance of young basketball players has been defined. In addition, this model could be used as a reference model for selection procedures, as well as to monitor the efficacy of applied training programmes within the short, medium and long-term periodization.

2022 ◽  
pp. 91-103
Luciana Labanca ◽  
Jacopo E. Rocchi ◽  
Silvana Giannini ◽  
Emanuele R. Faloni ◽  
Giulio Montanari ◽  

The study aimed at investigating the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation superimposed on functional exercises (NMES+) early after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLr) with hamstring graft, on muscle strength, knee function, and morphology of thigh muscles and harvested tendons. Thirty-four participants were randomly allocated to either NMES+ group, who received standard rehabilitation with additional NMES of knee flexor and extensor muscles, superimposed on functional movements, or to a control group, who received no additional training (NAT) to traditional rehabilitation. Participants were assessed 15 (T1), 30 (T2), 60 (T3), 90 (T4) and at a mean of 380 days (T5) after ACLr. Knee strength of flexors and extensors was measured at T3, T4 and T5. Lower limb loading asymmetry was measured during a sit-to-stand-to-sit movement at T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, and a countermovement-jump at T4 and T5. An MRI was performed at T5 to assess morphology of thigh muscles and regeneration of the harvested tendons. NMES+ showed higher muscle strength for the hamstrings (T4, T5) and the quadriceps (T3, T4, T5), higher loading symmetry during stand-to-sit (T2, T3, T4, T5), sit-to-stand (T3, T4) and countermovement-jump (T5) than NAT. No differences were found between-groups for morphology of muscles and tendons, nor in regeneration of harvested tendons. NMES+ early after ACLr with hamstring graft improves muscle strength and knee function in the short- and long-term after surgery, regardless of tendon regeneration.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 511
Filipe Conceição ◽  
Martin Lewis ◽  
Hernâni Lopes ◽  
Elza M. M. Fonseca

This study aims to comprehensively assess the accuracy and precision of five different devices and by incorporating a variety of analytical approaches for measuring countermovement jump height: Qualisys motion system; Force platform; Ergojump; an Accelerometer, and self-made Abalakow jump belt. Twenty-seven male and female physical education students (23.5 ± 3.8 years; height 170 ± 9.1 cm and body mass 69.1 ± 11.4 kg) performed three countermovement jumps simultaneously measured using five devices. The 3D measured displacement obtained through the Qualisys device was considered in this study as the reference value. The best accuracy (difference from 3D measured displacement) and precision (standard deviation of differences) for countermovement jump measurement was found using the Abalakow jump belt (0.8 ± 14.7 mm); followed by the Force platform when employing a double integration method (1.5 ± 13.9 mm) and a flight-time method employed using Qualisys motion system data (6.1 ± 17.1 mm). The least accuracy was obtained for the Ergojump (−72.9 mm) employing its analytical tools and then for the accelerometer and Force platform using flight time approximations (−52.8 mm and −45.3 mm, respectively). The worst precision (±122.7 mm) was obtained through double integration of accelerometer acceleration data. This study demonstrated that jump height measurement accuracy is both device and analytical-approach-dependent and that accuracy and precision in jump height measurement are achievable with simple, inexpensive equipment such as the Abalakow jump belt.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Rafael L. Kons ◽  
Jonathan Ache-Dias ◽  
Rodrigo G. Gheller ◽  
Chris Bishop ◽  
Daniele Detanico

Kuei-Yu Chien ◽  
Wei-Gang Chang ◽  
Wan-Chin Chen ◽  
Rong-Jun Liou

Abstract Background Water jumping exercise is an alternative method to achieve maintenance of bone health and reduce exercise injuries. Clarifying the ground reaction force (GRF) of moderate and high cardiopulmonary exercise intensities for jumping movements can help quantify the impact force during different exercise intensities. Accelerometers have been explored for measuring skeletal mechanical loading by estimating the GRFs. Predictive regression equations for GRF using ACC on land have already been developed and performed outside laboratory settings, whereas a predictive regression equation for GRF in water exercises is not yet established. The purpose of this study was to determine the best accelerometer wear-position for three exercise intensities and develop and validate the ground reaction force (GRF) prediction equation. Methods Twelve healthy women (23.6 ± 1.83 years, 158.2 ± 5.33 cm, 53.1 ± 7.50 kg) were recruited as participants. Triaxial accelerometers were affixed 3 cm above the medial malleolus of the tibia, fifth lumbar vertebra, and seventh cervical vertebra (C7). The countermovement jump (CMJ) cadence started at 80 beats/min and increased by 5 beats per 20 s to reach 50%, 65%, and 80% heart rate reserves, and then participants jumped five more times. One-way repeated analysis of variance was used to determine acceleration differences among wear-positions and exercise intensities. Pearson’s correlation was used to determine the correlation between the acceleration and GRF per body weight on land (GRFVLBW). Backward regression analysis was used to generate GRFVLBW prediction equations from full models with C7 acceleration (C7 ACC), age, percentage of water deep divided by body height (PWDH), and bodyweight as predictors. Paired t-test was used to determine GRFVLBW differences between values from the prediction equation and force plate measurement during validation. Lin’s CCC and Bland–Altman plots were used to determine the agreement between the predicted and force plate-measured GRFVLBW. Results The raw full profile data for the resultant acceleration showed that the acceleration curve of C7 was similar to that of GRFv. The predicted formula was − 1.712 + 0.658 * C7ACC + 0.016 * PWDH + 0.008 * age + 0.003*weight. Lin’s CCC score was 0.7453, with bias of 0.369%. Conclusion The resultant acceleration measured at C7 was identified as the valid estimated GRFVLBW during CMJ in water.

Mitchell D. Lewis ◽  
Warrren B. Young ◽  
Luke Knapstein ◽  
Andrew Lavender ◽  
Scott W. Talpey

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (6) ◽  
pp. 353-358
Ramazan Bayer ◽  
Özgür Eken

Background and Study Aim. Muay thai is a combat sport in which the competitors kick, punch, knee, elbow and growl with their opponents. The strength of the leg muscles can increase the intensity of the kick and its flexibility is a well-known issue for this sport. Determining the most appropriate method for these issues provides important gains to the athletes. One of the methods applied to achieve these gains is acute massage applications. The aim of the study is to evaluate the acute effect of different massage times on squat jump, countermovement jump and flexibility performance. Materials and Methods. Twelve healthy male muay thai athletes (age, 19.83± 1.46 years; height, 175.33± 7.91 cm; body mass, 65.16 ±13.36 kg) participated in the study, who exercised three times a week. The study consists of a single group. The study consists of 4 different massage duration protocols. These protocols consist of no massage (NM), five minutes massage (5MMSG), ten minutes massage (10MMSG) and fifteen minutes massage (15MMSG). Counter movement jump, squat jump, sitting and lying flexibility were measured after each massage period, respectively. All protocols were continued on consecutive days. Results. There was a significant main effect for flexibility (F = 10,872 ; p = 0.00), countermovement jump (F = 4.719 p=.008) and squat jump (F = 6.262 p=.002) performance. The best flexibility, countermovement jump and squat jump performance detected immediately after 5MMSG was respectively 35,16 ± 6,33; 37,17 ± 4,18 and next, 36,05 ± 4,68. Conclusion. As a result, it is recommended that different massage durations are effective in improving physical performance, and 5MMSG before competition is recommended for athletes and coaches to get more performance.

Leonardo Sousa Fortes ◽  
Dalton de Lima-Júnior ◽  
Fabiano Souza Fonseca ◽  
Maicon R. Albuquerque ◽  
Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira

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