metabolic networks
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 880
Chuwei Lin ◽  
Aneirin Alan Lott ◽  
Wei Zhu ◽  
Craig P. Dufresne ◽  
Sixue Chen

Mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 (MPK4) was first identified as a negative regulator of systemic acquired resistance. It is also an important kinase involved in many other biological processes in plants, including cytokinesis, reproduction, and photosynthesis. Arabidopsis thaliana mpk4 mutant is dwarf and sterile. Previous omics studies including genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics have revealed new functions of MPK4 in different biological processes. However, due to challenges in metabolomics, no study has touched upon the metabolomic profiles of the mpk4 mutant. What metabolites and metabolic pathways are potentially regulated by MPK4 are not known. Metabolites are crucial components of plants, and they play important roles in plant growth and development, signaling, and defense. Here we used targeted and untargeted metabolomics to profile metabolites in the wild type and the mpk4 mutant. We found that in addition to the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid pathways, MPK4 is involved in polyamine synthesis and photosynthesis. In addition, we also conducted label-free proteomics of the two genotypes. The integration of metabolomics and proteomics data allows for an insight into the metabolomic networks that are potentially regulated by MPK4.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Yu-Ling Bin ◽  
Hong-Sai Hu ◽  
Feng Tian ◽  
Zhen-Hua Wen ◽  
Mei-Feng Yang ◽  

Worldwide, gastric cancer (GC) represents the fifth most common cancer for incidence and the third leading cause of death in developed countries. Despite the development of combination chemotherapies, the survival rates of GC patients remain unsatisfactory. The reprogramming of energy metabolism is a hallmark of cancer, especially increased dependence on aerobic glycolysis. In the present review, we summarized current evidence on how metabolic reprogramming in GC targets the tumor microenvironment, modulates metabolic networks and overcomes drug resistance. Preclinical and clinical studies on the combination of metabolic reprogramming targeted agents and conventional chemotherapeutics or molecularly targeted treatments [including vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and HER2] and the value of biomarkers are examined. This deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying successful pharmacological combinations is crucial in finding the best-personalized treatment regimens for cancer patients.

BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Zherou Rong ◽  
Hongwei Chen ◽  
Zihan Zhang ◽  
Yue Zhang ◽  
Luanfeng Ge ◽  

Abstract Background Cardiomyopathy is a complex type of myocardial disease, and its incidence has increased significantly in recent years. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) are two common and indistinguishable types of cardiomyopathy. Results Here, a systematic multi-omics integration approach was proposed to identify cardiomyopathy-related core genes that could distinguish normal, DCM and ICM samples using cardiomyopathy expression profile data based on a human metabolic network. First, according to the differentially expressed genes between different states (DCM/ICM and normal, or DCM and ICM) of samples, three sets of initial modules were obtained from the human metabolic network. Two permutation tests were used to evaluate the significance of the Pearson correlation coefficient difference score of the initial modules, and three candidate modules were screened out. Then, a cardiomyopathy risk module that was significantly related to DCM and ICM was determined according to the significance of the module score based on Markov random field. Finally, based on the shortest path between cardiomyopathy known genes, 13 core genes related to cardiomyopathy were identified. These core genes were enriched in pathways and functions significantly related to cardiomyopathy and could distinguish between samples of different states. Conclusion The identified core genes might serve as potential biomarkers of cardiomyopathy. This research will contribute to identifying potential biomarkers of cardiomyopathy and to distinguishing different types of cardiomyopathy.

2022 ◽  
Leon Faure ◽  
Bastien Mollet ◽  
Wolfram Liebermeister ◽  
Jean-Loup Faulon

Metabolic networks have largely been exploited as mechanistic tools to predict the behavior of microorganisms with a defined genotype in different environments. However, flux predictions by constraint-based modeling approaches are limited in quality unless labor-intensive experiments including the measurement of media intake fluxes, are performed. Using machine learning instead of an optimization of biomass flux - on which most existing constraint-based methods are based - provides ways to improve flux and growth rate predictions. In this paper, we show how Recurrent Neural Networks can surrogate constraint-based modeling and make metabolic networks suitable for backpropagation and consequently be used as an architecture for machine learning. We refer to our hybrid - mechanistic and neural network - models as Artificial Metabolic Networks (AMN). We showcase AMN and illustrate its performance with an experimental dataset of Escherichia coli growth rates in 73 different media compositions. We reach a regression coefficient of R2=0.78 on cross-validation sets. We expect AMNs to provide easier discovery of metabolic insights and prompt new biotechnological applications.

2022 ◽  
Subham Choudhury ◽  
Michael Moret ◽  
Pierre Salvy ◽  
Daniel Weilandt ◽  
Vassily Hatzimanikatis ◽  

Kinetic models of metabolic networks relate metabolic fluxes, metabolite concentrations, and enzyme levels through well-defined mechanistic relations rendering them an essential tool for systems biology studies aiming to capture and understand the behavior of living organisms. However, due to the lack of information about the kinetic properties of enzymes and the uncertainties associated with available experimental data, traditional kinetic modeling approaches often yield only a few or no kinetic models with desirable dynamical properties making the computational analysis unreliable and computationally inefficient. We present REKINDLE (REconstruction of KINetic models using Deep LEarning), a deep-learning-based framework for efficiently generating large-scale kinetic models with dynamic properties matching the ones observed in living organisms. We showcase REKINDLE's efficiency and capabilities through three studies where we: (i) generate large populations of kinetic models that allow reliable in silico testing of hypotheses and systems biology designs, (ii) navigate the phenotypic space by leveraging the transfer learning capability of generative adversarial networks, demonstrating that the generators trained for one physiology can be fine-tuned for another physiology using a low amount of data, and (iii) expand upon existing datasets, making them amenable to thorough computational biology and data-science analyses. The results show that data-driven neural networks assimilate implicit kinetic knowledge and structure of metabolic networks and generate novel kinetic models with tailored properties and statistical diversity. We anticipate that our framework will advance our understanding of metabolism and accelerate future research in health, biotechnology, and systems and synthetic biology. REKINDLE is available as an open-access tool.

2021 ◽  
Amir Pandi ◽  
Christoph Diehl ◽  
Ali Yazdizadeh Kharrazi ◽  
Lèon Faure ◽  
Scott A. Scholz ◽  

The study, engineering and application of biological networks require practical and efficient approaches. Current optimization efforts of these systems are often limited by wet lab labor and cost, as well as the lack of convenient, easily adoptable computational tools. Aimed at democratization and standardization, we describe METIS, a modular and versatile active machine learning workflow with a simple online interface for the optimization of biological target functions with minimal experimental datasets. We demonstrate our workflow for various applications, from simple to complex gene circuits and metabolic networks, including several cell-free transcription and translation systems, a LacI-based multi-level controller and a 27-variable synthetic CO2-fixation cycle (CETCH cycle). Using METIS, we could improve above systems between one and two orders of magnitude compared to their original setup with minimal experimental efforts. For the CETCH cycle, we explored the combinatorial space of ~1025 conditions with only 1,000 experiments to yield the most efficient CO2-fixation cascade described to date. Beyond optimization, our workflow also quantifies the relative importance of individual factors to the performance of a system. This allows to identify so far unknown interactions and bottlenecks in complex systems, which paves the way for their hypothesis-driven improvement, which we demonstrate for the LacI multi-level controller that we were able to improve by 100-fold after having identified resource competition as limiting factor. Overall, our workflow opens the way for convenient optimization and prototyping of genetic and metabolic networks with customizable adjustments according to user experience, experimental setup, and laboratory facilities.

Metabolites ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 11
Jan Klein ◽  
Mona Ernst ◽  
Alexander Christmann ◽  
Marina Tropper ◽  
Tim Leykauf ◽  

Small or specialized natural products (SNAPs) produced by plants vary greatly in structure and function, leading to selective advantages during evolution. With a limited number of genes available, a high promiscuity of the enzymes involved allows the generation of a broad range of SNAPs in complex metabolic networks. Comparative metabolic studies may help to understand why—or why not—certain SNAPs are produced in plants. Here, we used the wound-induced, vein patterning regulating VEP1 (AtStR1, At4g24220) and its paralogue gene on locus At5g58750 (AtStR2) from Arabidopsis to study this issue. The enzymes encoded by VEP1-like genes were clustered under the term PRISEs (progesterone 5β-reductase/iridoid synthase-like enzymes) as it was previously demonstrated that they are involved in cardenolide and/or iridoid biosynthesis in other plants. In order to further understand the general role of PRISEs and to detect additional more “accidental” roles we herein characterized A. thaliana steroid reductase 1 (AtStR1) and compared it to A. thaliana steroid reductase 2 (AtStR2). We used A. thaliana Col-0 wildtype plants as well as VEP1 knockout mutants and VEP1 knockout mutants overexpressing either AtStR1 or AtStR2 to investigate the effects on vein patterning and on the stress response after treatment with methyl vinyl ketone (MVK). Our results added evidence to the assumption that AtStR1 and AtStR2, as well as PRISEs in general, play specific roles in stress and defense situations and may be responsible for sudden metabolic shifts.

2021 ◽  
pp. 64-81
Franklin M. Harold

Cells are life’s basic building blocks, and there is no more profound question than how they came to be. What made this murky subject accessible is the invention of methods to sequence nucleic acids and proteins, and to infer evolutionary relationships from those sequences. It seems that all living things share a common ancestry in LUCA (the Last Universal Common Ancestor), a shadowy entity thought to have lived nearly 4 billion years ago. LUCA’s nature has been much debated, but she appears to have been a cell of sorts endowed with membranes, metabolic networks, a usable energy source and the machinery to express and reproduce genetic information. The earliest known event in cell history was the divergence of Archaea from Bacteria, about 3.5 billion years ago. Eukaryotic cells, more closely allied with Archaea than with Bacteria, appear much later, some 2 billion years ago. Their origin remains one of life’s mysteries, but the evidence currently favors a fusion or merger of an early archaeon with a bacterium; the latter became the ancestor of mitochondria, and played a major role in cell evolution. Eukaryotic cells of the contemporary kind emerged over hundreds of million years. Prominent events included a second instance of intracellular symbiosis, this time with a cyanobacterium, that introduced photosynthesis into the eukaryotic universe and initiated the plant lineage. Eukaryotic cells are the building blocks of all higher organisms. Just what has given the eukaryotic order an edge is yet another of life’s stubborn mysteries.

2021 ◽  
Maaike R. Boersma ◽  
Ryan M. Patrick ◽  
Sonia L. Jillings ◽  
Nur Fariza M. Shaipulah ◽  
Pulu Sun ◽  

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