structural methods
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Ali Ebrahimi ◽  
Kamal Mirzaie ◽  
Ali Mohamad Latif

There are several methods for categorizing images, the most of which are statistical, geometric, model-based and structural methods. In this paper, a new method for describing images based on complex network models is presented. Each image contains a number of key points that can be identified through standard edge detection algorithms. To understand each image better, we can use these points to create a graph of the image. In order to facilitate the use of graphs, generated graphs are created in the form of a complex network of small-worlds. Complex grid features such as topological and dynamic features can be used to display image-related features. After generating this information, it normalizes them and uses them as suitable features for categorizing images. For this purpose, the generated information is given to the neural network. Based on these features and the use of neural networks, comparisons between new images are performed. The results of the article show that this method has a good performance in identifying similarities and finally categorizing them.

Minerals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 98
Jordi Ibáñez-Insa

The crystal structures of newly found minerals are routinely determined using single-crystal techniques. However, many rare minerals usually form micrometer-sized aggregates that are difficult to study with conventional structural methods. This is the case for numerous platinum-group minerals (PGMs) such as, for instance, zaccariniite (RhNiAs), the crystal structure of which was first obtained by studying synthetic samples. The aim of the present work is to explore the usefulness of USPEX, a powerful crystal structure prediction method, as an alternative means of determining the crystal structure of minerals such as zaccariniite, with a relatively simple crystal structure and chemical formula. We show that fixed composition USPEX searches with a variable number of formula units, using the ideal formula of the mineral as the only starting point, successfully predict the tetragonal structure of a mineral. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations can then be performed in order to more tightly relax the structure of the mineral and calculate different fundamental properties, such as the frequency of zone-center Raman-active phonons, or even their pressure behavior. These theoretical data can be subsequently compared to experimental results, which, in the case of newly found minerals, would allow one to confirm the correctness of the crystal structure predicted by the USPEX code.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 630
Ji-Yeon Choy ◽  
Eun-Bee Jo ◽  
Chang-Joo Yim ◽  
Hae-Kyung Youi ◽  
Jung-Hoon Hwang ◽  

Research on stretchable strain sensors is actively conducted due to increasing interest in wearable devices. However, typical studies have focused on improving the elasticity of the electrode. Therefore, methods of directly connecting wire or attaching conductive tape to materials to detect deformation have been used to evaluate the performance of strain sensors. Polyaniline (PANI), a p-type semiconductive polymer, has been widely used for stretchable electrodes. However, conventional procedures have limitations in determining an appropriate metal for ohmic contact with PANI. Materials that are generally used for connection with PANI form an undesirable metal-semiconductor junction and have significant contact resistance. Hence, they degrade sensor performance. This study secured ohmic contact by adapting Au thin film as the metal contact layer (the MCL), with lower contact resistance and a larger work function than PANI. Additionally, we presented a buffer layer using hard polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and structured it into a dumbbell shape to protect the metal from deformation. As a result, we enhanced steadiness and repeatability up to 50% strain by comparing the gauge factors and the relative resistance changes. Consequently, adapting structural methods (the MCL and the dumbbell shape) to a device can result in strain sensors with promising stability, as well as high stretchability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Naoki Inomata ◽  
Yuka Tonsho ◽  
Takahito Ono

AbstractThe quality factor (Q-factor) is an important parameter for mechanical resonant sensors, and the optimal values depend on its application. Therefore, Q-factor control is essential for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Conventional methods have some restrictions, such as additional and complicated equipment or nanoscale dimensions; thus, structural methods are one of the reasonable solutions for simplifying the system. In this study, we demonstrate Q-factor control using a variable phononic bandgap by changing the length of the periodic microstructure. For this, silicon microstructure is used because it has both periodicity and a spring structure. The bandgap change is experimentally confirmed by measuring the Q-factors of mechanical resonators with different resonant frequencies. The bandgap range varies depending on the extended structure length, followed by a change in the Q-factor value. In addition, the effects of the periodic structure on the Q-factor enhancement and the influence of stress on the structural length were evaluated. Although microstructures can improve the Q-factors irrespective of periodicity; the result of the periodic microstructure is found to be efficient. The proposed method is feasible as the novel Q-factor control technique has good compatibility with conventional MEMS.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (4) ◽  
pp. 361-369
Tatyana A. Pershina ◽  
Tatyana V. Shitova

Introduction. The comparative analysis of the expenditure part of rural and township budgets of the Middle Volga provinces in the 1880s – 1890s is presented. Materials and Methods. The study is based on the comparative method. Quantitative, problem-chronological, system analysis and structural methods were of auxiliary importance. Results. The comparison of data on the Middle Volga provinces shows that in the 1880s – early 1890s, the mundane expenses of rural societies were twice as high as the costs of the volost boards. A significant part of the worldly fees went to pay employees of volost boards; much more modest funds were allocated to representatives of peasant self-government bodies, and, in their totality, these funds were steadily declining at the end of the XIX century. Discussion. In many areas of the Middle Volga region in the 1890s, rural electors did not receive any payment at all. The item of expenditure of local self-government bodies designated as “other expenses for the management and conduct of all kinds of public affairs”, which included the costs of renting apartments for officials, paying for the travel of officials and elected officials, delivering taxes to the treasury, the costs of conducting court cases, hiring servants and accounting officials was quite noticeable for rural societies at the very beginning of the 1890s, but gradually decreased. The amounts spent under this article by rural societies significantly exceeded the volost ones. During the period under review, the protection of public safety and fire-fighting measures were financed mainly from the fees of rural societies. An important component of the “mundane budgets” were the so-called “agricultural expenditures”, which included a wide range of operations aimed at organizing agriculture and animal husbandry. Conclusion. The reform of taxation and the system of local self-government in Russia in the 60–70s of the XIX century provided rural societies with wider opportunities for spending funds to meet urgent needs. A certain independence in the approval of expenditure items can be traced in the specifics of the costs of individual volosts and rural societies of the Middle Volga provinces. Allocating a significant part of worldly fees for payments to employees of volost boards, the peasantry preferred to minimize their own expenses on self-government bodies. The costs of “managing and conducting all kinds of public affairs” were quite palpable for the villagers at the very beginning of the 1890s, but also gradually decreased.

А.В. Мохов

Статья посвящена выявлению морфологии и происхождения распространенных во многих угольных регионах мира уникальных углепородных структур – Z-образных расщеплений угольных залежей, впервые обнаруженных автором в Восточном Донбассе. Актуальность работыопределяется необходимостью разработки научных основ угленакопления для определения промышленной ценности и минерагенических перспектив территорий. Цель работы. Совершенствование теории угленакопления и первичного структурообразования в осадочных формациях в целом. Методы работы. Вещественно-структурный анализ пересекающихся геологических разрезов угленосной территории западной части Восточного Донбасса известными литолого-структурными методами, сопоставление выявленного Z-объекта с аналогичными структурами других угольных регионов и гипотез о формировании Z-расщеплений. Результаты работы. Обнаружено и исследовано первое в Восточном Донбассе Z-образное расщепление угольной залежи. Залежь k2н каменской свиты С25 каменноугольной системы у г. Красный Сулин асимметрична в разрезе и плане. Высота Z-объекта составляет первые десятки метров, площадь – многие десятки км2, протяженность с севера на юг превышает 20 км. Объект имеет угольные основание и свод в плане, сопряжение их угольным соединением. Z-образность объекта проявляется в субмеридиональных сечениях. Уникальны односторонняя – с запада – замкнутость соединения, наличие угольных пачек-перемычек, неразвившихся до соединения. Выявлена этапность формирования объекта. На конкретном примере определены условия развития Z-объектов: попеременное фронтальное поступление крупных сбалансированных порций в основном растительного или растительно-минерального материала на смежные участки территории с разных сторон с частичным заходом языка минеральных осадков на покрытый углематеринской массой один из них. Нарушение условий приводит к отклонению облика структуры от типовой либо прекращению ее образования. Механизм поступления материала – разливы рукавов палеодельты. Односторонняя замкнутость соединения в плане вызвана поступлением локальных потоков минерального материала. Ниша седиментации создана процессами тектонического относительного опускания смежных участков территории. Исследованная структура возникла в условиях сочетания тектонических и седиментационных предпосылок, главный вклад в ее формирование принадлежит деятельности палеорусел. В этой связи структура отнесена к аккумулятивному типу. Приведены примеры других Z-объектов. Z-структуры развиты на различных масштабных уровнях. Результаты исследований имеют значение для различных регионов угленакопления и решения общих вопросов седиментации. The article is dedicated to the identification of the morphology and origin of unique coal-bearing structures common in many coal regions of the world - Z-shaped splitting of coal deposits, first discovered by the author in the Eastern Donbass. The relevance of the work is determined by the need to develop the scientific foundations of coal accumulation to determine the industrial value and mineragenic prospects of the territories. Aim. Improvement of the theory of coal accumulation and primary structure formation in sedimentary formations in general. Methods. Material-structural analysis of intersecting geological sections of the coal-bearing territory of the western part of the Eastern Donbass using well-known lithological-structural methods, comparison of the identified Z-object with similar structures of other coal regions and hypotheses about the formation of Z-splits. Results. The first Z-shaped splitting of a coal deposit in the Eastern Donbas was discovered and investigated. The k2n deposit of the Kamenskaya suite C25 of the Carboniferous system near the town of Krasny Sulin is asymmetric in section and plan. The height of the Z-object is the first tens of meters, the area is many tens of km2, and the length from north to south is 20 km wide. The object has a coal base and a vault in plan, their conjugation with a carbon connection. The Z-shape of the object appears in submeridional sections. Unique is the one-sided - from the west - closed connection, the presence of coal bundles-bridges that did not develop before the connection. The stages in the formation of the object are revealed. On a specific example of the conditions for the development of Z-objects: the transverse frontal supply of large balanced portions of mainly plant or plant-mineral material in different parts of the territory from different mineral sediments with a partial entry of the tongue onto one of them covered with a source coal mass. Violation of the conditions leads to a deviation of the structure from the typical one or to the termination of its formation. The mechanism of material receipt is the spill of the paleodelta arms. One-sided closedness of the connection is in terms of providing local flows of mineral material. The sedimentation niche was created by the processes of tectonic relative subsidence of additional areas of the territory. The investigated structure arose under the conditions of a combination of tectonic and sedimentation prerequisites; the main contribution to its formation was the activity of the paleochannels. In this regard, the structure is classified as an accumulative type. Examples of other Z - objects are given. Z-structures are developed at various levels. Research results are of significance for different regions of coal accumulation and solution of general sedimentation issues.

2021 ◽  
pp. 471-488
Orest Krasivskyy ◽  
Nadiia Pidberezhnyk

Condition and problems of ensuring the cultural security of Ukraine were analyzed. Hypothesis that ensuring development and sustainability of the cultural sphere, formation of a single Ukrainian socio-cultural space based on Ukrainian language, historical memory, spiritual values, cultural traditions is one of priority national interests of the Ukrainian state at the present stage was put forward. Research methodology is based on the principles of objectivity and systematicity. During the research, methods of scientific learning of socio-political phenomena and processes were used, in particular: analysis, synthesis, systematization, empirical, and system-structural methods. The authors prove that cultural traditions, historical memory, self-consciousness and language are key factors that constitute and consolidate a nation, and threats to the nation’s cultural interests can jeopardize its existence. It was found that the centuries-old policy of de-ethnicization and assimilation of Ukrainian ethnos by foreign states has led to deformation and russification of the national linguistic and cultural space of Ukraine, loss of ethnic identity based on the language factor of the titular Ukrainian ethnos, deepening the spiritual crisis of Ukrainian society. It is determined that the key threats in the field of cultural security of Ukraine today are the following: Russia’s hybrid war against Ukraine, formation of information and cultural space of Ukraine under the influence of foreign information flows, imperfection of humanitarian policy in the context of cultivating Ukrainian national values, low level of development of cultural industries, dominance of foreign cultural and artistic products, control over Ukrainian media by financial and industrial groups that often take an anti-Ukrainian position. It was proved that the measures to assert and popularize Ukrainian language as the state language, ensure intercultural communication and interethnic socialization of ethnic subjects of Ukrainian society, formation of national-patriotic education, creation of competitive innovative cultural products and their popularization in the world should be priority directions of the state policy of ensuring cultural security of Ukraine.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (2) ◽  
pp. 15-22
Valeriy F. Lapshin

Subject of research: signs of the subject of the offenses under Art. 264 and 2641 of the Criminal Code of Russia (hereinafter the Criminal Code). Purpose of the study: formulation of proposals on the content of the category "subject of traffic crimes", depending on which a qualitative differentiation of responsibility for crimes involving the use of motor vehicles is ensured. List of methods and objects of research. To obtain the results of the research, the methods of cognition used in the humanities (legal) sciences were used. The method of content analysis was used in the study of the content of Art. 264, 2641, 109 and 118 of the Criminal Code, as well as Resolutions of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of December 9, 2008 No. 25. The dialectical method was used in the study of opinions on the qualification of some transport crimes. Logical and systemic-structural methods were applied in the study of the typical degree of social danger of the criminal's personality. Conclusions based on the results of the study: 1) the subject of the offenses under Art. 264 and 2641 CC is special. It is determined on the basis of the existence of an official right to drive a vehicle and the corresponding obligation to comply with the relevant safety rules; 2) the instructor possesses the characteristics of a subject of corpus delicti of transport crimes in cases when he had a real opportunity to drive a training vehicle and (or) exercised direct control of it together with the student.

Maria An. Kurochkina ◽  
Svetlana L. Kushneruk

The authors of the article investigate the texts of the opposition Telegram channel “Belarus of the Brain” in order to identify the precedent phenomena (hereinafter PF) functioning in them. Political discourse is at the core of contemporary discourse research with the problem of strategies and tactics for manipulating public opinion occupying an important place among other aspects of its studies. PFs provide the basis for these strategies, which determines the relevance of the research being conducted. The article presents an analysis of the functional characteristics of PFs of two groups: 1) PFs representing the Belarusian national culture and society; 2) PFs exhibiting foreign cultural space. Based on the theory of precedence developed by V.P. Moskvin, V.I. Karasik and G.G. Slyshkin, the authors resort to the contextological and structural methods, elements of discourse analysis, in order to outline obvious accents in the functional differentiation of these PF groups. While national PFs have a positive connotation and participate in the creation of the national identity of Belarus and the Belarusians, PFs of foreign cultural spaces are marked by negative connotations and are used to discredit the existing political regime. The authors highlight common functions of the PFs of both groups such as creating vivid images and communicating credibility and authority to the information provided. PFs actualizing foreign cultural space show a tendency to participate in the didactic function of teaching the average reader the peaceful mechanisms of a democratic society. The study of structural features allows us to come to the conclusion about the word combination as the major form of PFs’ realization. The structural complexity and predominance of proper names in the morphology of PF signal their multidimensional semantic nature as well as their social essence. The authors also point out the formation of the PF corpus within political discourse with such dominant source spheres as history and culture. The research proves that PFs of our days are used as actively as PFs referring to the past. By and large PFs act as a means of analyzing, interpreting and categorizing the phenomena of public life in the political discourse.

Iryna Adamovych ◽  
Olena Kulinich

The analysis of social trends in the field of education shows an increase in the requirements for the teacher’s professional competence and personal qualities. The purpose of the article is to determine in experimental conditions the content of the methodical service of the educational institution to solve problems and increase the effectiveness of its work. The article reveals the content of the organization of the system of continuous professional and pedagogical education in a particular general educational institution in the conditions of experiment. Based on the activities in the process of research and experimental work, the institution has developed the Concept of social-pedagogical projecting of the developmental and educational process of the secondary school. The systematic work is planned to increase the level of professional competence of pedagogical staff of educational institutions: optimization of self-education processes, diversification of forms of scientific and methodological work, intensification of processes of continuous professional training. That is why the system of internal methodical work is one of the school priorities, the main task of which is the systematic collective and individual activities of teachers aimed at improving their scientific-theoretical, general cultural level, psychological and pedagogical training and professional skills. During the research the main emphasis was placed on the problem-target, as well as system-structural methods of processing and analysis of scientific achievements, generalization and comparison, as well as on the diagnostic method. Important semantic transformations in the education system require solving the problem of the quality of growth of professional competence of a pedagogical worker who is aware of the importance of social responsibility; is able to formulate and practically implement new pedagogical goals; is a holistic, pivotal figure in the development of students’ life competence. Prospects of the educational institution, its purpose and objectives of educational work are determined using comprehensive psychological and pedagogical diagnostics, professional tools, which further allows to identify problems and potential opportunities of all participants in the educational process, gaps or, conversely, creative, professional and personal potential.

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