Colour Term
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Alesya A. Gorzhaya ◽  
Timerlan I. Usmanov

The article is devoted to the study of the dynamics of development and the current state of linguacultural meanings in colour terms that are used in English-language women’s prose. In the course of the analysis of the theoretical and methodological material, it has been revealed that the colour terms in the literary text contribute to the fact that the descriptions and pictures drawn by its author are perceived as correctly as possible by the reader, and the latter more accurately perceives the sensations and emotions experienced by the characters at different moments of the story. During the analysis of the corpus of selected contexts (more than 700 fragments) with colour terms (500 units) from the works of fiction of modern women’s prose – criminal literature of the British writer Elizabeth Haynes – a number of features have been established. All the analyzed works are rich in the use of various colours, generally the main ones, and their shades, but there are also other colours. Thematic groups of colour terms include descriptions of the appearance of the main and secondary characters, everyday realia of the surrounding world, phenomena and objects of the natural world, and other abstract notions. Frequently occurring primary colour terms that do not have a transfer of meaning have been distinguished, and less frequent secondary colour terms with a transfer of meaning, and the secondary ones usually had a more complex morphological and syntactic structure. The selected colour terms that describe the appearance of the characters and have a transfer of meaning are divided into two groups, one of which includes colour terms with a metaphorical component, and the other contains colour terms that form transferred epithets. Within the framework of the description of natural phenomena and objects, the authors distinguish fully metaphorized colour terms, partially metaphorized colour terms that include a metaphorized component that does not extend its influence to the other structural elements of the colour term, as well as colour terms represented by an explicit comparison. In general, colour terms fill the work with a deep content, an additional meaning that the author lays down when writing a literary work.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (6) ◽  
pp. e0251559
Domicele Jonauskaite ◽  
Adam Sutton ◽  
Nello Cristianini ◽  
Christine Mohr

In Western societies, the stereotype prevails that pink is for girls and blue is for boys. A third possible gendered colour is red. While liked by women, it represents power, stereotypically a masculine characteristic. Empirical studies confirmed such gendered connotations when testing colour-emotion associations or colour preferences in males and females. Furthermore, empirical studies demonstrated that pink is a positive colour, blue is mainly a positive colour, and red is both a positive and a negative colour. Here, we assessed if the same valence and gender connotations appear in widely available written texts (Wikipedia and newswire articles). Using a word embedding method (GloVe), we extracted gender and valence biases for blue, pink, and red, as well as for the remaining basic colour terms from a large English-language corpus containing six billion words. We found and confirmed that pink was biased towards femininity and positivity, and blue was biased towards positivity. We found no strong gender bias for blue, and no strong gender or valence biases for red. For the remaining colour terms, we only found that green, white, and brown were positively biased. Our finding on pink shows that writers of widely available English texts use this colour term to convey femininity. This gendered communication reinforces the notion that results from research studies find their analogue in real word phenomena. Other findings were either consistent or inconsistent with results from research studies. We argue that widely available written texts have biases on their own, because they have been filtered according to context, time, and what is appropriate to be reported.

2021 ◽  
Vol 133 (1) ◽  
pp. 3-27
Sara Matrisciano ◽  
Franz Rainer

All major Romance languages have patterns of the type jaune paille for expressing shades of colour represented by some prototypical object. The first constituent of this pattern is a colour term, while the second one designates a prototypical representative of the colour shade. The present paper starts with a short discussion of the controversial grammatical status of this pattern and its constituents. Its main aim, however, concerns the origin and diffusion of this pattern. We have not found hard and fast evidence that Medieval Italian pigment compounds of the type verderame influenced the rise of the jaune paille pattern, which first appears in French in the 16th century. This pattern continued to be a minority solution during the 17th century, but established itself during the 18th century. In the 19th century, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese adopted the pattern jaune paille, while it did not reach Catalan and Romanian before the 20th century.

Rimma T. Muratova ◽  

Introduction. The article examines the color term al ‘pink; scarlet’ in Turkic languages. Goals. The study aims at considering the lexeme in comparative historical and lexical-semantic perspectives. This involves a number of objectives, such as to review and analyze hypotheses on etymology of the word, identify the functioning of the lexeme in ancient and modern languages, determine characteristics of use of the word’s meanings in certain Turkic languages, delineate common Turkic and specific (belonging to a separate subgroup) development trends of the lexeme al. Materials and Methods. To facilitate the latter, an extensive theoretical and source base on Turkic languages is employed: when it comes to origins of the word, special attention is paid to fundamental scientific works on Turkic and Altai etymologies; ancient Turkic, medieval written monuments, lexicographic works on particular Turkic languages are examined to reveal semantic features of the word in ancient and modern languages. In general, the work proves topical due to the absence of any comprehensive study dealing with etymology, development and functioning of the token in Turkic languages. Results. The study reveals that the al lexeme is essentially ancient: scholars have restored its Pre-Turkic (*Āl) and Pre-Altaic (*ŋiōle) forms, with its Nostratic origin identified. The word is frequently traced in written sources of the Turks from earliest monuments. The token al is integral to most Turkic languages, except for the Chuvash, Altai, Tuva, Karachay-Balkar, and Karakalpak ones. In Yakut and Khakass, the lexeme ālaj is perceived as a loanword. Thus, the gloss al was widely used mainly in Western Turkic languages. In ancient and modern Turkic languages, the word al has meanings as follows: ‘scarlet, pink, ruddy’, ‘orange’, ‘brown’, ‘red, bay (horse coat color)’, ‘young’, ‘yellow’, ‘noble’, ‘magical’, ‘bright, motley’, and some substantives ― ‘seal, credential issued by Khans’, ‘rouge’, ‘woman’s headwear’. Conclusions. The ancient Turkic colour term al is (was) not universally distributed in all Turkic languages. The wide (though uneven) use of the word and further development of its semantics occurs in the Kipchak and Oghuz languages where the gloss al has a number of additional connotative and metaphorical meanings.

2020 ◽  
Vol 3 (10) ◽  
pp. 66-70
Mamatkulova Bakhtijon Ravshanovna

The article is devoted to semantic research of the lexeme rose (розовый) in the Russian phraseology, the texts of folklore language and the language of fiction of the XIXth-XXIth centuries. The purpose of the work is to disclose the linguocultural information that is coded in the Russian colour term rose (розовый).

2020 ◽  
Vol 2020 (3) ◽  
pp. 67-75
Ekaterina A. Redkozubova ◽  
Elena A. Panteleeva

The article deals with cultural, structural and semantic peculiarities of secondary colour terms used in British beauty products. A secondary colour term may be significant aesthetically, culturally, socially, historically, psychologically and linguistically. Secondary colour terms of beauty products reflect people’s experience, mentality, their interpretations of objective reality, their cultural traditions and language features. Such terms may be both universal and ethnospesific. The largest thematic groups of colour terms under analysis are the following: «colours», «flowers», «natural phenomena», «jewels». Minor thematic groups are «monarch», «sweets», «fauna». The most productive word-formation means are word-composition, affixation, blending, shortening.

Nina Alexandrovna Skitina ◽  
Nataliya Vladimirovna Solovyeva ◽  
Veronika Petrovna Shabanova ◽  

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