steam injection
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2022 ◽  
Vol 173 ◽  
pp. 107387
Amir Kafaei ◽  
Fahime Salmani ◽  
Esmail Lakzian ◽  
Włodzimierz Wróblewski ◽  
Mikhail S. Vlaskin ◽  

Processes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 161
Wilasinee Sangsom ◽  
Chouw Inprasit

Jet impingement has been effective in reducing the process time and improvement of product quality in various industrial applications, such as textile and paper drying, electronic cooling, glass quenching and food processing. The current work applied innovative steam injection to liquid food continuous sterilization. The multiple impingement jets of steam and product came together in the impingement tank. The effects were investigated on the Reynolds number, steam temperature and jet-to-target spacing (H/d), sterilization temperature and heat transfer efficiency in water and pineapple juice tests. The Reynolds number was based on the nozzle configuration and liquid flow rate. The study investigated product injection plates formed using two, three or four circular holes (diameter 2 mm), steam injection plates with six, nine or twenty circular holes (diameter 1 mm), steam temperatures of 120, 125 or 130 °C and H/d values of 1, 3, 5 or 7. The different options were tested with water to determine the optimal conditions, and then tested with pineapple juice. The results showed that the optimal conditions from water testing that provided the highest heat transfer efficiency occurred with two jet nozzles, six steam injection plates, a steam temperature of 120 °C and an H/d value of 1.

Juan Jesús Arcenegui Troya ◽  
Virginia Moreno ◽  
Pedro E. Sanchez-Jiménez ◽  
Antonio Perejón ◽  
José Manuel Valverde ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 181 ◽  
pp. 1223-1236
D.T. Pio ◽  
H.G.M.F. Gomes ◽  
L.A.C. Tarelho ◽  
A.C.M. Vilas-Boas ◽  
M.A.A. Matos ◽  

I. I. Mukhamatdinov ◽  
E. E. Giniyatullina ◽  
R. E. Mukhamatdinova ◽  
O. V. Slavkina ◽  

The article examines the aquathermolysis process of high viscosity oil from Strelovskoe field developed by RITEK LLC using steam injection. Laboratory modeling of non-catalytic and catalytic aquathermolysis in a high-pressure reactor was performed. Laboratory tests have demonstrated the high efficiency of the iron-based oil-soluble catalyst developed at Kazan Federal University in the destruction reactions of resinous asphaltenes. Samples of the initial oil as well as products of non-catalytic and catalytic aquathermolysis in the presence of iron tallate and the solvent Asphalt-Resin-Paraffin Deposits were studied at temperatures of 200, 250 and 300°C for 24 hours. In addition, the gas composition of the oil aquathermolysis products and the viscosity-temperature characteristics of the oil samples were determined. The studies have shown that catalytic aquathermolysis has a significant effect on the changes in the composition and properties of oil from the Strelovskoe field. It was found that the presence of a catalyst contributes to decarboxylation reactions, increases the degree of desulfurization and decreases the viscosity of oil samples. Keywords: high-viscosity oil; aquathermolysis; catalyst precursor; steam thermal treatment; viscosity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Jianhua Qin ◽  
Jing Zhang ◽  
Shijie Zhu ◽  
Yingwei Wang ◽  
Tao Wan

Field observations discern that the oil production rate decreases substantially and water cut increases rapidly with the increase of steam injection cycles. Compared with steam drive, the advantage of flue gas (also called multi-component thermal gas) co-injection with steam is that flue gas can increase the reservoir pressure and expand the heating chamber. In this paper, the flue gas generated by fuel burning in the field was injected with steam to improve heavy oil recovery. This technique was investigated in the large laboratory 3D model and implemented in the field as well. The huff-n-puff process efficiency by flue gas, steam, and flue gas–steam co-injection was compared in the experiments. The field practice also demonstrated that the addition of non-condensable gas in the steam huff-n-puff process recovered more oil than steam alone. The temperature profile in the wellbore with flue gas injection is higher than that with steam injection since the low thermal conductivity of N2 reduces the heat loss. With the increase of stimulation cycles, the incremental oil recovery by flue gas injection declines significantly.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (24) ◽  
pp. 12029
Ruxue Liu ◽  
Xinru Yang ◽  
Jiayin Xie ◽  
Xiaoyu Li ◽  
Yongsheng Zhao

Steam injection is an effective technique for the remediation of aquifers polluted with volatile organic compounds. However, the application of steam injection technology requires a judicious selection of stratum media because the remediation effect of hot steam in heterogeneous layers with low permeability is not suitable. In this study, the removal effect of nitrobenzene in an aquifer was investigated through a series of two-dimensional sandbox experiments with different stratigraphic structures. Four types of alcohols were used during steam injection remediation to enhance the removal effect of nitrobenzene (NB)-contaminated heterogeneous aquifers. The principle of the removal mechanism of alcohol-enhanced organic compounds is that alcohols can reduce the surface tension of the contaminated water, resulting in Marangoni convection, thereby enhancing mass and heat transfer. The addition of alcohol may also reduce the azeotropic temperature of the system and enhance the volatility of organic compounds. The study revealed that all four alcohol types could reduce the surface tension from 72 mN/m to <30 mN/m. However, among these, only ethanol reduced the azeotropic temperature of NB by 15 °C, thereby reducing energy consumption and remediation costs. Therefore, ethanol was selected as an enhancing agent to reduce both surface tension and azeotropic temperature during steam injection. In the 2-D simulation tank, the interface between the low-and high-permeability strata in the layered heterogeneous aquifer had a blocking effect on steam transportation, which in turn caused a poor remediation effect in the upper low-permeability stratum. In the lens heterogeneous aquifer, steam flows around the lens, thereby weakening the remediation effect. After adding ethanol to the low-permeability zone, Marangoni convection was enhanced, which further enhanced the mass and heat transfer. In the layered and lens heterogeneous aquifers, the area affected by steam increased by 13% and 14%, respectively. Moreover, the average concentration of NB was reduced by 51% in layered heterogeneous aquifers and by 58% in low-permeability lenses by ethanol addition. These findings enhance the remediation effect of steam injection in heterogeneous porous media and contribute to improve the remediation efficiency of heterogeneous aquifers by steam injection.

Geophysics ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 1-48
Gurban Orujov ◽  
Andrei Swidinsky ◽  
Rita Streich

Controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) methods have the potential to be used in reservoir monitoring problems, due to their sensitivity to subsurface resistivity distribution. For example, time-lapse electromagnetic (EM) measurements can help to determine reservoir changes during enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes such as water/steam injection or CO2 sequestration. Although metal infrastructure such as pipelines and casings can strongly influence EM data and mask the underlying geological response, one may presume that these effects cancel out during time-lapse surveys. In this paper, we analyze the effects of well casings on time-lapse surface-to-surface EM measurements. First, using a synthetic example of an onshore 1D hydrocarbon reservoir we quantify the effect of single and multiple casings at several source and receiver locations. We show that time-lapse responses are distorted significantly when a source or receiver is located near a casing. Next, we study a more realistic scenario where we approximate the hydrocarbon reservoir as a thin bounded resistive sheet. We present a Method of Moments (MoM) algorithm to calculate the secondary currents and charges on a well casing and resistive sheet combination and validate the electric fields these secondary sources generate against finite element modeling. Finally, we calculate and explicitly demonstrate time-lapse amplitude changes in the well casing-thin sheet interaction matrix, secondary currents, charges, and surface electric fields. Our 3D modeling results show that the conductive casing reduces the ability of the resistive sheet to impede the current flow and distorts time-lapse responses. Therefore, one cannot fully eliminate casing effects by subtraction of time-lapse data and must fully incorporate such infrastructure into forward models for time-lapse EM inversion.

2021 ◽  
Carlos Alejandro Terrones Brand ◽  
Miguel Alejandro Basso Mora ◽  
Rajeswary Kandasamy ◽  
Sergio Comarin ◽  
Felipe Rene Bustos Guevara ◽  

Abstract Mexico has set challenging oil and gas production to meet worldwide demand. In order to deliver promised oil production outputs in this challenging environment, the operator came up with efficient partnerships with key service providers to leverage resources and technical know-how whilst encouraging knowledge transfer and drilling project cost reduction. By working with various service companies, the operator creates a competitive environment where each strives to outperform the other. One such success case is in the "S" field, a heavy oil field producing via steam injection in the South of Mexico. Utilizing a creative design and execution methodology, the "S" project team succeeded to deliver improved project performance over the course of drilling the 14 wells in the campaign. The average well operational time was successfully reduced by 10%, hence maximizing the well construction index to 122 m/day and reducing overall well costs. The main strategy to optimize performance is to re-engineer solutions for profitability such as performing a study to replace OBM by WBM, designing a new wellhead system, collaborating with the rig contractor to reduce flat time activities, redesigning cement properties for losses mitigation, improvement of ROP by merging new technologies and local practices, among others. Complementary to this, the strategy is to prioritize realistic areas of improvement by the development and utilization of a new tool called Best of the Best (BoB), a methodology breaking down all well activities in order to measure its fastest time per well and then aiming to achieve that aggressive goal. Detailed follow up in the field allows to reduce operational times by allowing the wellsite team monitor and suggest new and improved ways of doing a routine task all of which result in lower costs per foot. Utilizing this BoB approach and stringent performance monitoring while drilling (pre-actual-post) activity analysis, allowed superior performance to be achieved. The project reached a 60% improvement on well times from the first well drilled to the best performing well. The best well was drilled in 8.68 days versus a field average of 18 days (217 m/day construction index). This generated 369,000 bbls of earlier oil production, 176 days ahead vs client expectations. Furthermore, in coordination with field staff, lessons learned were captured. But this is not enough since fast and effective communication is required, and the BoB methodology provides the solution to share optimization tricks quickly and effectively between crews, to continue well to well improvement and overall project and field level learning. Improved well delivery results is possible only by aligning the detailed planning and execution follow up in both the wellsite and a remote operations centre which monitored drilling activity in real time from town. This synergy and proactive communication system is also a key factor in the project delivery. This paper will present the results from the first application of the ‘Best of Best' (BoB) methodology in Mexico. This successful application enforces the idea that by coupling re-engineering practices to develop a more creative well design along with stringent performance monitoring; any field performance can be improved to deliver stellar results.

2021 ◽  
Zu Biao Ren ◽  
Abdullah Akarim Al-Rabah ◽  
Antonio Pico ◽  
Michael Freeman

Abstract The challenge of Heavy oil thermal production Kuwait includes how to monitor steam flood effectiveness and cap rock integrity. Due to shallow & heterogeneous reservoirs and thin cap rock, pressurized and heated steam could diffuse in all directions and breach the cap rock. KOC acquired a baseline & time-lapsed surface seismic and 3D VSP for purposes of monitoring CSS production. This paper presents a technical application of seismic inversion to steam chamber size & cap rock integrity interpretation. The seismic image area includes 13 CSS wells, at varying CSS stages of steam injection, soaking and production. The data acquisition consisted of a base and a time-lapsed monitor seismic; each acquisition period lasting for around a week and separated by 40 day intervals. The simultaneous acquisition of surface seismic and the 3D VSP enabled complimentary data exchange and results validation. Well data of sonic and PHIT are used for building a low frequency inversion model. Rock physical modeling is also required to understand the effect of steam and production changes on acoustic and elastic properties. Various geophysical inversion methods are performed on AI inversion of post & pre stack seismic and Poisson's ratio inversion. To estimate reservoir temperature changes due to steam injection, the calibrated rock-physics model was utilized to relate the AI response to temperature change. The steam injection is expected to decrease acoustic impedance. The AI difference exhibits much wider impedance anomalies revealing steam chamber size and the production zone around the wells at various stages of the CSS cycle. Average temperature maps in reservoirs derived from rock-physical modeling also show temperature change around the wells. Inverted seismic attributes of acoustic impedance and temperature were used for study of cap rock integrity. Interpretation results of the steam size through AI and temperature analysis at reservoir and cap rock enable optimization of our CSS and SF completion strategies include steam pressure and volume, soaking period and thermal production control. The result of cap rock integrity monitoring also indicate no serious damage of cap rock under existing conditions of CSS operation (WHT: 420 °F & WHP: 320 PSI), which defines the limits of strategies to increase steam pressure and volume to increase EOR efficiency.

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