high viscosity
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2022 ◽  
Vol 148 ◽  
pp. 107795
Yilin Shan ◽  
Xianmin Zhang ◽  
Gengchao Chen ◽  
Kai Li

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 228
Natalia Rosa-Sibakov ◽  
Maria Julia de Oliveira Carvalho ◽  
Martina Lille ◽  
Emilia Nordlund

Oat bran is a nutritionally rich ingredient, but it is underutilized in semi-moist and liquid foods due to technological issues such as high viscosity and sliminess. The aim of this work was to improve the technological properties of oat bran concentrate (OBC) in high-moisture food applications by enzymatic and mechanical treatments. OBC was hydrolyzed with β-glucanase (OBC-Hyd) and the water-soluble fraction (OBC-Sol) was separated. OBC, OBC-Hyd and OBC-Sol were further microfluidized at 5% dry matter content. Enzymatic treatment and microfluidization of OBC reduced the molecular weight (Mw) of β-glucan from 2748 kDa to 893 and 350 kDa, respectively, as well as the average particle size of OBC (3.4 and 35 times, respectively). Both treatments increased the extractability of the soluble compounds from the OBC samples (up to 80%) and affected their water retention capacity. OBC in suspension had very high viscosity (969 mPa·s) when heated, which decreased after both enzyme and microfluidization treatments. The colloidal stability of the OBC in suspension was improved, especially after microfluidization. The addition of OBC samples to acid milk gels decreased syneresis, improved the water holding capacity and softened the texture. The changes in the suspension and gel characteristics were linked with reduced β-glucan Mw and OBC particle size.

2022 ◽  
Richard Carl Gerum ◽  
Elham Mirzahossein ◽  
Mar Eroles ◽  
Jennifer Elsterer ◽  
Astrid Mainka ◽  

Numerous cell functions are accompanied by phenotypic changes in viscoelastic properties, and measuring them can help elucidate higher-level cellular functions in health and disease. We present a high-throughput, simple and low-cost microfluidic method for quantitatively measuring the elastic (storage) and viscous (loss) modulus of individual cells. Cells are suspended in a high-viscosity fluid and are pumped with high pressure through a 5.8 cm long and 200 μm wide microfluidic channel. The fluid shear stress induces large, near ellipsoidal cell deformations. In addition, the flow profile in the channel causes the cells to rotate in a tank-treading manner. From the cell deformation and tank treading frequency, we extract the frequency-dependent viscoelastic cell properties based on a theoretical framework developed by R. Roscoe that describes the deformation of a viscoelastic sphere in a viscous fluid under steady laminar flow. We confirm the accuracy of the method using atomic force microscopy-calibrated polyacrylamide beads and cells. Our measurements demonstrate that suspended cells exhibit power-law, soft glassy rheological behavior that is cell cycle-dependent and mediated by the physical interplay between the actin filament and intermediate filament networks.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 174
Maria-Cristina Anicescu ◽  
Cristina-Elena Dinu-Pîrvu ◽  
Marina-Theodora Talianu ◽  
Mihaela Violeta Ghica ◽  
Valentina Anuța ◽  

The present study brings to attention a method to develop salicylic acid-based oil in water (O/W) microemulsions using a tensioactive system based on Tween 80, lecithin, and propylene glycol (PG), enriched with a vegetable oat oil phase and hyaluronic acid. The systems were physically characterized and the Quality by design approach was applied to optimize the attributes of microemulsions using Box–Behnken modeling, combined with response surface methodology. For this purpose, a 33 fractional factorial design was selected. The effect of independent variables namely X1: Tween 80/PG (%), X2: Lecithin (%), X3: Oil phase (%) was analyzed considering their impact upon the internal structure and evaluated parameters chosen as dependent factors: viscosity, mean droplet size, and work of adhesion. A high viscosity, a low droplet size, an adequate wettability—with a reduced mechanical work—and clarity were considered as desirable for the optimal systems. It was found that the optimal microemulsion which complied with the established conditions was based on: Tween 80/PG 40%, lecithin 0.3%, oat oil 2%, salicylic acid 0.5%, hyaluronic acid 1%, and water 56.2%. The response surface methodology was considered an appropriate tool to explain the impact of formulation factors on the physical properties of microemulsions, offering a complex pattern in the assessment of stability and quality attributes for the optimized formulation.

2022 ◽  
Penny Wieser ◽  
Marie Edmonds ◽  
Cheryl Gansecki ◽  
John Maclennan ◽  
Frances Jenner ◽  

Magmas with matrix glass compositions ranging from basalt to dacite erupted from a series of 24 fissures in the first two weeks of the 2018 Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) eruption of Kīlauea Volcano. Eruption styles ranged from low spattering and fountaining to strombolian activity. Major element trajectories in matrix glasses and melt inclusions hosted by olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase are consistent with variable amounts of fractional crystallization, with incompatible elements (e.g., Cl, F, H2O) becoming enriched by 4-5 times as melt MgO contents evolve from 6 to 0.5 wt%. The high viscosity and high H2O contents (~2 wt%) of the dacitic melts erupting at Fissure 17 account for the explosive Strombolian behavior exhibited by this fissure, in contrast to the low fountaining and spattering observed at fissures erupting basaltic to basaltic-andesite melts. Saturation pressures calculated from melt inclusions CO2-H2O contents indicate that the magma reservoir(s) supplying these fissures was located at ~2-3 km depth, which is in agreement with the depth of a dacitic magma body intercepted during drilling in 2005 (~2.5 km) and a seismically-imaged low Vp/Vs anomaly (~2 km depth). Nb/Y ratios in erupted products are similar to lavas erupted between 1955-1960, indicating that melts were stored and underwent variable amounts of crystallization in the LERZ for >60 years before being remobilized by a dike intrusion in 2018. We demonstrate that extensive fractional crystallization generates viscous and volatile-rich magma with potential for hazardous explosive eruptions, which may be lurking undetected at many ocean island volcanoes.

Minerals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 84
Claudio A. Leiva ◽  
María E. Gálvez ◽  
Gerardo E. Fuentes ◽  
Claudio A. Acuña ◽  
Jannan A. Alcota

Autoclave leaching of zinc concentrate (Sphalerite) is an environmentally friendly process compared to roasting, which discharges pollutants into the atmosphere. Due to the amount of iron in the final product, a study is proposed to evaluate different reagents for eliminating iron from the autoclave outcome, minimizing Zn losses. The colloid formation, zinc losses, iron removal, phase separation stage characteristics (sedimentation and filtering), and reagent costs were used to evaluate six-iron precipitating reagents: CaO, Na2CO3, CaCO3, NaOH, MgO, and Ca(OH)2. CaO shows 99.5% iron removal and 87% zinc recovery. Although CaO was one of the reagents with significant zinc recovery, it presented operational difficulties in the filtration stage due to the high viscosity of the mixtures. Finally, Ca(OH)2 is the reagent recommended due to its ease of use, zinc yield recovery, electrowinning efficiency, and iron precipitate filtration rate. Zinc recovery was above 80%, while the iron concentration in the solution was below 50 ppm.

2022 ◽  
John E. Busteed ◽  
Jesus Arroyo ◽  
Francisco Morales ◽  
Mohammed Omer ◽  
Francisco E. Fragachan

Abstract Uniformly distributing proppant inside fractures with low damage on fracture conductivity is the most important index of successful fracturing fluids. However, due to very low proppant suspension capacity of slickwater and friction reducers fracturing fluids and longer fracture closure time in nano & pico darcies formations, proppants settles quickly and accumulates near wellbore resulting in worse-than-expected well performance, as the fracture full capacity is not open and contributing to production. Traditionally, cross-linked polymer fluid systems are capable to suspend and transport high loading of proppants into a hydraulically generated fracture. Nevertheless, amount of unbroken cross-linked polymers is usually left in fractures causing damage to fracture proppant conductivity, depending on polymer loading. To mitigate these challenges, a low viscosity-engineered-fluid with excellent proppantcarrying capacity and suspension-in excess of 30 hours at static formation temperature conditions - has been designed, enhancing proppant placement and distribution within developed fractures, with a 98% plus retained conductivity. In this work experimental and numerical tests are presented together with the path followed in developing a network of packed structures from polymer associations providing low viscosity and maximum proppant suspension. Challenges encountered during field injection with friction are discussed together with the problem understanding characterized via extensive friction loop tests. Suspension tests performed with up to 8-10 PPA of proppant concentration at temperature conditions are shared, together with slot tests performed. Physics-based model results from a 3D Discrete Fracture Network simulator that computes viscosity, and elastic parameters based on shear rate, allows to estimate pressure losses along the flow path from surface lines, tubular goods, perforations, and fracture. This work will demonstrate the advanced capabilities and performance of the engineered fluid over conventional fracturing fluids and its benefits. Additionally, this paper will present field injection pressure analysis performed during the development of this fluid, together with a field case including production results after 8 months of treatment. The field case production decline observed after fracture treatment demonstrates the value of this system in sustaining well production and adding additional reserves.

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