thermal reduction
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2022 ◽  
Vol 423 ◽  
pp. 126937
Rui Yue ◽  
Xiaona Zhang ◽  
Yueni Zhong ◽  
Zhikang Chen ◽  
Ying Zhao ◽  

Processes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 154
Srirat Chuayboon ◽  
Stéphane Abanades

The solar carbo-thermal and methano-thermal reduction of both MgO and ZnO were performed in a flexible solar reactor operated at low pressure through both batch and continuous operations. The pyro-metallurgical process is an attractive sustainable pathway to convert and store concentrated solar energy into high-value metal commodities and fuels. Substituting fossil fuel combustion with solar energy when providing high-temperature process heat is a relevant option for green extractive metallurgy. In this study, a thermodynamic equilibrium analysis was first performed to compare the thermochemical reduction of MgO and ZnO with solid carbon or gaseous methane, and to determine the product distribution as a function of the operating conditions. The carbo-thermal and methano-thermal reduction of the MgO and ZnO volatile oxides was then experimentally assessed and compared using a directly irradiated cavity-type solar reactor under different operating conditions, varying the type of carbon-based reducing agent (either solid carbon or methane), temperature (in the range 765–1167 °C for ZnO and 991–1550 °C for MgO), total pressure (including both reduced 0.10–0.15 bar and atmospheric ~0.90 bar pressures), and processing mode (batch and continuous operations). The carbo-thermal and methano-thermal reduction reactions yielded gaseous metal species (Mg and Zn) which were recovered at the reactor outlet as fine and reactive metal powders. Reducing the total pressure favored the conversion of both MgO and ZnO and increased the yields of Mg and Zn. However, a decrease in the total pressure also promoted CO2 production because of a shortened gas residence time, especially in the case of ZnO reduction, whereas CO2 formation was negligible in the case of MgO reduction, whatever the conditions. Continuous reactant co-feeding (corresponding to the mixture of metal oxide and carbon or methane) was also performed during the solar reactor operation, revealing an increase in both gas production yields and reaction extent while increasing the reactant feeding rate. The type of carbon reducer influenced the reaction extent, since a higher conversion of both MgO and ZnO was reached when using carbon with a highly available specific surface area for the reactions. The continuous solar process yielded high-purity magnesium and zinc content in the solar-produced metallic powders, thus confirming the reliability, flexibility, and robustness of the solar reactor and demonstrating a promising solar metallurgical process for the clean conversion of both metal oxides and concentrated solar light to value-added chemicals.

Hui Liu ◽  
Li Li Ma ◽  
Yi Chao Yan ◽  
Qing Quan Lei ◽  
Meng Xin

Abstract The addition of graphene can change the distribution of conductive pathways in the polymer composites and further affect the dielectric properties. In this work, a facile and environmentally friendly method was proposed to enhance dielectric properties by manipulating the reduction extent of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) matrix just through altering the thermal reduction treatment time. Measurement results showed that the electrical percolation occurred as thermal reduction treatment time increased and the conduction mechanism changed into approximate free electron model. RGO/PVDF composites with tailorable dielectric properties were realized with a low filler loading level.

2022 ◽  
Vol 831 ◽  
pp. 142142
Li Ye ◽  
Yuchao Fan ◽  
Renqi Zhang ◽  
Fengmei Guo ◽  
Qingyong Tian ◽  

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 81
Urszula Mizerska ◽  
Witold Fortuniak ◽  
Julian Chojnowski ◽  
Slawomir Rubinsztajn ◽  
Joanna Zakrzewska ◽  

A simple and inexpensive method for the preparation of porous SiC microspheres is presented. Polysiloxane microspheres derived from polyhydromethylsiloxane (PHMS) cross-linked with divinylbenzene (DVB) were ceramized under conditions leading to the removal of oxygen from the material. The content of free carbon (Cf) in highly crystalline silicon carbide (SiC) particles can be controlled by using various proportions of DVB in the synthesis of the pre-ceramic material. The chemical structure of the ceramic microspheres was studied by elemental analysis for carbon and oxygen, 29Si MAS NMR, 13C MAS NMR, SEM/EDS, XRD and Raman spectroscopies, and their morphology by SEM, nitrogen adsorption and mercury intrusion porosimetries. The gaseous products of the thermal reduction processes formed during ceramization created a porous structure of the microspheres. In the SiC/Cf microspheres, meso/micro pores were formed, while in carbon-free SiC, microspheres macroporosity dominated.

Metals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 1844
Stefan Windisch-Kern ◽  
Alexandra Holzer ◽  
Lukas Wiszniewski ◽  
Harald Raupenstrauch

Within the e-mobility sector, which represents a major driver of the development of the overall lithium-ion battery market, batteries with nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) cathode chemistries are currently gaining ground. This work is specifically dedicated to this NMC battery type and investigates achievable recovery rates of the valuable materials contained when applying an unconventional, pyrometallurgical reactor concept. For this purpose, the currently most prevalent NMC modifications (5-3-2, 6-2-2, and 8-1-1) with carbon addition were analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry, and treated in a lab-scale application of the mentioned reactor principle. It was shown that the reactor concept achieves high recovery rates for nickel, cobalt, and manganese of well above 80%. For lithium, which is usually oxidized and slagged, the transfer coefficient into the slag phase was less than 10% in every experimental trial. Instead, it was possible to remove the vast amount of it via a gas phase, which could potentially open up new paths regarding metal recovery from spent lithium-ion batteries.

Biomolecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 1684
Ahmed Salama ◽  
Ragab E. Abouzeid ◽  
Medhat E. Owda ◽  
Iriczalli Cruz-Maya ◽  
Vincenzo Guarino

Cellulose has received great attention owing to its distinctive structural features, exciting physico−chemical properties, and varied applications. The combination of cellulose and silver nanoparticles currently allows to fabricate different promising functional nanocomposites with unique properties. The current work offers a wide and accurate overview of the preparation methods of cellulose–silver nanocomposite materials, also providing a punctual discussion of their potential applications in different fields (i.e., wound dressing, high-performance textiles, electronics, catalysis, sensing, antimicrobial filtering, and packaging). In particular, different preparation methods of cellulose/silver nanocomposites based on in situ thermal reduction, blending and dip-coating, or additive manufacturing techniques were thoroughly described. Hence, the correlations among the structure and physico–chemical properties in cellulose/silver nanocomposites were investigated in order to better control the final properties of the nanocomposites and analyze the key points and limitations of the current manufacturing approaches.

Hamdane Akbi ◽  
Ahmed Mekki ◽  
Souleymen Rafai ◽  
Sabri Touidjine ◽  
Nourhane Boudina ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
James Eujin Park ◽  
Zachary J. L. Bare ◽  
Ryan J. Morelock ◽  
Mark A. Rodriguez ◽  
Andrea Ambrosini ◽  

Solar thermochemical hydrogen (STCH) production is a promising method to generate carbon neutral fuels by splitting water utilizing metal oxide materials and concentrated solar energy. The discovery of materials with enhanced water-splitting performance is critical for STCH to play a major role in the emerging renewable energy portfolio. While perovskite materials have been the focus of many recent efforts, materials screening can be time consuming due to the myriad chemical compositions possible. This can be greatly accelerated through computationally screening materials parameters including oxygen vacancy formation energy, phase stability, and electron effective mass. In this work, the perovskite Gd0.5La0.5Co0.5Fe0.5O3 (GLCF), was computationally determined to be a potential water splitter, and its activity was experimentally demonstrated. During water splitting tests with a thermal reduction temperature of 1,350°C, hydrogen yields of 101 μmol/g and 141 μmol/g were obtained at re-oxidation temperatures of 850 and 1,000°C, respectively, with increasing production observed during subsequent cycles. This is a significant improvement from similar compounds studied before (La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 and LaFe0.75Co0.25O3) that suffer from performance degradation with subsequent cycles. Confirmed with high temperature x-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) patterns under inert and oxidizing atmosphere, the GLCF mainly maintained its phase while some decomposition to Gd2-xLaxO3 was observed.

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