negotiation process
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عقبة عبد النافع العلي

The study aimed to investigate the negotiation skills which can contribute to bridging the gap between different points of view and reflecting the spirit of understanding. Collected from scientific sources and references, the data were systemically interpreted. The study consisted of three sections: the concept of negotiation, negotiation skills, types of negotiators and the most important factors that can affect the negotiation process. The study reached the following findings: 1. Negotiation is an inherent process in human life as long as man lives with others and enters into different, changing and continuous life relationships. 2. Negotiators are expected to have the skills, experience and capabilities that enable them to set up a strategy for planning and negotiation with integration in performance. The study came up with the following recommendations: 1. People working in the field of negotiations should be provided with the required training and qualifications. 2. Identifying the objectives of negotiations is required to set up a successful strategy for the negotiation process.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
Siti Marlina

This paper is about Islamic Law on Mediation in Indonesia; Position and Strategy. Islamic law in the context of its position and strategy towards national law becoming positive law has sparked ongoing controversy since independence until now. The various strategies and explanations about them give a special style to the peculiarities of Islamic legal thought in Indonesia. This paper focuses on how the position and strategy of Islamic law in the positivization of law in Indonesia. The plurality of Indonesian law, which is a necessity, becomes a positive partner for Islamic law towards the positivization of legal law nationally. The strategy taken is to unite perceptions which are the substance of Islamic teachings in the meaning of sharia and fiqh in the form of universality values that exist in Islam such as the substance of justice, honesty, equality, balance and the like. The concept of mediation in Islamic law must be in accordance with PERMA No. 1 of 2016, its position and strategy. Mediation is nothing more than facilitating the negotiation process, where a mediator tries to help the parties negotiate effectively and efficiently so that they can reach the decisions they want. There are two simple rules for mediators proposed by Stitt, namely the first is do no harm.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 296-307
Dorsaf Kouki ◽  
Houda Zarrad ◽  

The emergence of the coronavirus crisis has generated unexpected negative effects for most companies, specifically small enterprises. The objective of this research is to examine the effect of this pandemic on the rental negotiation process between commercials and landlords. Based on an in-depth literature review on negotiation and the phenomenon of the crisis, a quantitative study is carried out with a sample of 396 Tunisian respondents to validate our measurement model. The empirical results show that the integrative arrangement has a positive effect on the negotiation process, with a mediating role of the mediation variable. The latter exerts in turn, a positive effect on the social psychological result of the competitor. These findings led to a rich discussion and a set of managerial recommendations that can help commercials to respond more effectively to the challenges generated by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Diversity ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 25
Gerardo A. Hernández ◽  
Fernando A. Rosete ◽  
Lidia Salas ◽  
Luis F. Alvarado ◽  
Juan Martinez ◽  

A supporting study was developed to identify the priority elements for conservation in the region called “Sierra de San Miguelito” (SSM), in the San Luis Potosi State (SLP), Mexico, with the purpose of establishing a federal protected natural area (PNA). The methodological approach used was the integral-spatial analysis applied in territorial planning processes. The study showed that the forests, xerophilous scrubland, and natural grasslands of the SSM present a high biodiversity, an abundance of endemism (27% of species are endemic to the country, n = 285), and protected species (5% of reported species). In addition, 32.74% of vertebrates and 18.32% of flora reported for SLP status is present in SSM, with an area that represents only 1.79% of the state territory. As a result of the study, an area of 109,638.95 ha was proposed to be declared a federally PNA. The area provides environmental services that favor the San Luis Potosí city (SLPc) and the surrounding population; therefore, its conservation will promote the preservation of natural, cultural, and landscape heritage, being a transversal axis for sustainable development in its area of influence. The result was the basis for starting the negotiation process, developed in 2021, for the creation of the PNA.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (3) ◽  
pp. 369
Delfi Suganda ◽  
Retno Saraswati ◽  
Nabitatus Sa'adah

<p><em>This article aimed to analyze the role and chances of the Wali Nanggroe in its involvement in international peace and its relation to the implementation of special autonomy in Aceh. One of the functions mandated by the qanun (local laws) of Wali Nanggroe Institution is participation in local, national, and international peace. The participation of Wali Nanggroe Institution to be part of regional, national and international peace is an exciting study because most of Wali Nanggroe's members are currently former officials and former combatants of the Free Aceh Movement. This research will analyze the opportunities of the Wali Nanggroe Institute in its involvement in the world and its relation to the implementation of special autonomy in Aceh. This research shows the peace will continue after the peace agreement because many Acehnese leaders, former GAM leaders, believe that the MOU can bring Aceh to a self-government system through a peaceful and democratic process.</em> <em>that several opportunities can be used by it to carry out the function of peace, among others, the first is strong support from local political parties because Wali Nanggroe is an "old man" in Aceh; Third, good relations between Wali Nanggroe and foreign countries or bodies, as well as Wali Nanggroe's own experience in the negotiation process with the Government of Indonesia to realize the understanding of the Helsinki MoU in Finland.</em></p>

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 163
Zhouquan Wu ◽  
Bo Chen

A distributed electric vehicle (EV) charging scheduling strategy with transactive energy (TE) management is presented in this paper to deal with technical issues in distribution network operation and discuss the economic benefits of EV charging. At an individual EV level, EV owners propose bids to actively participate in the distribution system operation. At the node level, an electric vehicle aggregator (EVA) optimally allocates the available charging power to meet EV charging requirements and cost benefits. At the distribution network level, a distribution system operator (DSO) integrates an electricity price market clearing mechanism with the optimal power flow (OPF) technique to ensure the reliability of the distribution network. Moreover, a distributed algorithm is discussed for solving the EV charging problem with transactive energy management (TEM). The clearing electricity price is achieved through a negotiation process between the DSO and EVAs using the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). The presented EV charging scheduling with TEM is tested on a modified IEEE 33-bus distribution network scenario with 230 EV charging loads. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the TE-based EV charging scheduling system.

Wenting Zhou ◽  
Yajun Qiu ◽  
Haibo Tian ◽  
Jiao Xu

The constraint negotiation process is a prominent part of serious leisure, and leisure-oriented women runners in China may behave differently in this process. An adjusted model was proposed to examine the constraint negotiation process of serious leisure for women runners. An online questionnaire was conducted that contained 239 valid samples measuring the participation, intrinsic motivation, constraints and negotiation of women runners. The structure of variables was confirmed based on the good results of reliability and validity test. Then the structural equation modeling results showed that constraints had a negative impact and negotiation had a positive impact on participation. Negotiation acts on constraints to reduce their negative perception. Furthermore, intrinsic motivation has a significant positive effect on negotiation. There are high intrinsic motivation and fewer constraints reporting for women runners under high negotiation in serious leisure. The results provide additional explanation for the serious leisure participation of women runners. Future research should integrate women’s life experiences to better understand the behavior revealed in this study.

Nadia Bernaz

This article conceptualizes corporate accountability under international law andintroduces an analytical framework translating corporate accountability into seven core elements.Using this analytical framework, it then systematically assesses four models that could be used ina future business and human rights treaty: the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business andHuman Rights model, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights model, the progressive model, andthe transformative model. It aims to contribute to the BHR treaty negotiation process by clarifyingdifferent options and possible trade-offs between them, while taking into account political realities.Ultimately, the article argues in favour of the BHR treaty embracing a progressive model of corporateaccountability, which combines ambitious development of international law with realistic prospectsof state support.

2021 ◽  
Cameron Pierson

<p>The definition and fit of the librarian and library in society have been called into question amidst rapid professional and social change. This professional and social change has similarly called into question the professional identity of the librarian. Professional identity is the product of the impact the organizational and/or professional life has had on one’s understanding of self within its context (Whyte, 1956/2002), influencing discourse and behaviour (Sundin & Hedman, 2009). The influence of professional identity on perception and behaviour underscores the importance of the co-constructed relationship between librarian and those served. Therefore, professional identity is key in discussions concerning the place of the librarian in a 21st century society and beyond.   To examine professional identity of public librarians in Aotearoa New Zealand, this research adopted a multimethod approach. In Phase 1, a questionnaire was designed operationalising elements of a conceptual model and for participant selection. In Phase 2, follow-up interviews were conducted with 40 participants. Semi- structured interviews allowed participants to elaborate on responses and reflect on their professional identities. The multimethod model adopted emphasises qualitative data, which was analysed with an inductive approach.  This thesis begins with an introduction chapter, outlining the motivation, questions, and methodology which guided this research. This thesis also includes four original articles. The first article reviews the relevant literature on librarian professional identity. Previous literature presents as disparate, with foci on specific aspects of this professional identity. The first paper therefore takes a holistic approach to examine this identity, resulting in a conceptual model of the formation and development of librarian professional identity. This model guides subsequent examinations of the data collected. The second article outlines the development of a novel methodological approach. This approach resulted from the combination of methods adopted in this research. It establishes a link between critical incidents impacting professional identity and world- and self-perception grounded through this identity, as expressed by metaphors. The third article presents qualitative results from the interviews conducted. Findings demonstrate that dominant influences on practitioners’ individual perceptions of their professional identity development and to their professional behaviour feature in identity development over time, demonstrated by behaviour. Critical incidents prompt a specific identity negotiation process, identified as the Critical Incident Negotiation Process. This article also offers three theoretical propositions relating to the dominant influences on practitioners’ perception, behaviour, and the above-mentioned negotiation process. The fourth article further presents qualitative results from interviews. Findings demonstrate that librarian professional identity negotiations are grounded in perceptions of profession through meaning ascribed to the profession and through its manifestations (e.g., professional associations, etc.), respectively; and perceptions of practice as related to organisational/institutional contexts. This article also introduces the Relational States of Librarian Professional Identity (the relational states), which indicate variations of individual affiliation with the profession. This article also offers a theoretical process identified as the Professional Identity Negotiation Framework and six theoretical propositions relating to librarian professional identity, its negotiations, and relational states. The thesis concludes with a chapter outlining conclusions and contributions of the four articles in library and information science theory, methodology, and practice.</p>

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