water potential
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2022 ◽  
Alexander Willem Copper ◽  
Stefanos Koundouras ◽  
Susan E. P. Bastian ◽  
Trent Johnson ◽  
Cassandra Collins

Abstract The world’s changing climate is placing great pressure on the resources for sustainable viticulture. With this, it has become necessary to investigate grape varieties that are well adapted to hot climates. The aims of this study were to (1) assess the response of Xynisteri to different irrigation regimes, and (2) compare the performance of Xynisteri, Maratheftiko, Shiraz and Sauvignon Blanc grown in pots with different irrigation regimes. Trial one was established in a commercial Xynisteri vineyard in Cyprus under three different irrigation regimes - full, 50% and no irrigation in 2019. Trial two compared three irrigation regimes - full, 50% and 25% in a potted trial of Xynisteri and Sauvignon Blanc conducted in Cyprus in 2019. Trial three was a potted trial of Xynisteri, Sauvignon Blanc, Maratheftiko and Shiraz with the same three irrigation regimes conducted in Australia in 2020/21. Vine performance and physiology measurements were taken in both trials. Fruit composition analysis, yield (field trial only), shoot, trunk and root mass measurements were performed at the end of the season. Few differences between measures were found between irrigation regimes in the field trial. Fruit composition analysis revealed fructose to be lowest in the full irrigation group compared to deficit and no irrigation treatments. The potted trial in 2019 demonstrated that for all three irrigation regimes, Xynisteri had higher stem water potential, stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content than Sauvignon Blanc. Xynisteri produced greater end of season root, shoot and leaf mass than Sauvignon Blanc under all irrigation regimes. In 2020/21, Xynisteri had greater end of season root, shoot and leaf mass than Maratheftiko and Sauvignon Blanc with Shiraz the lowest. Few significant differences in stem water potential were observed in the early stages of the trial. However, toward the end of the trial and with reduced irrigation, Xynisteri and Maratheftiko had higher stem water potential than Shiraz and Sauvignon Blanc. Xynisteri had higher stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content than Maratheftiko and both were higher than Sauvignon Blanc and Shiraz. These results indicate that Xynisteri in particular may possess better cultivar specific growth traits than Shiraz and Sauvignon Blanc when grown under the same environmental conditions and in turn may be a more appropriate choice in areas where water is limited.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 139
Weixia Huang ◽  
Yunfang Zhong ◽  
Cuili Zhang ◽  
Mingxun Ren ◽  
Yanjun Du ◽  

The southwestern mountains of Hainan Island are distributed in the southernmost tropical karst landscape of China, and the unique hydrological structure and frequent solifluction droughts lead to double water stress for local plants. Highly heterogeneous water environments affect the water–use characteristics of plants. Plants develop local adaptative mechanisms in response to changes in the external environment. In this paper, hydrogen–oxygen and carbon stable isotope technology, and physiological index measurements were applied to determine the leaf traits, water–use efficiency, and photosynthetic characteristics of Impatiens hainanensis leaves in dry and foggy seasons, hoping to expound the adaptation mechanism of I. hainanensis leaves to the water dynamics in dry and foggy seasons. In dry and foggy seasons (November 2018 to April 2019), the leaves of I. hainanensis at low and medium altitudes have the following combination of traits: larger leaf dry weights, leaf areas, and specific leaf areas; smaller leaf thicknesses and leaf dry matter contents; and higher chlorophyll contents. In comparison, the leaves of I. hainanensis at high altitudes have the following combination of traits: smaller leaf dry weights, leaf areas, and specific leaf areas; larger leaf thicknesses and leaf dry matter contents; and lower chlorophyll contents. The leaves of I. hainanensis can absorb fog water through their leaves. When the leaves are sprayed with distilled water, the water potential is low, the water potential value gradually increases, and the leaves have a higher rate of water absorption. The leaves of I. hainanensis at low and medium altitudes have the following water–use characteristics: high photosynthesis, high transpiration, and low water–use efficiency. At high altitudes, the Pn of I. hainanensis decreases by 8.43% relative to at low altitudes and by 7.84% relative to at middle altitudes; the Tr decreased by 4.21% relative to at low altitudes and by 3.38% relative to at middle altitude; the WUE increased by 16.61% relative to at low altitudes and increased by 40.79% relative to at middle altitudes. The leaves of I. hainanensis at high altitudes have the following water–use characteristics: low photosynthesis, low transpiration, and high water–use efficiency. I. hainanensis develop different physiological mechanisms of water adaptation by weighing the traits of the leaves and their use of light and water to obtain resources during dry and foggy seasons.

2022 ◽  
Vol 82 ◽  
S. S. Bastos ◽  
S. P. Q. Scalon ◽  
A. P. R. Souza ◽  
D. M. Dresch ◽  
F. S. Junglos ◽  

Abstract The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on gas exchange and the activity of antioxidant enzymes of Ormosia arborea (Vell.) Harms seedlings under water deficit and its influence on the recovery potential of the seedlings. The experiment was conducted using four treatments, being daily irrigation or water restriction without and with 10 μM ABA. Seedlings under water deficit + ABA showed greater adjustment to drought, and when re-irrigated, they restored photosynthetic metabolism and water potential. ABA minimizes the reduction in the photosynthetic metabolism and water potential of the leaf, however, it does not increase the antioxidant activity of the O. arborea seedlings under water deficit. These results suggest that this species exhibits plasticity, which enables it to survive also in environments subjected to temporary water deficit regardless of the supplementation of ABA. We suggest that other doses of ABA be researched to expand the beneficial effect of ABA on this species.

HortScience ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 57 (1) ◽  
pp. 118-125
Aidan Kendall ◽  
Carol A. Miles ◽  
Travis R. Alexander ◽  
Edward Scheenstra ◽  
Gabriel T. LaHue

Irrigation water productivity is a priority for sustainable orchard management as water resources become more limiting. This study evaluated reduced irrigation (RI) as a management strategy for cider apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) production in 2019 and 2020 in northwestern Washington, which has a Mediterranean climate and averages 14.1 cm of precipitation from June to September. RI was evaluated on three cider apple cultivars, Dabinett, Porter’s Perfection, and Golden Russet, in their third and fourth leaf. Stem water potential (stem ψ) was measured weekly throughout the growing season to monitor water stress and implement the RI treatment: irrigation would be applied when stem ψ values dropped below −1.5 MPa, a threshold indicative of moderate water stress in apples. Soil water potential was monitored throughout the season, vegetative growth was assessed by measuring shoot length and non-destructive imaging of the plant canopy using lateral photography, and yield, fruit quality, and juice quality were measured at harvest. Moderate water stress as indicated by stem ψ did not occur either year, thus irrigation was never applied to the RI treatment plots. There was a negative relationship between average stem ψ and both yield and air temperature (P < 0.0001 for each); as yield increased by 5.9 kg per tree or temperature increased by 3.3 °C, stem ψ decreased by 0.1 MPa. The juice quality attributes of the three cultivars in this study were similar to their historic measures at this site and there were no differences due to irrigation treatment, likely because trees did not reach the threshold to induce physiological stress. Both years, trees in the RI treatment did not differ from the control treatment in vegetative growth, fruit yield, juice yield, or any juice quality attribute, but weight per fruit decreased by 7 g, and fruit firmness (measured only in 2020) increased by 2 N. Results from this study indicate that fruit yield and quality in an establishing orchard can be maintained when irrigation is reduced relative to crop water requirements that are estimated from a calculated water balance or relative to conventional grower practices for this region. This finding highlights the benefits of using plant water status to schedule irrigation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 309-315

Our paper rests on two fundamentals: firstly, the EU's initiative to deepen cooperation with and the prospect of its enlargement to the Western Balkans region; and, secondly, the urgency to address sustainable development issues in the international environment. As the virtual water perspective represents an innovative approach in the field of sustainable development, the aim of our paper is to analyse trade-related characteristics based on the water footprint concept (complementary to the alternative RCA/RTA indexes designed to calculate a country's comparative advantage or disadvantage). In our paper, we analyse and evaluate selected commodities traded by the Slovak Republic and the Western Balkans countries in terms of the absolute/comparative advantage related to the national water footprints.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 36-49
Santhosh M ◽  
Thirukumaran V

Groundwater is one of the world's most valuable resources, which contributes 85% of drinking water supplies. It is imperative to explore ground-water zone for the utilization to the people. Edappadi block in Salem District, Tamil Nadu, is rocky terrain largely depends on groundwater for drinking and irrigation. One of the most useful tools for locating ground water potential zones is remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS). Different types of thematic maps, such as lithology, geomorphology, drainage density, slope, lineament, and land use/land cover, can be easily created by visual interpretation of IRS-1C, LISS-III data and maps are prepared using GIS. The water potential zones are determined using a rank and weightage approach. In order to demarcate the water potential zones, the vector overlay method is used. Lithology is given more weight than geomorphology, followed by lineament density, lineament frequency, lineament intersection, slope and land use/land cover. Based on the overall results, the potential zone of groundwater in the research region is divided into five groups: Excellent, Very Good, Good, Moderate, and Poor.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 31
Eduardo Salgado ◽  
Nieggiorba Livellara ◽  
Esteban Chaigneau ◽  
Fernando Varas ◽  
Italo F. Cuneo

Diameter fluctuations of branches, shoots, or fruits are related to plant transpiration and water potential. In the past, several models have related dendrometric variables and evapotranspiration on a daily scale. However, trunk–branch shrinkage occurs only between dawn and midday, while evapotranspiration occurs most of the day from sunrise to sunset. Previous models have failed to incorporate this key fact. The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship of hourly daily shrinkage (HDS) between dawn and the next 4 h to the hourly reference evapotranspiration (EToh) of the same period in walnut trees and pomegranate plants under different irrigation regimes. Our data show that the relationship between EToh and HDS is much better than several previous models that included maximum daily shrinkage (MDS) and reference evapotranspiration (ETo). The novel slope analysis of the relationship between HDS versus time used here corresponds to the velocity at which the HDS occurs, which depends on the ETo intensity at that moment. This new method of analyzing this type of data calls for a revision of these models and sets a new baseline for future analysis.

Svitlana Fedulova ◽  
Volodymyr Dubnytskyi ◽  
Valentin Myachin ◽  
Olena Yudina ◽  
Olena Kholod

Purpose. The purpose of the article is to determine the impact of domestic renewable water resources in the country on the formation of GDP, i.e to identify the relationship between the country's water potential and its economic growth in the future, due to the growth of water-intensive technologies in the world and agricultural development. Methodology / approach. The traditional and special research methods were used in the study, including: historical and logical – to analyze the dynamics of water use in the world and ways of forming the flow of virtual water; theoretical generalization, analysis and synthesis – to form an understanding of the “principle of globality of water problems” and derive consistent pattern of “principle of globality of water problems”; statistical analysis to assess the level of needs of countries (regions) in water resources and to assess the level of GDP of countries in comparison with their water potential; method of econometric analysis (correlation analysis and linear regression) – to prove the relationship between the water potential of the country and its economic growth in the future. Results. The main idea of the study is to identify the relationship between the country's water potential and its economic growth in the future. It was found that almost all areas with the highest economic growth have the largest total number of inland renewable water resources. the knowledge and dynamics of virtual water trade in the world was described and summarized. According to the principles of the concept of “virtual water”, regions with water scarcity and spatial mismatch between water resources and the availability of arable land can increase their food security by meeting part of their food needs through trade in agricultural products and reducing local food production. A new principle of development of the territory “the principle of globality of water problems” has been substantiated in the study. It is determined that the very availability of domestic renewable water resources in the country does not have a significant impact on GDP growth, but the total catchment per capita in the country already has a significant impact on GDP, i.e, indeed, after reaching a certain water scarcity threshold, the country begins to demand for grain imports, which increases as water resources decrease. The consistent pattern of the “principle of globality of water problems” was proved mathematically, using econometric analysis. Originality / scientific novelty. The formation of the principles of territorial development was further developed, namely the “principle of globality of water problems” was formulated – the change of humanity's attitude to the water resource has formed an understanding of its limitations and possible global scenarios of world development. The development of the laws of economic theory was improved, namely the consistent pattern of the “principle of globality of water problems” – “axes (corridors) of development of the territory, which together with the poles of growth determine the spatial framework of economic growth, in the light of the globalization of water problems, are determined by the presence of the total number of domestic renewable water resources”. Practical value / implications. The results of the study allow a comprehensive assessment of the risks of the agricultural sector associated with the large-scale use of water resources and make effective management decisions on the development and implementation of water-efficient technologies in Ukraine and in the world. The study actualizes the thesis of infrastructure regulation as water-intensive technologies will require significant infrastructure projects and the appropriate quality of water and water supply and sewerage infrastructure as the basis of water efficiency of the region and the country.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2780
Victor Blanco ◽  
Lee Kalcsits

Stem water potential (Ψstem) is considered to be the standard measure of plant water status. However, it is measured with the pressure chamber (PC), an equipment that can neither provide continuous information nor be automated, limiting its use. Recent developments of microtensiometers (MT; FloraPulse sensors), which can continuously measure water tension in woody tissue of the trunk of the tree, can potentially highlight the dynamic nature of plant water relations. Thus, this study aimed to validate and assess the usefulness of the MT by comparing the Ψstem provided by MT with those same measurements from the PC. Here, two irrigation treatments (a control and a deficit treatment) were applied in a pear (Pyrus communis L.) orchard in Washington State (USA) to capture the full range of water potentials in this environment. Discrete measurements of leaf gas exchange, canopy temperature and Ψstem measured with PC and MT were made every two hours for four days from dawn to sunset. There were strong linear relationships between the Ψstem-MT and Ψstem-PC (R2 > 0.8) and with vapor pressure deficit (R2 > 0.7). However, Ψstem-MT was more variable and lower than Ψstem-PC when Ψstem-MT was below −1.5 MPa, especially during the evening. Minimum Ψstem-MT occurred later in the afternoon compared to Ψstem-PC. Ψstem showed similar sensitivity and coefficients of variation for both PC and MT acquired data. Overall, the promising results achieved indicated the potential for MT to be used to continuously assess tree water status.

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