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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Kunpeng Pang ◽  
Lijie Pan ◽  
Hui Guo ◽  
Xinyi Wu

The vaccine is still the best clinical measure for effective prevention and control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The vaccine-associated ocular adverse reactions should be noted in detail among the medical community. We reported twelve eyes of 9 patients presented at the Department of Ophthalmology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University from March to August 2021 with ocular complaints following COVID-19 vaccination. The main inclusion criterion was the development of ocular symptoms within 14 days after receiving a dose of an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. The mean (SD) age was 44.7 ± 16.5 years (range, 19–78 years), among which seven (77.8%) cases were women. The mean time of ocular adverse events was 7.1 days (range, 1–14 days) after receiving the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. One patient was diagnosed with choroiditis, 1 with uveitis, 4 with keratitis, 1 with scleritis, 1 with acute retinal necrosis, and 1 with iridocyclitis. Although the causal relationship between vaccines and ocular adverse events cannot be established from this case series report, physicians should pay attention to the ocular adverse reactions following the COVID-19 vaccine administration.

Maria Piedade Brandão ◽  
Pedro Sa-Couto ◽  
Gonçalo Gomes ◽  
Pedro Beça ◽  
Juliana Reis

This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to assess the CVD risk (CVDRisk) in a sample of workers at a specific workplace: a higher education institution in Portugal. Data were collected using a questionnaire (e.cuidHaMUs.QueST®) with 345 HEI workers from June 2017–June 2018 with a high response rate (93.3%). Two constructs of risks for CVD were considered: (i) metabolic risk and hypertension (CVDRisk1); and (ii) modifiable behavioural risk (CVDRisk2). Logistic regression analyses were used to establish a relationship between risk indexes/constructs (CVDRisk1 and CVDRisk2) and groups of selected variables. The most prevalent CVD risk factor was hypercholesterolaemia (43.2%). Sixty-eight percent of participants were in the construct CVDRisk1 while almost half of the respondents were in CVDRisk2 (45.2%). The consumption of soft drinks twice a week or more contributed to a significantly increased risk of CVD in CVDRisk1. Lack of regular exercise and lack of daily fruit consumption significantly increased the risk of CVD in CVDRisk2. The challenge to decision makers and the occupational medical community is to incorporate this information into the daily practices of health surveillance with an urgent need for health promotional education campaigns in the workplace.

Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 145
Edyta Karcz ◽  
Agata Zdun-Ryżewska ◽  
Agnieszka Zimmermann

Background: Professional burnout in the medical community has been present for a long time, also among mental health professionals. The aim of the study was to examine the links between loneliness, complaining and professional burnout among medical personnel in psychiatric care during a pandemic. Loneliness and complaining of the medical staff are not documented in the literature well enough. Methods: Oldenburg Burnout Questionnaire, the Loneliness Scale, the Complaint Questionnaire and author’s questionnaire. The respondents: 265 medical employees—doctors (19.2%), nurses (69.8%), paramedics (4.9%), medical caregivers (5.7%). Results: Loneliness and complaining are significant predictors of exhaustion. The model explains 18% of exhaustion variance. Loneliness, complaining and job seniority are also predictors of disengagement; the model allows to predict 10% of the variance of disengagement. Women are more prone to complain. Complaining significantly correlates with direct support from management. A high rate of loneliness correlates, in a statistically significant way, with worse work organization, less management support, worse atmosphere in the team and with more irresponsible attitudes of colleagues. Conclusions: Loneliness and complaining can be used to predict occupational burnout. Women and people without management support complain more often. Loneliness is connected with bad work organization and bad cooperation in a team.

2022 ◽  
Vol 46 (2) ◽  
Elliott Crigger ◽  
Karen Reinbold ◽  
Chelsea Hanson ◽  
Audiey Kao ◽  
Kathleen Blake ◽  

AbstractAugmented Intelligence (AI) systems have the power to transform health care and bring us closer to the quadruple aim: enhancing patient experience, improving population health, reducing costs, and improving the work life of health care providers. Earning physicians' trust is critical for accelerating adoption of AI into patient care. As technology evolves, the medical community will need to develop standards for these innovative technologies and re-visit current regulatory systems that physicians and patients rely on to ensure that health care AI is responsible, evidence-based, free from bias, and designed and deployed to promote equity. To develop actionable guidance for trustworthy AI in health care, the AMA reviewed literature on the challenges health care AI poses and reflected on existing guidance as a starting point for addressing those challenges (including models for regulating the introduction of innovative technologies into clinical care).

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Ephraim Fass ◽  
Gal Zizelski Valenci ◽  
Mor Rubinstein ◽  
Paul J. Freidlin ◽  
Shira Rosencwaig ◽  

The changing nature of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic poses unprecedented challenges to the world's health systems. Emerging spike gene variants jeopardize global efforts to produce immunity and reduce morbidity and mortality. These challenges require effective real-time genomic surveillance solutions that the medical community can quickly adopt. The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein mediates host receptor recognition and entry into the cell and is susceptible to generation of variants with increased transmissibility and pathogenicity. The spike protein is the primary target of neutralizing antibodies in COVID-19 patients and the most common antigen for induction of effective vaccine immunity. Tight monitoring of spike protein gene variants is key to mitigating COVID-19 spread and generation of vaccine escape mutants. Currently, SARS-CoV-2 sequencing methods are labor intensive and expensive. When sequence demands are high sequencing resources are quickly exhausted. Consequently, most SARS-CoV-2 strains are sequenced in only a few developed countries and rarely in developing regions. This poses the risk that undetected, dangerous variants will emerge. In this work, we present HiSpike, a method for high-throughput cost effective targeted next generation sequencing of the spike gene. This simple three-step method can be completed in < 30 h, can sequence 10-fold more samples compared to conventional methods and at a fraction of their cost. HiSpike has been validated in Israel, and has identified multiple spike variants from real-time field samples including Alpha, Beta, Delta and the emerging Omicron variants. HiSpike provides affordable sequencing options to help laboratories conserve resources for widespread high-throughput, near real-time monitoring of spike gene variants.

2022 ◽  
pp. 56-60
E. V. Uvarova ◽  
E. P. Khashchenko ◽  
S. O. Kyurdzidi

This review is addressing an urgent problem of diagnosis and treatment strategy of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescent girls. We analysed data from modern literary publications on the epidemiology and classification of the disease, as well as the adaptation of general principles for the management of young female patients tailored to their age peculiarities. The effective treatment strategies for adolescent girls with PCOS depending on its type are presented. Today there are several contradictions associated with both the diagnosis and treatment of the disease in the medical community. Thus, the use of the well-known Rotterdam criteria makes it difficult to diagnose PCOS in adolescent girls, since the criteria do not take into account characteristic changes that occur during puberty. Such manifestations as acne, hirsutism, menstrual irregularities, high androgen levels and morphology of polycystic ovaries on pelvic ultrasound imaging should be assessed with due account for age, puberty, hormonal balance with an assessment of the ratio of LH (luteinizing hormone)/FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) and Free Androgen Index. There is no consensus in the medical community regarding the treatment strategy for PCOS. International communities have identified two main goals in the management of patients: normalization of menstrual function and improvement of the patients’ quality of life by preventing clinical symptoms of hyperandrogenism, and metabolic disorders of hyperplastic processes in target organs.Our analysis of objective scientific data showed that modern monophasic combined oral contraceptives (COCs) supplemented by of a folate component should be used to treat young female patients with PCOS, hyperandrogenism and psychosomatic disorders.

2022 ◽  
pp. 26-34
G. Р. Kostyuk ◽  
D. I. Cherepakhin ◽  
P. V. Aronov ◽  
G. N. Belskaya ◽  
I. A. Nikiforov

Comorbid conditions in general psychopathological practice need equally research in the field of psychiatry and narcology, as well as the development of issues of social practice in relation to mental patients. There is an opinion that comorbid mental pathologies are even more common than “pure” forms of diseases. In most cases of comorbid conditions, the medical community increasingly encounters clinical situations where “classic” symptoms and syndromes are deformed, mutually intertwined and, superimposed on the actual social situation of the patient, acquire an “unreal fancy character”.Schizophrenia remains one of the most urgent problems at the stage of modern psychiatry formation. Up to date there are 1.1% of men and 1.9% of women in the general population of patients. Schizophrenic spectrum disorders are often combined with a number of chronic pathologies that increase the negative impact on the neuro-cognitive sphere of a person. One of the main problems of modern urbanized society is type II diabetes and alcoholism. By increasing the negative impact on a person’s cognitive abilities, they accelerate the process of disintegration of personality and its social functioning. The intellectual level of patients with those chronic diseases that require patients to actively and consciously participate in the treatment process and social functioning can significantly affect the patient’s ability to learn, independently manage the disease, establish a high level of compliance and, as a result, the effectiveness of therapy. An attentive study of the issue of the state of intelligence of patients with comorbid pathology will lead to an improvement in the patient’s social adaptation, a more careful attitude to their somatic health and reduce the risk of disability of the able-bodied population.

2022 ◽  
pp. 242-248
O. V. Khoperskaya ◽  
E. V. Enkova ◽  
E. V. Kiseleva ◽  
S. V. Shamarin ◽  
E. Y. Sentsova

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is widespread among patients of the reproductive period, the peak of the incidence occurs at a young age, often when the reproductive function has not yet been performed. The oncological alertness of the medical community is justified: the incidence of cervical cancer has increased by 24.6% over the past ten years, and in the structure of cancer mortality in the age group of 30–39 years cervical cancer occupies the 1st place accounting for 23%. Тhe same time aggressive management of the disease in patients who have not yet performed their reproductive function is associated with the loss of significant volume of cervical tissues and an increase in the frequency of premature birth. The most acute issue is the tactics of managing cervical neoplasia of the second degree of severity, when there is still hope for the regression of the disease, but at the same time there is a high risk of transition to dysplasia of the third degree of severity and subsequently to invasive cancer. The search for diagnostic markers that allow predicting the probability of regression and, conversely, the unfavorable course of the disease is the most important task solution of which will allow optimizing tactics in controversial clinical cases and avoiding unnecessary surgical aggression, improving the perinatal outcomes of patients undergoing surgical treatment. The search for new economically feasible and diagnostically valuable markers allowing us to predict the course of the disease and determine the amount of necessary surgical treatment continues, but the most significant at this moment is still the determination of the coexpression of p16 and Ki-67 in immunocytochemical studies and p16INK4a in immunohistochemical studies. The diagnostic sensitivity of determining the co-expression of p16INK4a/Ki67 is 98.5%, and the expression of p16INK4a in CIN II indicates that in 81% of cases there is a tendency to a progressive course of the disease.

2022 ◽  
Johanna M. Brandner ◽  
Peter Boor ◽  
Lukas Borcherding ◽  
Carolin Edler ◽  
Sven Gerber ◽  

AbstractConfronted with an emerging infectious disease at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the medical community faced concerns regarding the safety of autopsies on those who died of the disease. This attitude has changed, and autopsies are now recognized as indispensable tools for understanding COVID-19, but the true risk of infection to autopsy staff is nevertheless still debated. To clarify the rate of SARS-CoV-2 contamination in personal protective equipment (PPE), swabs were taken at nine points in the PPE of one physician and one assistant after each of 11 full autopsies performed at four centers. Swabs were also obtained from three minimally invasive autopsies (MIAs) conducted at a fifth center. Lung/bronchus swabs of the deceased served as positive controls, and SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected by real-time RT-PCR. In 9 of 11 full autopsies, PPE samples tested RNA positive through PCR, accounting for 41 of the 198 PPE samples taken (21%). The main contaminated items of the PPE were gloves (64% positive), aprons (50% positive), and the tops of shoes (36% positive) while the fronts of safety goggles, for example, were positive in only 4.5% of the samples, and all the face masks were negative. In MIAs, viral RNA was observed in one sample from a glove but not in other swabs. Infectious virus isolation in cell culture was performed on RNA-positive swabs from the full autopsies. Of all the RNA-positive PPE samples, 21% of the glove samples, taken in 3 of 11 full autopsies, tested positive for infectious virus. In conclusion, PPE was contaminated with viral RNA in 82% of autopsies. In 27% of autopsies, PPE was found to be contaminated even with infectious virus, representing a potential risk of infection to autopsy staff. Adequate PPE and hygiene measures, including appropriate waste deposition, are therefore essential to ensure a safe work environment.

2022 ◽  
pp. 174077452110664
Stewart Anderson

Dr. Bernard Fisher (1918-2019) was an early proponent of evidence-based medicine using the mechanism of prospective, multicenter, randomized clinical trials to test biological and clinical hypotheses. In this article, I trace how his early scientific work in striving to understand the nature of cancer metastasis through animal experiments led to a new, testable, clinical hypothesis: that surgery to remove only the tumor and a small amount of tissue around it was as effective as the more disfiguring operations that were then the standard treatment. Fisher’s work with the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) using large, randomized clinical trials to demonstrate the veracity of this hypothesis led to a new paradigm in which the emphasis was placed on how systemic therapies used at an early stage of disease could effectively eradicate breast cancer for many patients. This new therapeutic approach led to the successful development of new treatments, many of which are widely used today. Ultimately, the new paradigm led to successfully preventing breast cancer in women who were at high risk for the disease but who had not yet been diagnosed with the disease. Throughout his entire career, Fisher championed the use of large prospective, randomized clinical trials despite criticism from many in the medical community who strongly criticized his use of randomization as a mechanism for testing clinical hypotheses. The approach he and the NSABP employed is still considered to be the highest standard of evidence in conducting clinical studies.

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