chloride penetration
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2021 ◽  
Vol 55 (1) ◽  
Alisa Machner ◽  
Marie Bjørndal ◽  
Aljoša Šajna ◽  
Nikola Mikanovic ◽  
Klaartje De Weerdt

AbstractTo investigate the effect of leaching on chloride ingress profiles in concrete and mortar, we exposed concrete and mortar specimens for 90 and 180 days to two different exposure solutions: 3% NaCl, and 3% NaCl with KOH added to limit leaching. The solutions were replaced weekly. After exposure, we determined total chloride profiles to investigate the chloride ingress, and portlandite profiles to assess the extent of leaching. The results showed that leaching during exposure greatly affects the chloride ingress profiles in mortar and concrete. We found that leaching leads to considerably higher maximum total chloride content and deeper chloride penetration into the concrete than in the specimens where leaching was limited. We recommend therefore that leaching should be taken into account in standard laboratory testing and that more mechanistic service life models should be used to take into account the impact of leaching.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (24) ◽  
pp. 7691
Zhilu Jiang ◽  
Siyao Li ◽  
Chuanqing Fu ◽  
Zheng Dong ◽  
Xuefeng Zhang ◽  

Steel corrosion has become the main reason for the deterioration of reinforced concrete structures. Due to the heterogeneity of concrete and the spatial variation of environmental conditions, macrocell corrosion is often formed by localized corrosion, which is more detrimental if the anode is supported by large numbers of cathodes. The macrocell corrosion caused by concrete carbonation has been seldom studied. Furthermore, the influence of geometrical conditions on cathode-controlled corrosion in the chloride environment needs to be further clarified. In this work, the macrocell corrosion of steel embedded in concrete specimens exposed to accelerated carbonation, chloride contamination, and chloride penetration is studied using a modified ASTM G109 method. Concrete specimens with various binder types, geometrical parameters (i.e., concrete cover thickness and the diameter of embedded steel), and boundary conditions were tested. A simplified mathematical model for the prediction of the steel corrosion rate was developed considering two-dimensional oxygen diffusion. The results showed that, at the same level of anodic potential drops, the corrosion current rate in chloride-induced corrosion is higher than that of carbonation-induced corrosion. Chloride contamination is less detrimental to concrete incorporated with slag and pulverized fly ash than it is to pure ordinary Portland cement (OPC), likely due to enhanced chloride binding capacity. The results also indicated that the model considering two-dimensional diffusion can accurately predict the cathodic reaction process on corroded steel bars, which provides a theoretical basis for considering the correction coefficient of steel bar position in the establishment of a steel bar corrosion rate model.

Boksun Kim ◽  

This paper presents experimental work on the chloride penetration resistance of concrete, incorporating 0%, 2% and 3% Graphene Oxide (GO) by weight of cement. Nine 100mm diameter and 200mm high concrete cylinders were cast in the Materials Laboratory at the University of Plymouth. The cylinders were cut into 50mm thick disks and rapid chloride migration tests were carried out. After the tests, the penetration depth of the disks were measured and chloride migration coefficients were determined. It was found that compared with the control samples, the addition of 2% and 3% GO reduced the migration coefficient of concrete by about 11% and 17% respectively at 28 days after casting. This suggests that the inclusion of GO into a cementitious mix does have a noticeable effect on the increase of chloride resistance and hence the longevity of concrete.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Jiaqi Guo ◽  
Weiling Yang ◽  
Chong Xu ◽  
Bo Peng ◽  
Jinhai Lin ◽  

Subsea shield tunnels usually serve in a typical corrosive marine environment. Under the action of chloride penetration and carbonization, tunnel lining segments are often damaged because of concrete strength loss and steel bar corrosion induced concrete cracking during their service life, which seriously degrades the service performance of the tunnels. A systematical experimental and numerical investigation into the performance degradation of subsea shield tunnel segments accounting for concrete strength loss and steel bar corrosion is presented in this paper. The study demonstrates that chloride penetration decreases the peak strength and elastic modulus of the segment concrete by 42% and 46.1%, respectively. The average of the ratio of dissipated energy to the total energy of dry concrete is much smaller than that of water saturated concrete and chlorine solution saturated concrete, and chloride penetration reduces the energy storage capacity of concrete, and the ability to resist damage is weakened. When steel bars corrode for 120 days, the outer cracks continue to extend, and the concrete around the inner steel bars just begin to crack initiation; when corrode for 20 years, the length of the inner cracks gradually exceeds that of the outer cracks, and the inner cracks initiating from different steel bars coalesce with each other and form a continuous failure surface, causing great serious damage to the segment. Due to the difference in concrete strength, for the outer layer, the evolution processes of steel bar corrosion-induced cracks show the characteristics of early initiation, slow propagation, and late coalescence, and those for the inner layer have the characteristics of late initiation, rapid propagation, and early coalescence. During the whole process the propagation speed of the inner and outer cracks appears to be fast first and then slow. Moreover, the study also illustrates that the final state of segment performance degradation after crack coalescence presents the characteristics of whole lamellar exfoliation of the concrete cover.

2021 ◽  
Vol 904 ◽  
pp. 453-457
Samer Al Martini ◽  
Reem Sabouni ◽  
Abdel Rahman Magdy El-Sheikh

The self-consolidating concrete (SCC) become the material of choice by concrete industry due to its superior properties. However, these properties need to be verified under hot weather conditions. The paper investigates the behavior of SCC under hot weather. Six SCC mixtures were prepared under high temperatures. The SCC mixtures incorporated polycarboxylate admixture at different dosages and prolonged mixed for up to 2 hours at 30 °C and 40 °C. The cement paste was replaced with 20% of fly ash (FA). The fresh properties were investigated using slump flow, T50, and VSI tests. The compressive strength was measured at 3, 7, and 28 days. The durability of SCC mixtures was evaluated by conducting rapid chloride penetration and water absorption tests.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (22) ◽  
pp. 7101
Jincai Feng ◽  
Chaoqun Dong ◽  
Chunhong Chen ◽  
Xinjie Wang ◽  
Zhongqiu Qian

High–strength manufactured sand recycled aggregate concrete (MSRAC) prepared with manufactured sand (MS) and recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) is an effective way to reduce the consumption of natural aggregate resources and environmental impact of concrete industry. In this study, high–, medium– and low–quality MS, which were commercial MS local to Changzhou and 100% by volume of recycled coarse aggregate, were used to prepare MSRAC. The quality of MS was determined based on stone powder content, methylene blue value (MBV), crushing value and soundness as quality characteristic parameters. The variation laws of compressive strength and chloride penetration resistance of high–strength MSRAC with different rates of replacement and different qualities of MS were explored. The results showed that for medium– and low–quality MS, the compressive strength of the MSRAC increased first and then decreased with increasing rate of replacement. Conversely, for high–quality MS, the compressive strength gradually increased with increasing rate of replacement. The chloride diffusion coefficient of MSRAC increased with decreasing MS quality and increasing rate of replacement. The chloride diffusion coefficient of MSRAC basically met the specifications for 50–year and 100–year design working life when the chloride environmental action was D and E. To prepare high–strength MSRAC, high–quality MS can 100% replace RS (river sand), while rates of replacement of 50–75% for medium–quality MS or 25–50% for low–quality MS are proposed. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images indicated that an appropriate amount of stone powder is able to improve the compressive strength of RAC, but excessive stone powder content and MBV are unfavorable to the compressive strength and chloride penetration resistance of RAC.

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