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Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 443
Mingdong Wu ◽  
Daihong Xiao ◽  
Xinkai Wang ◽  
Lanping Huang ◽  
Wensheng Liu

Combined with microstructure characterization and properties tests, the effects of Zn contents on the mechanical properties, corrosion behaviors, and microstructural evolution of extruded Al–Li–Cu–Mg–Ag alloys were investigated. The results show that the increase in Zn contents can accelerate hardening kinetics and improve the hardness of peak-aged alloys. The Zn-added alloys present non-recrystallization characteristics combined with partially small recrystallized grains along the grain boundaries, while the T1 phase with finer dimension and higher number density could explain the constantly increasing tensile strength. In addition, increasing Zn contents led to a lower corrosion current density and a shallower maximum intergranular corrosion depth, thus improving the corrosion resistance of the alloys. Zn addition, distributed in the central layer of T1 phases, not only facilitates the precipitation of more T1 phases but also reduces the corrosion potential difference between the T1 phase and the matrix. Therefore, adding 0.57 wt.% Zn to the alloy has an excellent combination of tensile strength and corrosion resistance. The properties induced by Zn under the T8 temper (solid solution treatment + water quenching + 5% pre-strain+ isothermal aging), however, are not as apparent as the T6 temper (solid solution treatment + water quenching + isothermal aging).

Всеволод Сергеевич Валиев ◽  
Рустам Равилевич Хасанов ◽  
Денис Евгеньевич Шамаев

Разработано локальное приложение для Windows, реализованное в виде комплекса из трех модулей, осуществляющих расчет удельных комбинаторных индексов воды и донных отложений поверхностных водных объектов, а также байесову вероятность загрязнения. Тестирование комплекса продемонстрировало его высокую эффективность и простоту в использовании, обеспечивающую быструю, надежную и комплексную оценку качества водных объектов. Библиографические ссылки 1. Буч Г. Объектно-ориентированное проектирование с примерами применения. Киев: Диалектика; М.: Конкорд, 1992. 519 с.2. Валиев В.С., Иванов Д.В., Шагидуллин Р.Р. Метод комплексной оценки загрязненности донных отложений // Труды Карельского научного центра РАН. Сер. Лимнология и океанология 2019. №9. С. 51–59. doi: 10.17076/lim1122/3. Валиев В.С., Иванов Д.В., Зиганшин И.И., Шамаев Д.Е., Хасанов Р.Р., Маланин В.В., Марасов А.А., Шагидуллин Р.Р. Методика комплексной оценки качества донных отложений водных объектов по содержанию загрязняющих веществ // Озера Евразии: проблемы и пути их решения / Материалы II международной конференции. Казань: Изд-во Академии наук РТ, 2019. Ч. 2. С. 43‒49.4. РД 52.24.643-2002. Метод комплексной оценки степени загрязненности поверхностных вод по гидрохимическим показателям.5. Региональные нормативы «Фоновое содержание нефтепродуктов в донных отложениях поверхностных водных объектов Республики Татарстан» (утв. Приказом Министерства экологии и природных ресурсов РТ от 20.02.2020 г.)6. Региональные нормативы «Фоновое содержание тяжелых металлов в донных отложениях поверхностных водных объектов Республики Татарстан» (утв. Приказом Министерства экологии и природных ресурсов РТ от 27.03.2019 г.)7. Тунакова Ю.А., Галимова А.Р., Новикова С.В., Шагидуллин Р.Р., Валиев В.С., Габдрахманова Г.Н. Система оценки и управления качеством питьевых вод (на примере территории г. Казани). Казань: Фолиант, 2016. 140 с.8. Calculating NSF Water Quality Index – National Sanitation Foundation. Электронный ресурс: (дата обращения: 15.06.2021).9. Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. Электронный ресурс: current-activities/canadian-environmental-quality-guidelines (дата обращения: 15.06.2021).10. Tesler L. Object Pascal Report // Structured language world. 1985. V. 9 (3). P. 7‒10.

Irriga ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 397-407
Soni Willian Haupenthal ◽  
Marcio Antonio Vilas Boas ◽  
Naila Cristina Kepp ◽  
Jair Antonio Cruz Siqueira ◽  
Luciene Kazue Tokura

The objective of the work was to analyze the uniformity of drip fertigation compared to the use of water alone, analyzing by the Tukey test at 5% significance for CUC and DUC, defining the process capability from the process capacity index (Pc) . The experiment was carried out on a test bench in the irrigation and fertigation laboratory (LIF) of the University of Western Paraná, where in the first treatment, water was used for the irrigation process and in the second treatment, commercial fertilizer was diluted in the reservoir to perform the fertigation. The experimental statistics is constituted in an analysis of variance with subsequent unfolding of the interaction and Tukey test at 5% probability to compare the averages of uniformities, flow and pressure of the system. Finally, the process capability (Pc) was defined for the distribution uniformity variable. The results showed statistical superiority for the fertigation process, however, it is noteworthy, that both treatments achieved excellence in their classifications with values ​​above 90% for both CUC and DUC, according to the reference.

Mohd Mahyeddin Mohd Salleh

Technology advances nowadays give a huge impact to the human welfare.In particular related to treatment of sewage water tecnology that can be converted to more valuable treated wastewater to be used in plant fertilizer and drinking water. While the sewage sedimentation produces bioeffluent, biosolid and biogas as a new energy sources. Despite having a variety of uses, there is question related islamic rule in using treatment water from sewage, is  permissible to utilise because they came from mutanajjid water and mustakmal or used water. Therefore, this article is focus on analysing of fatwas on sewage treatment water particularly in changing from mutanajjis water to used water or pure water. This research is qualitative that will using methodology of colleting data by analysing documents of approved fatwas. The findings of study indicate as treated waste water is characterized as pure water. It is because transformation process to eliminate excrement and change it to pure water. Therefore, it can be used as plant watering and drinking water as long as it is not harmful because it has returned to the original nature of water.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Kazuyuki Miyamoto ◽  
Keisuke Suzuki ◽  
Hirokazu Ohtaki ◽  
Motoyasu Nakamura ◽  
Hiroki Yamaga ◽  

Abstract Background Heatstroke is associated with exposure to high ambient temperature (AT) and relative humidity (RH), and an increased risk of organ damage or death. Previously proposed animal models of heatstroke disregard the impact of RH. Therefore, we aimed to establish and validate an animal model of heatstroke considering RH. To validate our model, we also examined the effect of hydration and investigated gene expression of cotransporter proteins in the intestinal membranes after heat exposure. Methods Mildly dehydrated adult male C57/BL6J mice were subjected to three AT conditions (37 °C, 41 °C, or 43 °C) at RH > 99% and monitored with WetBulb globe temperature (WBGT) for 1 h. The survival rate, body weight, core body temperature, blood parameters, and histologically confirmed tissue damage were evaluated to establish a mouse heatstroke model. Then, the mice received no treatment, water, or oral rehydration solution (ORS) before and after heat exposure; subsequent organ damage was compared using our model. Thereafter, we investigated cotransporter protein gene expressions in the intestinal membranes of mice that received no treatment, water, or ORS. Results The survival rates of mice exposed to ATs of 37 °C, 41 °C, and 43 °C were 100%, 83.3%, and 0%, respectively. From this result, we excluded AT43. Mice in the AT 41 °C group appeared to be more dehydrated than those in the AT 37 °C group. WBGT in the AT 41 °C group was > 44 °C; core body temperature in this group reached 41.3 ± 0.08 °C during heat exposure and decreased to 34.0 ± 0.18 °C, returning to baseline after 8 h which showed a biphasic thermal dysregulation response. The AT 41 °C group presented with greater hepatic, renal, and musculoskeletal damage than did the other groups. The impact of ORS on recovery was greater than that of water or no treatment. The administration of ORS with heat exposure increased cotransporter gene expression in the intestines and reduced heatstroke-related damage. Conclusions We developed a novel mouse heatstroke model that considered AT and RH. We found that ORS administration improved inadequate circulation and reduced tissue injury by increasing cotransporter gene expression in the intestines.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 67
Maria Christinela Domithesa ◽  
I Nengah Kencana Putra ◽  
Anak Agung Istri Sri Wiadnyani

This study aims to determine the effect of various solvent towards antioxidant activity of kejompot (crassocephalum crepioides) extract and to know the right solvent to obtained extract with the highest antioxidant activity. This study used a Completely Randomized Design Method with 4 treatment (water, methanol 70%, ethanol 70%, acetone 70%,) using maseration method. The treatment was repeated four times to obtain 16 experimental units. If there was a significant effect on the observed parameters, then followed by Duncan multipple range test. The result showed that the treatment significantly effected (P<0.05) on each of parameters such as : yield, tanin total, flavonoid, vitamin C, antioxidant activity. This study showed that methanol 70% as the best treatment that obtained yield, tannin, flavonoid, Vitamin C and antioxidant activity respectively 18.76 %, 1.05 mg TAE/g, 7.59 mg QE/g, 8.68 mg AAE/g, and 103.1 ppm antioxidant activity based on IC50  .

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Knut Tore Alfredsen ◽  
Henning Andre Urke ◽  
Torstein Kristensen ◽  
Marte Kvakland ◽  
Aage Gronningsater ◽  

Abstract Background Behaviour of potential host fish during chemical treatment against the ectoparasite Gyrodactylus salaris is a vital factor in designing treatment strategies, evaluating risk factors and establishing insights into previously failed treatments. The effectiveness of any chemical treatment may be compromised if fish either are forced to, or seek out actively, areas of the river where the water quality is less affected by the chemicals. The aim of this study was to develop and apply an acoustic fish tag for fish localization with sensors for in situ measurement of water conductivity and temperature to investigate fish behaviour before, during and after an aluminium (Al) treatment. The sensor tag allowed discrimination between water qualities, and thereby quantification of exposure to treatment water. Findings Adult Atlantic salmon and anadromous brown trout from river Lærdalselva were tagged with external conductivity transmitters and followed daily by a network of passive receivers and by manual tracking 1 week ahead of treatment, during a 2-week aluminium (Al) treatment period and one week after an Al treatment. The results show no avoidance behaviour related to the Al treatment and most of the fish exhibited a behaviour during the treatment that did not differ significantly from the behaviour observed before or after the treatment. Data collected from the tags showed that the fish experienced increased conductivity during Al administration, suggesting successful exposure to treatment water. The tag gave verifiable environmental information and functioned well in the turbulent and acoustically demanding river environment, albeit with variable detection range. Conclusions The conductivity and temperature tag provided novel data on fish behaviour and exposure during the Al treatment period. Results show that fish exhibit normal behaviour during this period and no avoidance response can be detected in the collected data.

2020 ◽  
Vol 267 ◽  
pp. 121985 ◽  
Paula G. Santos ◽  
Cíntia M. Scherer ◽  
Adriano G. Fisch ◽  
Marco Antônio S. Rodrigues

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