analysis of variance
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 569-573
Ahlam Samran ◽  
Adnan Habib ◽  
Mazen Doumani ◽  
Abdulaziz Samran

<sec> <title>Objective:</title> This laboratory study aimed to evaluate the effect of self-adhesive root canal sealers on the fracture strength of root canals filled with Resilon or EndoREZ. </sec> <sec> <title>Materials and Methods:</title> A total of eighty extracted mandibular premolar teeth were selected in this in-vitro study. All teeth were instrumented using a crown-down technique by FlexMaster rotary NiTi files. Specimens were divided into 4 test groups (n = 20) according to the sealer material: RS; RealSeal, RSS; RealSeal SE, MS; MetaSeal, and CG; (control group) zinc oxide eugenol-based sealer. Each main group was distributed into two subgroups (n = 10) according to the filling material either Resilon or EndoREZ and gutta-percha (n = 20) in the control group. Each root was mounted in acrylic resin blocks and subjected to fracture in a universal testing machine. The load values at root specimens fractured were registered in Newton’s and the data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and the Tukey HSD test (α = 0.05). </sec> <sec> <title>Results:</title> The two-way analysis of variance analysis indicated that the filling material had a significant effect on the fracture strength of endodontically treated teeth (p < 0.05) but not the sealer materials (p≥.05). Higher mean fracture strength was recorded in MetaSeal and Resilon group (1281.90±200.34 N) and lower mean fracture strength was shown in RealSeal and EndoREZ group (847.55±191.04 N). </sec> <sec> <title>Conclusion:</title> Self-adhesive (fourth-generation) resin sealers increased the fracture strength of root teeth more than self-etching (third-generation) root canal sealers when used with EndoREZ points. </sec>

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Geun Joo Choi ◽  
Hyun Kang ◽  
Oh Haeng Lee ◽  
Eun Jin Ahn ◽  
Fletcher A. White ◽  

Abstract Background Rubus occidentalis, also known as black raspberry, contains several bioactive components that vary depending on the maturity of the fruit. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of immature Rubus occidentalis extract(iROE) on acid-induced hyperalgesia, investigate the mechanism involved, and compare the antihyperalgesic effect of immature and mature ROEs. Methods In adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, chronic muscle pain was induced via two injections of acidic saline into one gastrocnemius muscle. To evaluate the dose response, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with 0.9% saline or iROE (10, 30, 100, or 300 mg/kg) following hyperalgesia development. To evaluate the mechanism underlying iROE-induced analgesia, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with saline, yohimbine 2 mg/kg, dexmedetomidine 50 μg/kg, prazosin 1 mg/kg, atropine 5 mg/kg, mecamylamine 1 mg/kg, or naloxone 5 mg/kg 24 h after hyperalgesia development, followed by iROE 300 mg/kg administration. To compare immature versus mature ROE, the rats were injected with mature ROE 300 mg/kg and immature ROE 300 mg/kg after hyperalgesia development. For all experiments, the mechanical withdrawal threshold(MWT) was evaluated using von Frey filaments before the first acidic saline injection, 24 h after the second injection, and at various time points after drug administration. Data were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance(MANOVA) and the linear mixed-effects model(LMEM). We compared the MWT at each time point using analysis of variance with the Bonferroni correction. Results The iROE 300 mg/kg injection resulted in a significant increase in MWT compared with the control, iROE 30 mg/kg, and iROE 100 mg/kg injections at ipsilateral and contralateral sites. The iROE injection together with yohimbine, mecamylamine, or naloxone significantly decreased the MWT compared with iROE alone, whereas ROE together with dexmedetomidine significantly increased the MWT. According to MANOVA, the effects of immature and mature ROEs were not significantly different; however, the LMEM presented a significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions Immature R. occidentalis showed antihyperalgesic activity against acid-induced chronic muscle pain, which may be mediated by the α2-adrenergic, nicotinic cholinergic, and opioid receptors. The iROE displayed superior tendency regarding analgesic effect compared to mature ROE.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 703
Tamara Lukić ◽  
Tatjana Pivac ◽  
Milica Solarević ◽  
Ivana Blešić ◽  
Jelena Živković ◽  

The subject of this paper is to determine how the COVID-19 virus pandemic affected the situation in Serbian villages. The task of the paper is to show the positive and negative consequences that resulted from the pandemic. This would indicate that some of them may represent a new idea, a chance, or would work in favor of the sustainability of the villages of Serbia. In support of objectivity, research was carried out among the population that inhabits the rural areas of Serbia. It examined the extent to which internationally recognized phenomena and consequences of the COVID-19 virus pandemic were present in the study area and considered the nature of their impact on sustainability. The results of the semi-structured questionnaire were processed using descriptive statistics, t-test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Respondents contributed to the conception of possible solutions with their comments. The obtained differences in the answers resulted from different socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents, but also from the fact that the villages of Serbia differ in natural and social characteristics. Respondents’ responses are in favor of economic and sociodemographic sustainability, but they do not think in terms of environmental sustainability. The paper reveals several development opportunities, which complement each other and contribute to different methods for sustainability of rural villages in Serbia.

2022 ◽  
pp. 014556132110640
Jane Y Tong ◽  
Alyssa R Hartkorn ◽  
Robert Sataloff

Objective To provide an updated evaluation of otolaryngology residency program websites during a socially distanced application cycle. Criteria were selected to evaluate for level of comprehensiveness, new content accommodating a virtual interview cycle, and stated commitment to diversity and inclusion. Study design Review of otolaryngology residency program websites. Setting Online websites between December 2020 and January 2021. Methods Otolaryngology residency program websites were evaluated for selected criteria. Programs were categorized by geographic location, size, and Doximity rankings. Differences between groups were analyzed using Student’s t-test and analysis of variance with a significance level of P < .05. Results 118 otolaryngology residency program websites contained a mean (SD) of 16.3 (4.7) of 31 criteria (52.6%). Fewer than one third included virtual/video tours of facilities or the surrounding area. Only 33% had a stated commitment to diversity and inclusion. There was no difference in number of criteria included when categorized by geographic location ( P = .22). Larger programs (17.9 vs 14.5, P < .001) and programs ranked in the top 50 by Doximity (17.7 vs 15.2, P = .003) included a significantly greater number of criteria. Conclusion While the comprehensiveness of otolaryngology residency program websites has improved, considerable room for improvement remains. Programs should strive to maintain updated websites that highlight training opportunities, program culture, and commitment to diversity and inclusion. Programs also should consider prioritizing the development of new online resources that may be especially useful to applicants during a virtual interview cycle.

2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (4) ◽  
pp. 197-209
Nuran Yanikoglu ◽  
Zeynep Yesil Duymus ◽  
Sebahat Findik Aydiner

The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of polishing with different solutions on the surface roughness and hardness of two different polymethylmethacrylate temporary restoration materials. In the study, two different temporary crown materials prepared in the CAD / CAM system and prepared by the traditional method were used to test a total of 224 pieces of 10 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness. After the surface roughness and micro hardness values were measured, samples were randomly divided into seven groups among themselves; After waiting 24 h, 1 and 3 weeks, values were measured again. Data were evaluated using 3-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD test. The temporary restorative materials surface hardness and roughnesses are important to be able to stay in oral cavity without any changes. And it is also important to determine which of the materials (prepared by temporary conventional materiels or by the CAD/CAM) are less effected by the liquids in oral cavity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (6) ◽  
Ona Sri Vatma ◽  
Ansharullah Ansharullah ◽  
Asnani Asnani

ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the addition of sea cucumber flour on the organoleptic and proximate characteristics of wet noodles. This study consisted of four treatments, namely without the addition of sand sea cucumber flour (T0), the addition of 5% sea cucumber flour (T1), the addition of 10% sea cucumber flour (T2), and the addition of 15% sea cucumber flour (T3). The analyzed parameters were organoleptic and physicochemical values. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD). Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and continued with Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at a 95% confidence level. The results show that the effect of adding sand sea cucumber flour had a very significant effect on organoleptic assessment in T1 treatment (95% wheat flour: 5% sea cucumber flour) with preference scores of color, aroma, taste, and texture reached 4.03 (like), 4.06 (like), 3.91 (like), and 4.06 (like). Proximate analysis of the best treatment shows that it contained 50.12% water, 1.18% ash, 0.20% fat, 7.23% protein, and 41.75% carbohydrate. The results show that the product met the standard of SNI 01-2987-1992 for ash, fat, and protein contents. Keywords: Sea Cucumber, Wet NoodlesABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini untuk menentukan pengaruh penambahan tepung teripang pasir terhadap karakteristik organoleptik dan proksimat mie basah. Penelitian ini terdiri dari empat perlakuan yaitu tanpa penambahan tepung teripang pasir (T0), penambahan tepung teripang pasir 5% (T1), penambahan tepung teripang pasir 10% (T2), dan penambahan tepung teripang pasir 15% (T3), lalu dianalisis terhadap nilai organoleptik dan fisikokimia. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL). Data di analisis menggunakan Analysis of Varian (ANOVA) dan dilanjutkan dengan uji Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) pada taraf kepercayaan 95%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pengaruh penambahan tepung teripang pasir berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap penilaian organoleptik pada perlakuan T1 (tepung terigu 95% : tepung teripang pasir 5%) sebesar warna 4.03 (suka), aroma 4.06 (suka), rasa 3.91 (suka), dan tekstur 4.06 (suka). Analisis proksimat perlakuan terbaik diperoleh nilai kadar air 50.12%, kadar abu 1.18%, kadar lemak 0.20%, kadar protein 7.23% dan kadar karbohidrat 41.75%. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian nilai kadar abu, kadar lemak, dan kadar protein telah memenuhi SNI 01-2987-1992.Kata kunci: Teripang Pasir, Mie Basah

2022 ◽  
Vol 951 (1) ◽  
pp. 012053
Yurliasni ◽  
Z Hanum ◽  
H Khairunnisa

Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adding beet juice in fermented goat’s milk using Lactobacillus rhamnosus bacteria on the acidity, syneresis value. This study applied a Complete Randomized Design (RAL) consisting of five treatments Control (P0), 2% of beet juice (P1), 4% of beet juice (P2), 6% of beet juice (P3), and 8% of beet juice (P4) with four repetitions. The data obtained were analysed using ANOVA (Analysis of Variance). If a significant difference is found, then Duncan’s multiple range (DMRT) test is conducted. The results showed that the addition of beet juice with a different percentage in fermented goat milk had significant effect (P<0.05) on syneresis but had a very significantly effect (P<0.01) on the pH value. The addition of 2% of Beet juice resulted in the lowest syneresis value of 9.88%. The low value of syneresis in this study was caused by the addition of beet juice which has high acidity, carbohydrate and protein content. The higher the lactic acid, the lower the pH and the denser the texture formed because the protein’s ability to bind water increases so that the syneresis formed is lower.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 49-59
Neda Nezhadhamdy ◽  
Fariborz Dortaj ◽  
Esmaeil Sadipour ◽  
Kamran Sheivandi Cholicheh ◽  

Background: Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) is a prevalent, harmful, and transdiagnostic behavior that can comprehensively be assessed in daily life studies. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the student self-injury prevention program in mitigating the Interpersonal Cognitive Distortion (ICD) and the fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE). Materials & Methods: This research is a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test-post-test design, a one-month follow-up, and a control group. The statistical population consisted of all female adolescents studying at the middle schools of Rasht City, Iran, in the 2019–2020 academic years. They must have experienced self-injury at least once. The purposive non-random sampling technique was employed to select 34 self-injuring adolescents, who were then randomly assigned to case and control groups. The interpersonal cognitive distortion scale and the brief fear of negative evaluation scale were adopted to collect data. The case group received 16 sessions of self-injury prevention training for students (twice a week), whereas the control group had no training programs. Analysis of variance and multivariate analysis of variance were then used for data analysis in SPSS v. 25. Results: The results demonstrated the significant effectiveness of the training program in mitigating the ICD (interpersonal rejection: P<0.01; F=21.780, unrealistic relationship expectations: P<0.01; F=51.096, interpersonal misperception: P<0.01; F=20.557), reducing negative meta-emotion, and increasing positive meta-emotion (P<0.05; F=43.591). Conclusion: The student self-injury prevention program effectively reduced the ICD and FNE of female adolescents. Additionally, these two variables have high levels in adolescents struggling with self-injury.

2022 ◽  
Vol 335 ◽  
pp. 00048
Mashudi Mashudi ◽  
Wahyuni Nurmawati

The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of Aspergillus oryzae on fermentation of mixture of rumen contents and jackfruit peel on in vitro gas production and digestibility. The method used in this study was an experiment using a randomized block design (RBD) of 4 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments including of T0 = 50% rumen contents + 50% jackfruit peel, T1 = 40 % rumen contents + 60% jackfruit peel + 0,4% Aspergillus oryzae, T2 = 30% rumen contents + 70% jackfruit peel + 0,4% Aspergillus oryzae, T3 = 20% rumen contents + 80% jackfruit peel + 0,4% Aspergillus oryzae. Variables observed were gas production, dry matter digestibility (DMD), and organic matter digestibility (OMD). Data were analyzed by using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) from Randomized Block Design, if there were significant effect between the treatments then tested with least significant different (LSD). The result showed that fermentation of mixture of rumen contents and jackfruit peel have highly significant effect (P<0.01) on gas production, and significant effect (P<0.05) on DMD and OMD. Gas production, DMD and OMD of fermented mixture of rumen contents and jackfruit peel are higher than control without fermentation. It is concluded that the higher jackfruit peels the higher gas production, DMD and OMD.

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