free amino acid
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
E. K. U. Moriguti ◽  
M. J. Rosique ◽  
L. F. Tirapelli ◽  
D. P. C. Tirapelli ◽  
A. A. Jordão ◽  

Abstract This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Glutamine, as a dipeptide or a free amino acid form, on the progression of burn injuries in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were burned with a comb metal plate heated in boiling water (98 °C) for three minutes, creating four rectangular full-thickness burn areas separated by three unburned interspaces (zone of stasis) in both dorsum sides. The animals were randomized into three groups (n=10): saline solution (G1-Control) and treated groups that orally received Glutamine as dipeptide (G2-Dip) or free amino acid (G3-FreeAA). Two and seven days after burn injury, lesions were photographed for unburned interspaces necrosis evolution assessment. Seven days after injury, glutathione seric was measured and histopathological analysis was performed. By photographs, there was a significant reduction in necrosis progression in G3-Free-AA between days two and seven. Histopathological analysis at day 7 showed a significantly higher stasis zone without necrosis and a higher number of fibroblasts in G2-Dip and G3-FreeAA compared with G1-Control. Also, glutathione serum dosage was higher in G2-Dip. The plasmatic glutathione levels were higher in the G2-Dip than the G1-Control, and there was a trend to higher levels in G3-FreeAA. The reduction in histological lesions, greater production of fibroblasts, and greater amounts of glutathione may have benefited the evolution of burn necrosis, which showed greater preservation of interspaces.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Pelin Teke Kisa ◽  
Semra Eroglu Erkmen ◽  
Hilal Bahceci ◽  
Zumrut Arslan Gulten ◽  
Ayca Aydogan ◽  

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Nitisinone used in alkaptonuria (AKU) can result in keratopathy due to strongly increased tyrosine levels. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> This study aimed to investigate nutritional status and changes in plasma tyrosine and phenylalanine and urinary homogentisic acid (u-HGA) levels in 8 adult AKU patients (mean age, 56.3 ± 4.7 years) who were on tyrosine/phenylalanine-restricted diet together with 2 mg/day nitisinone. <b><i>Results:</i></b> The treatment period was 23.4 ± 6.9 months. Daily dietary protein intake was restricted to 0.8–1.0 g/kg/day. Daily tyrosine intake was restricted to 260–450 mg/day for females and 330–550 mg/day for males. Tyrosine/phenylalanine-free amino acid supplements accounted for an average of 56.1% of daily protein intake. The following assessments were performed: anthropometric and plasma tyrosine level measurements every 2 months; ophthalmological examination every 6 months, and nutritional laboratory analyses and measurements of plasma amino acids and u-HGA once in a year. It was targeted to keep the plasma tyrosine level &#x3c;500 μmol/L. The plasma tyrosine level was &#x3c;100 μmol/L before the treatment in all patients and around a mean of 582.5 ± 194.8 μmol/L during the treatment. The diet was rearranged if a plasma tyrosine level of &#x3e;700 μmol/L was detected. The u-HGA level before and after the 1st year of treatment was 1,429.3 ± 1,073.4 mmol/mol creatinine and 33.6 ± 9.5 mmol/mol creatinine, respectively. None of the patients developed keratopathy or experienced weight loss and protein or micronutrient deficiency. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> AKU patients should receive tyrosine/phenylalanine-restricted diet for reducing plasma tyrosine level to the safe range. Tyrosine/phenylalanine-free amino acid supplements can be safely used to enhance dietary compliance. Keratopathy and nutrient deficiency should be frequently monitored.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 111
Adekunbi Adetola Malomo ◽  
Babatunde Olawoye ◽  
Abiola Folakemi Olaniran ◽  
Omowumi Ibipeju Olaniyi ◽  
Adedoyin Adedayo ◽  

This research investigated effect of fermentation time and cereal type on the total reducing sugar (TRS), total sugar (TSS), and total free amino acid (TFA) during the production of ogi. The result showed that TFA generally increased with increase in fermentation time (7.916 – 17.596 mg/g). Maize, acha and sorghum ogi had the lowest total reducing sugar (TRS) at 0 h (16.927glucose mg/g), 12 h (16.655 glucose mg/g) and 48 h (18.212 glucose mg/g) respectively and TSS was lowest in acha ogi from 12 h to 48 h (33.191 - 34.370 glucose mg/g). Principal component analysis and Agglomerative hierarchical clustering were used to evaluate the variability in sugar and amino acid contents and ranked the contributions of the variables. The factors were divided into four principal components with cumulative variance contribution rate of 87.47%. The result showed that acha and sorghum ogi had lower sugar content than maize ogi during fermentation. This research suggested that maize, acha and sorghum can be used in the production of cereal based ogi for weaning food at 48 h due to high free amino acid content, and also advanced the use of acha in production of ogi for diabetic patients due to its low total sugar content.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 2009
Veronika Zemanová ◽  
Daniela Pavlíková ◽  
František Hnilička ◽  
Milan Pavlík

Arsenic is a ubiquitous toxic element that can be accumulated into plant parts. The present study investigated the response of Pteris cretica and Spinacia oleracea to As treatment through the analysis of selected physiological and metabolic parameters. Plants were grown in pots in As(V) spiked soil (20 and 100 mg/kg). Plants’ physiological condition was estimated through the determination of elements, gas-exchange parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence, water potential, photosynthetic pigments, and free amino acid content. The results confirmed differing As accumulation in plants, as well as in shoots and roots, which indicated that P. cretica is an As-hyperaccumulator and that S. oleracea is an As-root excluder. Variations in physiological and metabolic parameters were observed among As treatments. Overall, the results revealed a significant effect of 100 mg/kg As treatment on the analysed parameters. In both plants, this treatment affected growth, N, Mg, S, Mn, and Zn content, as well as net photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, and total free amino acid content. In conclusion, the results reflect the similarity between P. cretica and S. oleracea in some aspects of plants’ response to As treatment, while physiological and metabolic parameter changes related to As treatments indicate the higher sensitivity of S. oleracea.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 1637
Quintino Reis de Araujo ◽  
Guilherme Amorim Homem de Abreu Loureiro ◽  
Cid Edson Mendonça Póvoas ◽  
Douglas Steinmacher ◽  
Stephane Sacramento de Almeida ◽  

Free amino acids in cacao beans are important precursors to the aroma and flavor of chocolate. In this research, we used inferential and explanatory statistical techniques to verify the effect of different edaphic crop conditions on the free amino acid profile of PH-16 dry cacao beans. The decreasing order of free amino acids in PH-16 dry cacao beans is leucine, phenylalanine, glutamic acid, alanine, asparagine, tyrosine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, valine, isoleucine, glutamine, lysine, aspartic acid, serine, tryptophan, threonine, glycine. With the exception of lysine, no other free amino acid showed a significant difference between means of different edaphic conditions under the ANOVA F-test. The hydrophobic free amino acids provided the largest contribution to the explained variance with 58.01% of the first dimension of the principal component analysis. Glutamic acid stands out in the second dimension with 13.09%. Due to the stability of the biochemical profile of free amino acids in this clonal variety, it is recommended that cacao producers consider the genotype as the primary source of variation in the quality of cacao beans and ultimately the chocolate to be produced.

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