amino acid profile
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
M. Farid ◽  
N. Khan ◽  
M. Fatima ◽  
F. Rasool ◽  
H. Azmat ◽  

Abstract The present study aimed to determine the effect of different levels of protein on the growth, body composition, amino acid profile and serology of Channa marulius fingerlings. The experiment was conducted in ten happas installed in earthen ponds, each stocked with 10 fishes for 90 days. Four commercial fish feeds having 25%, 30%, 32% and 40% crude protein (CP) levels were fed to fish at 3% of their wet body weight three times a day. The results of the study revealed that highest weight gain, feed conversion ratio and survival rate were observed in 30% protein feed. Meanwhile, moisture content was higher in fish fed with 30% CP feed while highest crude protein was recorded in 40% CP fed fish. Lowest fat content was observed in 32% CP feed. Amino acid profile of fish revealed better results in 30% CP feed. Total protein, glucose and globulin were also highest in fish feeding 30% CP feed, while albumin was highest in 40% CP feed. It is concluded that 30% CP feed showed better results in terms of growth, amino acid profile and serological parameters without effecting fish body composition.

Maryam Abdulkadir Dangambo ◽  
Adamu Jibrin Alhassan ◽  
Atiku Muhammad Kano ◽  
Hafiz Abubakar ◽  
Zinat Suleiman Muhammad

Background and aims: Amino acids composition of local and regional dietary proteins determines the protein quality. The study was aimed at evaluating amino acid profiles of some selected traditional diets commonly consumed in Jigawa (JG), Kano (KN) and Katsina (KT) States, Northwest Zone-Nigeria. Methods: The selected prepared diets (four per state) include; JG Tuwon masara using white maize served with Kuka soup (JG TMW SWKS), JG Tuwon masara using yellow maize served with Kuka soup (JG TMY SWKS), JG Danwake served with groundnut oil and pepper (JG Danwake SWGOP), JG Moimoi, KN Tuwon masara using white maize served with Kuka soup (KN TMW SWKS), KN Tuwon masara using yellow maize served with Kuka soup (KN TMY SWKS), KN rice and beans served with groundnut oil and pepper (KN Rice and Beans SWGOP), KN Danwake served with groundnut oil and pepper (KN Danwake SWGOP), KT Tuwon masara using white maize served with Kuka soup (KT TMW SWKS), KT Tuwon masara using yellow maize served with Kuka soup (KT TMY SWKS), KT Danwake served with groundnut oil and pepper (KT Danwake SWGOP) and KT Dambu. The preparations were dried and grounded into powdered form and analyzed using standard methods. Results: The amino acid profile of the diets consumed in the three states show higher content of total non-essential amino acids (NEAA) compared with essential amino acids (EAA). The amino acid score of the prepared diets though higher than the standard amino acid score by WHO/FAO/UNU (2007), may support the normal growth of all age groups except lysine. The limiting amino acid score was found to be either lysine or SAA (cysteine + methionine) in all the 3 states’ diets. Histidine was found to have the highest score in all the diets except in JG Moimoi and KN Danwake served with groundnut oil and pepper (SWGOP) respectively. The low levels of lysine and SAA in some of the diets may be due to low contents of these amino acids in the ingredients used. Conclusion: This study showed that, the amino acid score of the prepared diets though higher than the standard amino acid score established by WHO/FAO/UNU may support the normal growth of infants, children as well as adults except lysine. Keywords: traditional diets, amino acids, amino acid profile, amino acid score.

LM Mwai ◽  
AM Kingori ◽  
MK Ambula

In Kenya, Mulberry is grown in less than a piece of an acre by most of the farmers. Current acreage of mulberry stands at 250, spread over Western, Nyanza, and Rift Valley and Coastal regions. Mulberry leaves are highly palatable and digestible (70-90%) to ruminants and can be fed to non-ruminants as part of feed ingredient. Protein content and essential amino acid profile in the leaves and young stems varies from 15 to 35% depending on the variety. The Mulberry leaves are highly applicable as supplements replacing concentrates for dairy cattle, as the main feed for goats and sheep, and as an ingredient in rabbits and pigs’ diets. Farmers growing mulberry fodder offer higher protein content to livestock than those relying on different varieties of Napier grass, which have failed to boost milk production despite the amounts fed. In non-ruminant production, fishmeal and soybean meals are the main source of protein. In ruminant production, cottonseed meal and canola meal are the main source of protein. These meals are expensive, inadequate in supply and of variable quality. This often leads to low egg production and poor-quality eggs, hence low income and poverty among farmers. Therefore, efforts have been made to identify locally available protein feed resources that can be used as a protein supplement for livestock. Mulberry leaf meal (MLM) has been identified as a locally available alternative protein and mineral source that are beneficial to livestock and have been proven to improve production. Int. J. Agril. Res. Innov. Tech. 11(2): 1-9, Dec 2021

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 355
Marianna Raczyk ◽  
Katarzyna Polanowska ◽  
Bartosz Kruszewski ◽  
Anna Grygier ◽  
Dorota Michałowska

Taking into account that many advantages have been associated with the consumption of spirulina (microalgae) in terms of antioxidant capacity, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-aging activities, the study focuses on spirulina supplementation of semolina-based pasta. Fresh pasta was prepared by mixing semolina flour (Triticum durum) with an addition of 3, 5, 7, and 10% (w/w) of spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) powder. Physicochemical and nutritional analyses were done on raw materials, and on fresh pasta before and after cooking. Sensorial analysis was done shortly after cooking pastas. Spirulina had a high content of protein (71.34%), with all the essential amino acids, a high total fiber (8.45%), as well as ash content (5.93%), which significantly increased the nutritional value of the obtained fresh pasta. Supplemented pastas have a significantly better amino acid profile and higher total fiber content (up to 2.99 g/100 g d.m.) than the control sample. Moreover, the addition of spirulina had a significant effect on the pasta's color, weight gain, and cooking loss after being cooked. The addition of spirulina also affected the scores obtained for the individual parameters (texture, color, flavor, taste, and overall acceptability) of the sensory evaluation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Shuiya Sun ◽  
Dongjuan He ◽  
Cheng Luo ◽  
Xihua Lin ◽  
Jiahua Wu ◽  

ObjectiveRecent studies have found that the levels of plasma amino acids, such as branched-chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids, were associated with visceral obesity, insulin resistance, future development of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, few studies have involved a Chinese Han population. This study aimed to examine the association between amino acid profile and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in the Chinese Han population.MethodsThis is a cross-sectional study, which enrolled a cohort of 473 participants from a community. We employed the isotope internal standard method to determine the plasma concentrations of 28 amino acids using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Participants were divided into MetS (n = 72) and non-MetS groups (n = 401) to analyze the association between amino acids and MetS and its components.ResultsThe prevalence of MetS was 15.2% according to the criteria. Plasma concentrations of isoleucine (Ile), leucine (Leu), valine (Val), tyrosine (Tyr), tryptophan (Trp), phenylalanine (Phe), glutamic acid (Glu), aspartic acid (Asp), alanine (Ala), histidine (His), methionine (Met), asparagine (Asn), and proline (Pro) were significantly higher in the MetS group than those in the non-MetS group (P < 0.05), but taurine (Tau) was significantly lower (P < 0.05). When MetS components were increased, the concentrations of these 13 amino acids significantly increased (P < 0.05), but Tau concentration was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). We extracted the amino acid profile by principal component analysis (PCA), PC1 and PC2, which extracted from the 14 amino acids, were significantly associated with MetS (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.723, 1.325–2.085 and 1.325, 1.043–1.684, respectively). A total of 260 non-MetS participants were followed up effectively, and 42 participants developed new-onset MetS within 5 years. We found that the amino acid profile of PC1 was linked to the occurrence of future MetS. Decreased Tau was correlated with the future development of MetS.ConclusionParticipants with MetS exhibit an abnormal amino acid profile, and its components gradually increase when these amino acids are altered. Amino acid PCA profile can be employed for assessing and monitoring MetS risk. Finally, decreased Tau may be linked to the future development of MetS.

Aquaculture ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 546 ◽  
pp. 737418
Zulhisyam Abdul Kari ◽  
Muhammad Anamul Kabir ◽  
Mahmoud A.O. Dawood ◽  
Mohammad Khairul Azhar Abdul Razab ◽  
Nik Shahman Nik Ahmad Ariff ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Imalke Kankananarachchi ◽  
Eresha Jasinge ◽  
Gemunu Hewawitharana

Antiepileptics drugs are the mainstay of the management of epilepsy in children. Sodium valproate (VPA) and carbamazepine (CBZ) are widely used medications in childhood epilepsy. Hyperammonemia has been described as a known side effect of valproate therapy. It is known that VPA-associated HA is common among patients who hold genetic mutations of the carbomoyl phosphatase synthase 1 gene (CPS1). Aggravation of self-limited epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (SLECTS) is a rare side effect of CBZ. Here, we present a child who had CBZ-induced aggravation of rolandic epilepsy and VPA-induced HA encephalopathy in the background of an unrecognised heterozygous gene variant of CPS1. An 8-year-old boy with SLECTS presented with a history of abnormal behaviours and drowsiness. He was apparently well until six years when he developed seizures in favour of rolandic epilepsy. His electroencephalogram (EEG) showed bilateral predominantly on the right-sided central-temporal spikes and waves. The diagnosis of SLECTS was made, and he was commenced on CBZ. Though he showed some improvement at the beginning, his seizure frequency increased when the dose of CBZ was increased. His repeat EEG showed electrical status in slow-wave sleep, and CBZ was stopped. Subsequently, he was started on VPA, and with that, he developed features of encephalopathy. He had elevated serum ammonia with normal liver functions. VPA was stopped with the suspicion of VPA-induced hyperammonemia. Tandem mass spectrometry did not show significant abnormality in the amino acid profile. Specific genetic analysis revealed a c.2756 C > T.p (Ser919Leu) heterozygote genetic mutation of the CSP 1 gene. This is a classic example where side effects of treatment determine the choice of antiepileptics drugs (AEDs) in childhood epilepsy. It is essential to keep in mind that SLECTS can be aggravated with certain AEDs, and VPA-induced HA in the absence of live failure could be due to underlying inherited metabolic disorders.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 812-822
Bayu Kanetro ◽  
Muhamad Riyanto ◽  
Dwiyati Pujimulyani ◽  
Nurul Huda

Jack bean as a source of vegetable protein had not been popular. Seed germination had been known to improve its nutritional quality, especially protein and amino acid profile. This study determined the effect of germination on the color, beany flavor, protein content, functional properties, and amino acid profile of jack bean flour. A complete randomized design was used for this experiment. Germination was carried out for 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours. The seed (control) and germinated jack bean flours were analyzed for oil absorption, water absorption, emulsifying and foaming capacities, as well as the soluble protein content to determine the best germination time. Furthermore, the amino acid profile of the jack bean flour produced from the best germination time was analyzed. The results of this study indicated that the total and soluble protein of the seed and germinated jack bean seeds for 0, 24, 48, 60, and 72 hours were 23.30 and 5.95; 22.61 and 7.61; 21.18 and 10.68; 23.26 and 10.22; 23.98 and 10.81%, respectively. Germination of jack bean improved the functional properties. A germination time of 72 hours increased the oil capacity, water absorption capacity, foaming capacity and decreased the emulsion capacity significantly. The hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids of the germinated jack bean flour increased to 3.21 and 2.12% of the seed flour, respectively. The increase of the foaming capacity was related to the increase in hydrophobic amino acids of germinated jack bean flour compared to seed flours, that were glycine 1.23 and 1.01; alanine 1.29 and 1.01; valine 1.16 and 1.00; leucine 1.84 and 1.09%, respectively. Germination of jack bean for 72 hours increased significantly the essential amino acids, namely: leucine, lysine, and valine.

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