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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Wen-Chien Huang ◽  
Ming-Che Chang ◽  
Wen-Fu Wang ◽  
Kai-Ming Jhang

BackgroundThis study aimed to elucidate the influence of dementia etiologies on the degree of caregiver burden and determine which factors predict a high caregiving burden.MethodsThis 18-month retrospective cohort study enrolled 630 patients and their caregivers from the Dementia Center of Changhua Christian Hospital. The care team performed face-to-face interviews every 6 months, for 18 months from when a diagnosis of dementia was made. The primary outcome was the change in Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) scores. Generalized estimating equations were used for the longitudinal data analysis.ResultsParticipants with Lewy body disease (LBD) had a significantly higher caregiving burden compared with those with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (β = 3.83 ± 1.47, Wald = 6.79, p = 0.009) after adjusting for patient and caregiver features. Caregivers of mixed-type dementia and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) experienced a greater burden than caregivers of AD, at 6- and 18-month follow-up. Patients with more severe dementia, neuropsychiatric symptoms, being cared for by more than two caregivers, or utilizing social resources were associated with higher ZBI scores; the depressive mood of caregiver also predicted higher ZBI scores.ConclusionThis longitudinal study demonstrated that caregiver burden was influenced by the underlying dementia etiology of patients. The dementia care team should provide personalized education and transfer patients and caregivers to appropriate resources, especially for high-risk populations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Rebekah Pratt ◽  
Daniel M. Saman ◽  
Clayton Allen ◽  
Benjamin Crabtree ◽  
Kris Ohnsorg ◽  

Abstract Background In this paper we describe the use of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to study implementation of a web-based, point-of-care, EHR-linked clinical decision support (CDS) tool designed to identify and provide care recommendations for adults with prediabetes (Pre-D CDS). Methods As part of a large NIH-funded clinic-randomized trial, we identified a convenience sample of interview participants from 22 primary care clinics in Minnesota, North Dakota, and Wisconsin that were randomly allocated to receive or not receive a web-based EHR-integrated prediabetes CDS intervention. Participants included 11 clinicians, 6 rooming staff, and 7 nurse or clinic managers recruited by study staff to participate in telephone interviews conducted by an expert in qualitative methods. Interviews were recorded and transcribed, and data analysis was conducted using a constructivist version of grounded theory. Results Implementing a prediabetes CDS tool into primary care clinics was useful and well received. The intervention was integrated with clinic workflows, supported primary care clinicians in clearly communicating prediabetes risk and management options with patients, and in identifying actionable care opportunities. The main barriers to CDS use were time and competing priorities. Finally, while the implementation process worked well, opportunities remain in engaging the care team more broadly in CDS use. Conclusions The use of CDS tools for engaging patients and providers in care improvement opportunities for prediabetes is a promising and potentially effective strategy in primary care settings. A workflow that incorporates the whole care team in the use of such tools may optimize the implementation of CDS tools like these in primary care settings. Trial registration Name of the registry: Trial registration number: NCT02759055. Date of registration: 05/03/2016. URL of trial registry record: Prospectively registered.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 50-51
Janelle Trees ◽  
Trish Levett ◽  
Kyla Wynn ◽  
Rowena Ivers

In Dharawal Country in regional New South Wales, a small and powerful team provides cancer prevention, screening, support and care for Australian Aboriginal people, their families and communities. In keeping with Aboriginal practices and values, their uniquely holistic approach encompasses everything from food security and finding childcare, to support at diagnosis, surgical, radiation or chemo treatment, through to holding funerals, facilitating yarning groups, and Ceremony for survivors of cancer and their carers. The team created a manual for Aboriginal Health Workers, and other staff of Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services, together with training webinars, and modules. The program is also designed for Aboriginal Liaison Officers and Palliative Care Workers who work in hospitals. The book and the training modules are called Ngununggula. The name, from the Gundungurra language, means working and walking together. “We’ll make ourselves available to anyone that wants to tread this path because we know all the pitfalls. We’ve learned them. We’ve tripped and had to climb out of them again. Anyone that wants the shortcuts—more learning, less pain—here they are. We want to share and help. I want the message to get out all over the place. I want to share the resources, to support anyone else who wants to run programs or build a team like we do.” Kyla Wynn, Counsellor/Co-ordinator Cancer Care Team, Illawarra Aboriginal Medical Service. Partners include: Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council, Illawarra Aboriginal Medical Service, University of Sydney, University of Wollongong, Menzies School of Health Research.

2022 ◽  
pp. 9-25
Steve Berta ◽  
Howard Blonsky ◽  
James Wogan

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Jaeyoung Park ◽  
Xiang Zhong ◽  
Yue Dong ◽  
Amelia Barwise ◽  
Brian W. Pickering

Abstract Background ICU operational conditions may contribute to cognitive overload and negatively impact on clinical decision making. We aimed to develop a quantitative model to investigate the association between the operational conditions and the quantity of medication orders as a measurable indicator of the multidisciplinary care team’s cognitive capacity. Methods The temporal data of patients at one medical ICU (MICU) of Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN between February 2016 to March 2018 was used. This dataset includes a total of 4822 unique patients admitted to the MICU and a total of 6240 MICU admissions. Guided by the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety model, quantifiable measures attainable from electronic medical records were identified and a conceptual framework of distributed cognition in ICU was developed. Univariate piecewise Poisson regression models were built to investigate the relationship between system-level workload indicators, including patient census and patient characteristics (severity of illness, new admission, and mortality risk) and the quantity of medication orders, as the output of the care team’s decision making. Results Comparing the coefficients of different line segments obtained from the regression models using a generalized F-test, we identified that, when the ICU was more than 50% occupied (patient census > 18), the number of medication orders per patient per hour was significantly reduced (average = 0.74; standard deviation (SD) = 0.56 vs. average = 0.65; SD = 0.48; p < 0.001). The reduction was more pronounced (average = 0.81; SD = 0.59 vs. average = 0.63; SD = 0.47; p < 0.001), and the breakpoint shifted to a lower patient census (16 patients) when at a higher presence of severely-ill patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation during their stay, which might be encountered in an ICU treating patients with COVID-19. Conclusions Our model suggests that ICU operational factors, such as admission rates and patient severity of illness may impact the critical care team’s cognitive function and result in changes in the production of medication orders. The results of this analysis heighten the importance of increasing situational awareness of the care team to detect and react to changing circumstances in the ICU that may contribute to cognitive overload.

2022 ◽  
Vol 37 (1) ◽  
pp. 34-43
Makayla W. Nelson ◽  
Tara N. Downs ◽  
Gina M. Puglisi ◽  
Brent A. Simpkins ◽  
Amy Schmelzer Collier

Objective: To pilot the VIONE approach in a single Primary Care Patient Aligned Care Team (PACT). The authors aim for the Clinical Pharmacy Specialist (CPS) to perform 20 comprehensive medication reviews (CMRs) and the pilot PACT physician (PCP) to complete 200 VIONE discontinuations. Cost avoidance and CPS recommendations will also be analyzed. Polypharmacy is associated with increased risk of adverse drug events, falls, hospitalizations, and death. VIONE is a deprescribing tool that assists providers in identifying inappropriate medications. Design: Quality Improvement Setting: Single VA Health Care System (VAHCS) Participants: High-risk veterans in pilot PACT Interventions: The CPS educated the PCP regarding VIONE methodology and assisted with CMRs. When deprescribing was warranted, VIONE discontinuation reasons were selected in the Computerized Patient Record System (CPRS). Data were electronically stored in a national dashboard. Results: The authors identified 231 veterans at risk for polypharmacy-related adverse events. The PCP and CPS were able to reach 99 veterans and make 136 medication discontinuations between September 1, 2019, and March 1, 2020. The CPS performed 20 CMRs, resulting in 90 deprescribing recommendations. Thirty-eight CPS recommendations were accepted and contributed $18,835.95 to the sum annualized cost avoidance of $21,904.80. Conclusion: The VIONE methodology was successfully implemented in the pilot PACT. The utilization of the CPS was associated with an increased average number of medication discontinuations per veteran and contributed to cost avoidance.

BMJ Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. e053209
Deborah L Pestka ◽  
Katie M White ◽  
Kimberly K DeRoche ◽  
Bradley J Benson ◽  
Timothy J Beebe

ObjectiveA learning health system (LHS) uses data to generate evidence and answer questions required to continually improve system performance and patient care. Given the complexities of practice transformation, an area where LHS is particularly important is the study of primary care transformation (PCT) as PCT generates several practice-level questions that require study where the findings can be readily implemented. In May 2019, a large integrated health delivery system in Minnesota began implementation of a population management PCT in two of its 40 primary care clinics. In this model of care, patients are grouped into one of five service bundles based on their complexity of care; patient appointment lengths and services provided are then tailored to each service bundle. The objective of this study was to examine the use of a LHS in PCT by utilising the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to categorise implementation lessons from the initial two PCT clinics to inform further implementation of the PCT within the health system.DesignThis was a formative evaluation in which semistructured qualitative interviews were carried out. Observational field notes were also taken. Inductive coding of the data was performed and resultant codes were mapped to the CFIR.SettingTwo suburban primary care clinics in the Twin Cities, Minnesota.ParticipantsTwenty-two care team members from the first two clinics to adopt the PCT.ResultsSeventeen codes emerged to describe care team members’ perceived implementation influences. Codes occurred in each of the five CFIR domains (intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, characteristics of individuals and process), with most codes occurring in the ‘inner setting’ domain.ConclusionsUsing an LHS approach to determine early-stage implementation influences is key to guiding further PCT implementation, understanding modifications that need to be made and additional research that needs to occur.

2021 ◽  
Vol 76 (1) ◽  
Stephanie A. Rouch ◽  
Tara C. Klinedinst ◽  
Jennifer S. White ◽  
Natalie E. Leland

Importance: Occupational therapy's scope of practice aligns with the goals of comprehensive primary care set forth by the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Pub. L. 111-148). To successfully integrate occupational therapy into primary care, we must understand occupational therapy practitioners' experiences in this setting. Objective: To explore facilitators of, barriers to, and recommendations for integrating occupational therapy into primary care. Design: A descriptive qualitative design that incorporated semistructured interviews, member checking sessions, and deductive thematic analysis. Interviews were structured to capture occupational therapists' experiences of and recommendations for practicing in primary care. Setting: Primary care. Participants: A purposive sample of licensed occupational therapists with at least 6 mo primary care experience in the United States. Results: Seven participants reported 1 to 8 yr of experience in primary care. Four themes emerged that contextualized the experiences of occupational therapists in primary care. The first theme captured the process of gaining entry onto the primary care team. Once structurally embedded on the team, the second and third themes, respectively, captured barriers and facilitators to navigating team-based care and providing patient-centered care. The fourth theme reflected participants' vision and ideas of how to expand reach nationally to promote consistent integration of occupational therapy into primary care. Conclusion and Relevance: Given the important role of an interprofessional primary care team in improving population health, this study is timely in that it explored occupational therapists' experiences in this emerging practice area. What This Article Adds: Occupational therapists in this study used their skills, resources, and networks to become part of a primary care team. They indicated that they contributed to positive outcomes through working with patients on self-management, functional problem solving, and behavior change.

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