Ten genetically diverse inbred lines, including two genic male sterile lines, of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) were crossed in a half-diallel to generate 45 F1 hybrids. These hybrids, along with the parental lines and commercial check, were evaluated for their fruit yield, level of phytochemicals and Fusarium wilt resistance. Both additive and non-additive genetic variances were important in governing the expression of all of the traits; however, the additive gene action for the fruit weight (g), flesh thickness (cm), rind thickness (mm), firmness (lb inch−2), β-carotene content (mg/100 g), non-additive variance for fruit yield (t ha−1), fruit number, total soluble solids (TSS, °Brix), ascorbic acid (mg/100 g) and reaction to Fusarium wilt were comparatively more important. The parental line MM-625 was the best general combiner for fruit yield, rind thickness and β-carotene content (mg/100 g). The exotic line Riogold was the best combiner for flesh thickness and firmness. The netted inbred line MM-610 was the best general combiner for fruit weight, ascorbic acid and reaction to Fusarium wilt. The inbred lines KP4HM-15 and MM-916 were the best general combiners for the number of fruits per vine and TSS. The best cross-combinations for fruit yield ha−1 and TSS were MS-1×M-610 and Kajri×MM-904, respectively. The hybrids KP4HM-15×MM Sel-103 and KP4HM-15×MM-1831 recorded the highest standard heterosis for fruit yield and TSS. The landrace-derived inbred lines Kajri, MM Sel-103 and KP4HM-15 produced moderate-to-highly FW-resistant hybrids. Out of the 121 SSR markers applied, 70 exhibited parental polymorphism. The markers DM0561, CMAAAGN14, TJ147, CMMS35_3, CMAGN45 and DE1337 identified specific/unique alleles in certain parental genotypes. Thus, the findings of this study revealed that the novel inbred lines can effectively be combined to generate heterotic F1 hybrids for yield and other traits, such as rind and flesh thickness, TSS, β-carotene content and firmness. Furthermore, SSR markers can potentially be utilized to confirm the genetic diversity among the parental lines, and for the DNA fingerprinting of F1 hybrids.
We examined the association between serum antioxidant status and mortality from influenza and pneumonia in US adults.
Serum concentrations of antioxidants included vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin E, sum of α- and β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein+zeaxanthin, and lycopene. We computed total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as a measure of composite antioxidant status in serum. Survey-weighted Cox proportional hazard models were used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing quartiles of each antioxidant and TAC.
Data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)-III.
A total of 7428 NHANES-III participants ≥45 years of age.
With a weighted-median follow-up of 16.8 years, 154 participants died from influenza/pneumonia. After adjustment for covariates, serum vitamin C, the sum of α- and β-carotene, and TAC were non-linearly associated with influenza/pneumonia mortality, with the statistically significant smallest HRs at the third quartile vs the first quartile [HRs=0.38 (95% CI: 0.19–0.77), 0.29 (0.16–0.51), and 0.30 (0.15–0.59), respectively]. HRs comparing the fourth vs the first quartiles were weaker and non-significant: 0.57 (95% CI: 0.27–1.17), 0.70 (0.41–1.19), and 0.65 (0.31–1.35), respectively. Serum lycopene had a monotonic association with influenza/pneumonia mortality [HR=0.43 (95% CI: 0.23–0.83) comparing the fourth vs the first quartile, P-for-trend=0.01].
The present study suggests that antioxidant intake as reflected by serum concentrations may reduce mortality risk from influenza or pneumonia in the US general population. These findings warrant further confirmation in other populations with different settings (e.g., a shorter-term association with influenza infection).
Food is the source from where a person obtains the body’s daily requirements. People’s current daily habits force them to consume fast food, which is known for its poor nutritional and safety features. So, it is urgent to provide a suitable substitution product to solve this issue. The present investigation aimed to produce a bar with a dual function: nutritional and long shelf life. Two materials were chosen to support the bar manufacturing regarding their bioactive contents, barley malt grass (BMG) and pomegranate byproducts (PBD). Chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial potency were measured. Β-carotene, vitamin C, and tocopherol were determined using HPLC apparatus. Extracts’ bio-safety against cell lines was determined, besides their enhancement against cell-death factors. Simulation experiments were designed to evaluate extracts’ impact to extend bar shelf life. Data represented the richness of essential minerals and fibers. Results of the FTIR reflected the existence of various active groups in the contents. Phenolic fractions of PBD are distinctive for their content of ellagic (39.21 ± 5.42 mg/kg), ferulic acid fractions (31.28 ± 4.07 mg/kg) which is a known with antifungal activity. Extracts and their mix (1:1) represented inhibition zone diameters that reach 15.1 ± 1.66 mm for bacteria and 23.81 ± 1.41 mm for fungi. Extracts were shown to have better safety against the cell line strain of hepatic HL-7702, with an elevation of a harmful dose of aflatoxin (IC50 304.5 µg/mL for PBD, IC50 381 µg/mL for BMG). Sensory evaluation of fortified bars reflected a preferable application of mix (1:1) due to color attributes and panelist evaluations, the same result recorded for simulation studies. The experiment recommended applying a mix (1:1) of BMG: PBD in addition to their extracts (200 mg/kg dough) for functional bar manufacturing with antifungal properties.
Cremastra appendiculata is a rare terrestrial orchid with a high market value as an ornamental and medicinal plant. However, the species depends entirely on fungi for seed germination under natural conditions. In a previous study, we have successfully isolated and identified the mycorrhizal fungus Coprinellus disseminatus which was able to induce the germination of C. appendiculata seeds. We then speculated that C. disseminatus may do so by breaking the testa imposed dormancy of the seeds. In this study, biochemical and transcriptomic analyses were used to characterize the germination of C. appendiculata seeds, collected at different stages of germination, as affected by C. disseminatus.
The lignocellulose in the seeds coat of C. appendiculata was degraded by the mycorrhizal fungus resulting in facilitated absorption of water. The rate of decline in lignin content was 67 and 73% at 6 and 12 days after sowing, respectively. The water content increased from 13 to 90% during symbiosis. A total of 15,382 genes showing significantly different levels of expression (log2 FPKM≥2.0, Qvalue≤0.05) were successfully identified among all libraries, where the highest number of DEGs was shared between 6 days versus 0 day after symbiotic germination. Gene annotation results suggested that 15 key genes related water-status, such as DHN gene family and Xero 1 were down-regulated. The genes zeaxanthin epoxidase ZEP, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase NCED3 and β-carotene hydroxylase involved in the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) were significantly down-regulated in 6 days as compared to 0 day after symbiotic germination.
This work demonstrates that mycorrhizal fungus C. disseminatus can stimulate C. appendiculata seeds germination through a mechanism of breaking the testa imposed dormancy and inducing water absorption of the embryo.
The limitation of storage space, product cytotoxicity and the competition for precursor are the major challenges for efficiently overproducing carotenoid in engineered non-carotenogenic microorganisms. In this work, to improve β-carotene accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a strategy that simultaneous increases cell storage capability and strengthens metabolic flux to carotenoid pathway was developed using exogenous oleic acid (OA) combined with metabolic engineering approaches.
The direct separation of lipid droplets (LDs), quantitative analysis and genes disruption trial indicated that LDs are major storage locations of β-carotene in S. cerevisiae. However, due to the competition for precursor between β-carotene and LDs-triacylglycerol biosynthesis, enlarging storage space by engineering LDs related genes has minor promotion on β-carotene accumulation. Adding 2 mM OA significantly improved LDs-triacylglycerol metabolism and resulted in 36.4% increase in β-carotene content. The transcriptome analysis was adopted to mine OA-repressible promoters and IZH1 promoter was used to replace native ERG9 promoter to dynamically down-regulate ERG9 expression, which diverted the metabolic flux to β-carotene pathway and achieved additional 31.7% increase in β-carotene content without adversely affecting cell growth. By inducing an extra constitutive β-carotene synthesis pathway for further conversion precursor farnesol to β-carotene, the final strain produced 11.4 mg/g DCW and 142 mg/L of β-carotene, which is 107.3% and 49.5% increase respectively over the parent strain.
This strategy can be applied in the overproduction of other heterogeneous FPP-derived hydrophobic compounds with similar synthesis and storage mechanisms in S. cerevisiae.