Chronic Risk
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2022 ◽  
pp. 100020
Behrooz Davazdahemami ◽  
Hamed M. Zolbanin ◽  
Dursun Delen

Food Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (6) ◽  
pp. 238-246
A. Rahman ◽  
A. Kaium ◽  
M.S.I. Khan ◽  
M.A. Islam ◽  
N. Begum ◽  

Organophosphorus pesticides are one of the most commonly used pesticide classes in agriculture in the management of insect pests due to their high efficacy. The extensive use of organophosphorus pesticides can contaminate both the atmosphere and food, which may lead to health problems. In this study, the residue level of organophosphorus pesticides, and their health risk assessment was evaluated on country bean and bitter gourd. Out of forty analysed samples of the country bean, two samples contained multiple residues, seven samples contained single residue. On the other hand, out of forty samples of bitter gourd, one sample contained multiple residues and three samples contained single residue. Among the organophosphorus pesticides, diazinon was the most frequently detected organophosphorus pesticide in country bean and bitter gourd. The highest short-term risks or acute risk (aHI) was below 1.83%, and the highest long-term risk or chronic risk (HQs) was below 10.46% for the country bean and bitter gourd, respectively. Short- and long-term risk assessment results showed that the intake risks of country bean and bitter gourd were acceptable. The health hazard results showed that country bean and bitter gourd consumption in Cumilla, Bangladesh does not pose an acute or chronic risk to human health. However, a routine monitoring system must be established to control the contamination of vegetables with pesticides.

Omar Elsaka

Background: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) remains a major open clinical and public health problem, with an estimated 300,000 deaths per year in the United States. The possibility of identifying potential SCD victims is limited by the large size of the large number of SCD victims and the apparent time-dependent risk of sudden death. The latter refers to the tendency of SCDs to detect other cardiovascular events during the most dangerous period of 6–18 months following a major cardiovascular event and the risk of subsequent collapse. The combination of time and lake size provides the basis for future research to find more vulnerable people. Pathologically, SCD can be seen as an interaction between some electrophysiological events that causes abnormalities in cardiac structure, temporal dysfunction, and malignant arrhythmias. Structural deformities represent an anatomical matrix of chronic risk and include the effects of electrophysiological anatomical abnormalities such as coronary artery disease, left ventricular hypertrophy, myopathic ventricles, and bypass leaflets in the myocardium. Conclusion: Macroscopic cardiac features are common in about one-third of young SCD victims. However, in 79% of them, histological studies reveal hidden pathological features such as local myocarditis, heart disease and motor system disorders. A total of 16 (6%) victims had no evidence of systemic heart disease and the mechanism of SCD was not described.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Wenting Mu ◽  
Kaiqiao Li ◽  
Yuan Tian ◽  
Greg Perlman ◽  
Giorgia Michelini ◽  

Abstract Background Risk factors for depressive disorders (DD) change substantially over time, but the prognostic value of these changes remains unclear. Two basic types of dynamic effects are possible. The ‘Risk Escalation hypothesis’ posits that worsening of risk levels predicts DD onset above average level of risk factors. Alternatively, the ‘Chronic Risk hypothesis’ posits that the average level rather than change predicts first-onset DD. Methods We utilized data from the ADEPT project, a cohort of 496 girls (baseline age 13.5–15.5 years) from the community followed for 3 years. Participants underwent five waves of assessments for risk factors and diagnostic interviews for DD. For illustration purposes, we selected 16 well-established dynamic risk factors for adolescent depression, such as depressive and anxiety symptoms, personality traits, clinical traits, and social risk factors. We conducted Cox regression analyses with time-varying covariates to predict first DD onset. Results Consistently elevated risk factors (i.e. the mean of multiple waves), but not recent escalation, predicted first-onset DD, consistent with the Chronic Risk hypothesis. This hypothesis was supported across all 16 risk factors. Conclusions Across a range of risk factors, girls who had first-onset DD generally did not experience a sharp increase in risk level shortly before the onset of disorder; rather, for years before onset, they exhibited elevated levels of risk. Our findings suggest that chronicity of risk should be a particular focus in screening high-risk populations to prevent the onset of DDs. In particular, regular monitoring of risk factors in school settings is highly informative.

Toxics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (10) ◽  
pp. 249
Sebastian Elgueta ◽  
Marcela Valenzuela ◽  
Marcela Fuentes ◽  
Pilar Ulloa ◽  
Cecilia Ramos ◽  

In recent years, the official authorities in Chile have reported transgressions in the maximum residue levels of pesticides in fresh vegetables. There is no official information about traceability, pesticide levels, and potential health risks. The aim of this study was to analyse pesticide residues and their corresponding dietary risk assessments in tomatoes from supermarkets in the Metropolitan Region. Pesticides were extracted using the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe, QuEChERS method, and their concentrations were determined by using chromatography with HPLC-FL/UV and GC-MS/ECD/NPD, following the Analytical Quality Control and Method Validation Procedures for Pesticides Residues Analysis in Food and Feed, SANTE guide and ISO 17025:2017 standard. In addition, a dietary risk assessment was carried out by comparing Chilean data to international references. The results reported that 9% of the samples had pesticide residue levels above the maximum residue levels permitted in Chile. All the scenarios evaluated revealed the highest estimated daily intake and hazard quotients for methamidophos and chlorpyrifos. Both the active substances used were acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and were neurotoxic under chronic risk assessment. The results showed the highest chronic hazard index in the Chilean scenario for all age groups and genders. The evidence obtained revealed that methamidophos, methomyl, and chlorpyrifos should be restricted for their use in Chilean agriculture.

2021 ◽  
Vol 42 (Supplement_1) ◽  
F Chague ◽  
J Israel ◽  
J P Guinoiseau ◽  
G Garet ◽  
E Reboursiere ◽  

Abstract Background High prevalence of smoking has been documented in France and new patterns of tobacco and nicotine consumption are emerging, especially in some sports. In amateur rugby population, such attitudes could be harmful, but data are scarce as well as their knowledge of the risk. Purpose We analyzed tobacco consumption in French amateur players, coaches and referees. Methods Each amateur players [>12-y/o], coaches and referees licensed in the French Rugby Federation and participating in the Burgundy amateur championship was invited to answer to an electronic anonymous questionnaire during the 2017–2018 sport season. Results 683 [sex ratio M/F = 0.9] answers were obtained and fit for analysis. Among them, 559 (81.8%) were players, 167 (24,5%) were coaches and 74 (10.8%) were referees. 176 subjects (25.8%) were current smokers, 126 (18.4%) daily smokers, 54 (37% of usual smokers) smoked more than 10 cigarettes a day and 97 (14.2%) were ex-smokers. Moreover, 24 referees (32.4%) and 47 coaches (28.2%) were current smokers. Most smoked 2 hours before or after a rugby session (86.4% of smokers), including coaches (89.4%) and referees (89%). Although 109 smokers (61.9%) considered quitting, only 27 (24.8%) considered vaping to aid them. Only 28 subjects (4.1%) usually vaped, of whom 15 daily (1.9%); 21 of them (75%) vaped in the 2 hours before or after a rugby session. Number of cigarettes in the 19 dual users was not different compared with non-vaping smokers. Among the 28 vapers, motivation to vape included lower risk than smoking (13), consider to quit (12), cheaper than smoking (8), festive and socializing (6), avoid to smoke (3), respect the performance (2). Other tobacco or nicotine products were infrequent: waterpipe (7), dry snuff (1) and none used snus. The knowledge about risk was incomplete: 35 (5.1%) subjects do not know that smoking is dangerous for their health and 12 (1.8%) think it is not. 246 (36%) and 195 (28.6%) do not know if smoking is more dangerous in the 2 hours before or after sport; 45 (6.6%) and 18 (2.6%) think it is not. Moreover, 27.5% of coaches were unaware on the risk of smoking before a sport session and 19.2% on the risk after. 244 subjects (35.7%) do not know if vaping is less dangerous than smoking; 272 (39.8%) are not informed of the potential risk of nicotine when vaping. Conclusion Despite information, prevalence of smoking remains high in the French amateur rugby players, coaches and referees. Smokers usually smoke in the 2 hours before or after the sport session. This is dangerous for them and for their peers. The low knowledge about the CV risk is of great concern, especially when considering the coaches and referees considering both their symbolic position and their educational role. Vaping and other patterns of nicotine exposure are infrequent; none of them use snus. Targeted education programs are urgently needed to reduce acute and chronic risk of tobacco consumption in this population. FUNDunding Acknowledgement Type of funding sources: Public grant(s) – EU funding. Main funding source(s): CHU Dijon Bourgogne ARS Bourgogne Franche Comté

V. Ananda Jyothi

Disability can be defined as any limitation or restriction to perform developmentally appropriate activities which are desired by society. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY) defined disability as, “neither purely biological nor social but instead the interaction between health conditions, environmental and personal factors.” It described disability at three levels: 1. An impairment in body function or structure, such as a cataract which prevents the passage of light and sensing of form, shape, and size of visual stimuli;, 2. A limitation in activity, such as the inability to read or move around; 3. A restriction in participation, such as exclusion from school. Children with disabilities require interventions and support, Difficulty in oral language 1. Slow development in speaking words or sentences (also referred to as,late talkers) 2. Pronunciation problems 3. Difficulty learning new words; slow vocabulary growth 4. Difficulty finding the right word to use when speaking 5. Difficulty understanding and following simple (one-step) directions 6. Difficulty understanding questions 7. Difficulty recognizing or learning rhyming words 8. Lack of interest in storytelling. Students with learning disabilities are among the most vulnerable-at chronic risk for "not learning" under the aforementioned conditions, for long-term academic and social problems, and for lifelong debilitating side-effects of their classroom experiences. 30 Government Primary schools from class 1 to 5 were identified in Hyderabad district and 3200 children were screened to identify whether they have hearing and speech impairment, Intellectual Disability, Autism, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and learning Ethical norms were followed in this study for collecting the data. Care has been taken to meet the ethical requirements in this research study, during developing the screening camp while discussion with the teachers and children. Out of 3200 children 660 children were identified with different disabilities and referred to the concerned Institutes for detailed evaluation and intervention services. There is an urgent and substantial need to identify as early as possible those young children in need of services. The need for early identification of learning disabilities is highly related to potential.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Wil Lieberman-Cribbin ◽  
Naomi Alpert ◽  
Raja Flores ◽  
Emanuela Taioli

Abstract Background New York City (NYC) was the epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic, and is home to underserved populations with higher prevalence of chronic conditions that put them in danger of more serious infection. Little is known about how the presence of chronic risk factors correlates with mortality at the population level. Here we determine the relationship between these factors and COVD-19 mortality in NYC. Methods A cross-sectional study of mortality data obtained from the NYC Coronavirus data repository (03/02/2020–07/06/2020) and the prevalence of neighborhood-level risk factors for COVID-19 severity was performed. A risk index was created based on the CDC criteria for risk of severe illness and complications from COVID-19, and stepwise linear regression was implemented to predict the COVID-19 mortality rate across NYC zip code tabulation areas (ZCTAs) utilizing the risk index, median age, socioeconomic status index, and the racial and Hispanic composition at the ZCTA-level as predictors. Results The COVID-19 death rate per 100,000 persons significantly decreased with the increasing proportion of white residents (βadj = − 0.91, SE = 0.31, p = 0.0037), while the increasing proportion of Hispanic residents (βadj = 0.90, SE = 0.38, p = 0.0200), median age (βadj = 3.45, SE = 1.74, p = 0.0489), and COVID-19 severity risk index (βadj = 5.84, SE = 0.82, p <  0.001) were statistically significantly positively associated with death rates. Conclusions Disparities in COVID-19 mortality exist across NYC and these vulnerable areas require increased attention, including repeated and widespread testing, to minimize the threat of serious illness and mortality.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Lu Qiao ◽  
Na Yuan ◽  
Gang Han ◽  
Bo Cheng ◽  
Defu Zhang ◽  

Pendimethalin has been considered a moderately to extremely toxic compound for fish and aquatic organism. This study developed the determination of dynamic residual distribution for pendimethalin in crucian carp tissues (muscle, liver, kidney, gill, and blood) under semistatic exposure system by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method. The pendimethalin residues in various fish tissues increased initially and then decreased, and the residue amount of pendimethalin varied from tissue to tissue of crucian carp. Particularly, the pendimethalin accumulation in most fish tissues made significant decreases at two-time points. Pendimethalin was initially absorbed and enriched by fish body, and then partial pendimethalin was discharged into the outside environment through the metabolism function of crucian carp. The residue levels of pendimethalin distributed in crucian carp were ranked in the following decreasing order: liver > kidney > gill or muscle > blood, attributed to the fact that pendimethalin tends to accumulate in lipid-rich tissues of fish. Risk assessment results indicated that the chronic risk from dietary exposure to pendimethalin through crucian carp consumption for Chinese residents was acceptable, along with a lower estimated exposure dose (EED) than acceptable daily intake (ADI) and risk quotient (RQ) < 1. This study performed the first analysis for pendimethalin residual distribution in crucian carp tissues under semistatic exposure condition and provided a reference for pollution control and risk assessment of pendimethalin aimed at aquatic products.

2021 ◽  
Vol 135 (12) ◽  
pp. 1523-1544
Jessica L. Faulkner

Abstract The pathogenesis of obesity-associated cardiovascular diseases begins long prior to the presentation of a cardiovascular event. In both men and women, cardiovascular events, and their associated hospitalizations and mortality, are often clinically predisposed by the presentation of a chronic cardiovascular risk factor. Obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases in both sexes, however, the clinical prevalence of obesity, as well as its contribution to crucial cardiovascular risk factors is dependent on sex. The mechanisms via which obesity leads to cardiovascular risk is also discrepant in women between their premenopausal, pregnancy and postmenopausal phases of life. Emerging data indicate that at all reproductive statuses and ages, the presentation of a cardiovascular event in obese women is strongly associated with hypertension and its subsequent chronic risk factor, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). In addition, emerging evidence indicates that obesity increases the risk of both hypertension and heart failure in pregnancy. This review will summarize clinical and experimental data on the female-specific prevalence and mechanisms of hypertension and heart failure in women across reproductive stages and highlight the particular risks in pregnancy as well as emerging data in a high-risk ethnicity in women of African ancestry (AA).

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