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2022 ◽  
Vol 195 ◽  
pp. 113040
Jun-Sheng Zhang ◽  
Yong Qian ◽  
Zhen-Qiang Xin ◽  
Xin-Xin Cao ◽  
Zhou Yang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 47 ◽  
pp. 34-37
Jingzhe Zheng ◽  
Qi Zhou ◽  
Xiaocheng Cao ◽  
Yongjun Meng ◽  
Guowei Jiang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sylva Prerostova ◽  
Jana Jarosova ◽  
Petre I. Dobrev ◽  
Lucia Hluskova ◽  
Vaclav Motyka ◽  

Inter-organ communication and the heat stress (HS; 45°C, 6 h) responses of organs exposed and not directly exposed to HS were evaluated in rice (Oryza sativa) by comparing the impact of HS applied either to whole plants, or only to shoots or roots. Whole-plant HS reduced photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm and QY_Lss), but this effect was alleviated by prior acclimation (37°C, 2 h). Dynamics of HSFA2d, HSP90.2, HSP90.3, and SIG5 expression revealed high protection of crowns and roots. Additionally, HSP26.2 was strongly expressed in leaves. Whole-plant HS increased levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and cytokinin cis-zeatin in leaves, while up-regulating auxin indole-3-acetic acid and down-regulating trans-zeatin in leaves and crowns. Ascorbate peroxidase activity and expression of alternative oxidases (AOX) increased in leaves and crowns. HS targeted to leaves elevated levels of JA in roots, cis-zeatin in crowns, and ascorbate peroxidase activity in crowns and roots. HS targeted to roots increased levels of abscisic acid and auxin in leaves and crowns, cis-zeatin in leaves, and JA in crowns, while reducing trans-zeatin levels. The weaker protection of leaves reflects the growth strategy of rice. HS treatment of individual organs induced changes in phytohormone levels and antioxidant enzyme activity in non-exposed organs, in order to enhance plant stress tolerance.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 178
Mohamed Elhiti ◽  
Claudio Stasolla

Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is an in vitro biological process in which bipolar structures (somatic embryos) can be induced to form from somatic cells and regenerate into whole plants. Acquisition of the embryogenic potential in culture is initiated when some competent cells within the explants respond to inductive signals (mostly plant growth regulators, PRGs), and de-differentiate into embryogenic cells. Such cells, “canalized” into the embryogenic developmental pathway, are able to generate embryos comparable in structure and physiology to their in vivo counterparts. Genomic and transcriptomic studies have identified several pathways governing the initial stages of the embryogenic process. In this review, the authors emphasize the importance of the developmental signals required for the progression of embryo development, starting with the de-differentiation of somatic cells and culminating with tissue patterning during the formation of the embryo body. The action and interaction of PGRs are highlighted, along with the participation of master regulators, mostly transcription factors (TFs), and proteins involved in stress responses and the signal transduction required for the initiation of the embryogenic process.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (3) ◽  
pp. 299-307
Md. Ramjan Chandra Deo ◽  
Chandra Deo ◽  
L. Wangchu ◽  
P. Sarma ◽  
Amit Kumar Singh ◽  

Arunachal Pradesh is known as land of rising Sun which is the biggest in terms of area-wise amongst the state of north east India.The region has 26 major tribe; each tribe has its own enormous indigenous knowledge on the uses of wild plants. Among the tribe, Adi community is one of the major tribe inhabited in the region which has its own habitual way of using horticultural (vegetables) resources for sustaining livelihood. Most of the plants are also ethnically important without wich diverse rituals and festivals (Solung) of adi community remain unfinished. The current servey was under taken interviewed through planned questionaire. In our investigation among 25 wild species, 5 species belong to the Solanaceae family which was found to be most widely used family followed by Apiaceae, Rutaceae, Urticaceae and Araceae. Investigation on the basis of plant parts used reveals that the edible parts of the plants such as 6 species found to be widely used though leaves followed by 3 species fruits and 3 species whole plants besides these other plant parts like young tender leaves, tender stalks, petioles, rhizome also has been observed. This study is aim to initiated the basic information of these valuable herbs vegetable species for popularizing in future. These can compete with the best vegetables if appropriate study is initiated for production and ethanomedicine improvement.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2531
Aaqib Javid ◽  
Nóra Gampe ◽  
Fulea Gelana ◽  
Zsuzsanna György

Rhodiola rosea produces nearly 150 bioactive compounds. Cinnamyl alcohol glycosides (CAGs) are among the most important secondary metabolites which are specific to this plant species, exhibiting adaptogenic properties along with salidroside. However, raw material supplies for the pharmaceutical industry are hindered by limited access to the plant material. The species is endangered and protected in many areas: cultivation is long and ineffective. Precursor feeding has been found to be an effective strategy for improving the production of secondary metabolites in various plant tissues cultures, including in Rhodiola species. In this study, whole R. rosea plants grown in vitro were subjected to three different precursor treatments, including with trans-cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamyl alcohol at 2 mM concentrations. The different treatments affected the secondary metabolite production differently. Trans-cinnamic acid did not affect the synthesis significantly, which contradicts earlier studies with cell suspensions. On the other hand, cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamaldehyde were beneficial, improving the production rate of rosin and rosavin by 13.8- and 6.9-fold, and 92.7- and 8.0-fold, respectively. The significant improvement in CAG accumulation due to cinnamaldehyde treatment was unexpected based on previous studies. In addition, cinnamaldehyde triggered the production of rosarin, which the other two treatments failed to do. The study presents the beneficial application of precursors to whole plants grown in vitro.


The aim of this study was to investigate medicinal plants used to treat malaria by a society in Pamotan village, Pangandaran Regency, West Java Province, Indonesia. The work was conducted using the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) method, which is an assessment process-oriented to active community involvement in the form of direct interview activities. Information was collected by interviewing respondents using a semi-structured questionnaire. Interviews were directed to the plants used to prevent and overcome malaria by referring to the list of questions which included the local name of the plant, the part used and the method of preparation and administration. A total of 47 respondents were interviewed of which 43% were females and 57% males. Results indicated that thirteen species of plants belonging were used to treat malaria by the villagers of Pamotan. The three plants that have the highest citation frequency are bitter herbs (Andrographis paniculata Ness.) 35.71%, papaya leaves (Carica papaya L.) 21.43%, and cut leaf ground cherry whole plants (Physalis angulata L.) 21.43%. The most common preparation method is decoction and the route of administration is oral. It is concluded that the Pamotan villagers in Pangandaran district, Indonesia, still use ingredients from plants as complementary medicine to treat malaria.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (6) ◽  
pp. 8081-8093

Toxicity studies' quality control of drug plant-based products is an important aspect of pharmacological research. The purpose of this literature review is to extract about toxicity test on Centella asiatica. The plant component utilized, the test animals used, the type of toxicity test, evaluation, the findings, and conclusions of each test are all included in this review—the database used in PubMed. Most of the literature results obtained from this review indicate high safety in C. asiatica plants. The acute toxicity test is that the most frequently used toxicity test. The use varies from plant parts to whole plants, with minimal side effects reported and high in safety, so it can be concluded that C. asiatica is very prospective to be developed as a medicine.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (23) ◽  
pp. 7275
Jin Woo Lee ◽  
Jun Gu Kim ◽  
Jae Sang Han ◽  
Yong Beom Cho ◽  
Yu Jin Lee ◽  

Orbitides are plant-derived small cyclic peptides with a wide range of biological activities. Phytochemical investigation of the whole plants of Dianthus chinensis was performed with the aim to discover new bioactive orbitides. Five undescribed proline-containing orbitides, dianthiamides A–E (1–5), were isolated from a methanolic extract of Dianthus chinensis. Their structures were elucidated by extensive analysis of 1D and 2D NMR and HRESI–TOF–MS as well as ESI–MS/MS fragmentation data. The absolute configuration of the amino acid residues of compounds 1–5 was determined by Marfey’s method. All compounds were tested for their cytotoxic activity, and dianthiamide A (1) exhibited weak activity against A549 cell line with IC50 value of 47.9 μM.

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