phenolic and flavonoid
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Author(s):  
Yamina Ben Miri ◽  
Aldjia Taoudiat ◽  
Mohamed Mahdid

The aim of the study was to determine the phenolic and flavonoid content of essential oils (EOs), chloroform and ethanolic extracts of 12 Algerian Thymus species and evaluate their antioxidant and antifungal activities. EOs (1.73 ± 0.30–15.00 ± 1.24 μg/mg), chloroform extracts (33.8 ± 2.42–160.93 ± 3.88 μg/mg) and ethanol extracts (27.01 ± 3.56 –148.46 ± 4.40 μg/mg) showed considerable phenolic content. Flavonoids values of chloroform extracts ranged between 3.39± 0.17 and 20.27 ± 0.29 μg/ml while ethanolic extracts values ranged between 2.81 ± 0.11 and 26.64 ± 0.18 μg/mg. Results of DPPH showed that EOs, chloroform and ethanolic extracts exhibited strong radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 21.75 ± 6.54–338.22 ± 2.99 μg/ml, 22.91 ± 5.59–90.93 ± 1.36 μg/ml, and 33.51 ± 5.72–103.80 ± 4.54 μg/ml, respectively). Inhibition of β-carotene bleaching was potentially performed by all EOs (66.48 ± 2.41–94.06 ± 2.68 %), chloroform extracts (68.98± 1.58–95.30± 1.99%), and ethanolic extracts (62.15 ± 2.51–92.36± 1.15%). The antifungal activity of EOs and extracts was tested using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). The EOs (0.1 ± 0.00 mg/ mL – 1.06 ± 0.46 mg/mL), chloroform (0.1 ± 0.00 mg/ mL –1.06 ± 0.46 mg/mL) and ethanol (0.1 ± 0.00 mg /mL–1.6 ± 0.00 mg/mL) showed remarkable antifungal activity against mycotoxigenic Aspergillus genera. The MFC of EOs (1.0 ± 0.34 mg/mL and > 4.8 mg/mL) , chloroform (0.26 ± 0.11 mg/mL and > 1.6 mg/mL) and ethanol (0.2 ± 0.00 mg/mL and > 1.6 mg/mL) were fungicidal in nature higher than MICs. The findings of the study indicated that Thymus spp. EOs and extracts could be used as natural alternatives for food industry.


Author(s):  
Noer Fauziah Rahman ◽  
Nursamsiar Nursamsiar ◽  
Megawati Megawati ◽  
Handayani Handayani ◽  
Christa A. M. Suares

Author(s):  
Fatma Ergün

In this study, it was determined that total phenolic and flavonoid substance amounts and antioxidant capacity of methanol extracts obtained from leaves (Y) and buds (T) of mistletoe (V. album ssp. Austriacum) collected from Northeast Anatolian Yellow Pine forests (Pinus sylvestris L). The amount of total phenolic substance was determined as 19.55 ±4.68 mg GAE/g in Y and 16.88 ±2.77 mg GAE/g in T, while amount of total flavonoid substance 17.56 ±2.53 mg QE/g in Y and 17.17 ±3.29 mg QE/g in T. IC50 values were calculated as 476.26 ±22.54 μg/mL in Y and 778.57±25.61 μg/mL in T. In addition, the reducing antioxidant powers of Fe3+-Fe2+ were calculated as 303.00 ±1.73 μg AAE/mL in Y and 307.01±1.05 μg AAE/mL in T, equivalent to ascorbic acid. As a result, it was seen that mistletoe which is considered harmful for yellow pines, has antioxidant properties. It has been concluded that the evaluation of mistletoe collected during the struggle with mistletoe as a natural antioxidant source may contribute economically.


2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e2206
Author(s):  
Mohammad Amin Hatami Nemati ◽  
Kimia Vatani ◽  
Zahra Abbasy ◽  
Mahsa Hadipour Jahromy ◽  
Poorya Davoodi

Background: The relationship between the treatment of depression and plant-derived substances (e.g., flavonoids, coumarin, and scopoletin) has been demonstrated through interference with the monoamine system. The present study was planned to evaluate the anti-depressant effects of Asperula odorata L. plant through behavioral tests in mice. Material and Methods: In this experimental study, 35 male Syrian mice weighing 30-40 g were examined in five groups (n=7) as follow: received oral distilled water gavage (control), 10 mg/kg of fluoxetine solution gavage (reference standard), 10, 5, and 2.5 mg/kg of A. odorata L. extract gavage (treatment groups). After one week, all behavioral tests, including tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST), open field test (OFT), elevated plus maze test (EPMT), and fractionation tests were performed each morning for 4-6 h within five days. Results: The hydroalcoholic extract of A. odorata contained phenolic and flavonoid substances (Shinoda test confirmed flavonoid family). Administration of extract (10 and 5 mg/kg doses) versus fluoxetine (10 mg/kg dose) reduced the immobility of animals in both FST and TST (P<0.05). At the OFT, the administered extract increased the number of central square entries of animals with higher mobility (P<0.05). At a 10 mg/kg dose, the active flavonoid ingredients increased the mice's incline to entre and spent more time within no wall parts of EPMT (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our study suggests that the hydroalcoholic extract of A. odorata L. could have significant anti-depressant activity. [GMJ.2021;10:e2206]


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Abdulrahman Mahmoud Dogara

Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp, a Myrtaceae member, is widely distributed in Southeast Asian countries. The Malays and Indonesians consume the leaves regularly as Ulam (food). It has also been used in traditional medicine to treat several ailments, including gastritis, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diarrhea, skin diseases, diabetes and endometriosis. So far, many publications on the biological activity and chemical profile of the plant have been published. There is a need to thoroughly examine the articles and combine the major findings highlighting the potential utility of the species. Thus, the present study aimed to review the ethnopharmacology, morpho-anatomy, biological evaluation and chemical composition of S. polyanthum. In vivo, in vitro antibacterial, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antioxidants, essential oil and chemical composition of S. polyanthum were searched in Google Scholar, Scopus, Web of Science and PubMed. The investigations revealed that S. polyanthum is a medicinal plant with proven antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antidiabetic and anti inflammatory activities. The plant had a substantial impact on human health. Chemical ingredients extracted and characterised are monoterpene, sesquiterpene, oxygenated monoterpenes, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The review found that the in vitro and in vivo biological evaluation of S. polyanthum was well documented. In order to have conclusive results on the plant leaves efficacy, a well-designed clinical trial is required. Efforts should also be taken for long-term conservation and management.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mohammad Bagher Hassanpouraghdam ◽  
Lamia Vojodi Mehrabani ◽  
Mehdi Kheiri ◽  
Antonios Chrysargyris ◽  
Nikolaos Tzortzakis

Abstract The effects of NaCl salinity stress and foliar application of KNO3, glucose and Dobogen were tested on Tanacetum balsamita. The results showed the significant interaction effects of salinity and foliar sprays on chlorophyll a, K+, Na+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Zn2+, Mn2+ and Si content, K/Na ratio and total phenolic and flavonoid contents. The highest phenolic content was acquired with 100 mM salinity and foliar spray of Dobogen and glucose, 50 mM NaCl × KNO3 application and 50 mM salinity× nonfoliar application. The highest K/Na ratio was observed in control plants and controls × KNO3 and/or Dobogen application. The greatest Si content was recorded with controls × Dobogen and KNO3 applications and no saline × no foliar control plants. Malondialdehyde, flavonoid and proline contents as well as catalase activity were influenced by the independent effects of treatments. Chlorophyll b and superoxide dismutase were affected by salinity. Total soluble solids and Ca2+ were influenced by foliar applications. Malondialdehyde and proline were the highest at 150 mM salinity. Salinity adversely affected the physiological responses of costmary. However, foliar treatments partially ameliorated the salinity effect, and the results would be advisable to the extension section and pioneer farmers.


Author(s):  
Marwati Marwati ◽  
Andi Anggriani ◽  
Asril Burhan ◽  
Akbar Awaluddin ◽  
Syamsu Nur ◽  
...  

Karamunting (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa L.), a plant used as a traditional medicine, is widely distributed throughout Indonesia. Karamuting has the potential as an antioxidant and anticancer agents because of its phenolic and flavonoid components. This study aimed to determine total phenolic level, antioxidant activity and cytotoxic of karamunting leaves extract. The simplisia of karamunting leaves were extracted by maceration method using 96% ethanol, tested for its antioxidant activity using DPPH and its citotoxic by MTT method (3- (4,5-dimethyltiazol-2-il) -2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) on WiDr cells and Vero cells. The results of this study showed that the yield of karamunting extract were 15.635% with a total phenolic level of 0.76%, antioxidant activity (IC50 values) of 15,330 μg / mL and cytotoxicity (IC50 values) of 205.7069 μg / mL for WiDr cells and 44.87703 μg / mL for Vero cells. Ethanol extract of karamunting leaves possessed a very strong antioxidant activity while it showed a weak cytotoxic effect on WiDr cells and toxic effect on Vero cells.Keywords: Antioxidant, Anticancer, Karamunting


2021 ◽  
Vol 31 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Author(s):  
Rey David Vargas Sánchez ◽  
Gastón Ramón Torrescano Urrutia ◽  
Brisa del Mar Torres Martínez ◽  
Francisco Gerardo Ríos Rincón ◽  
Félix Joel Ibarra Arias ◽  
...  

This study describes the thermal effect on physicochemical properties, phenolic content, as well as antioxidant and antibacterial activity of edible mushroom extracts (EME) from Agaricus brasiliensis, Ganoderma lucidum, and Pleurotus ostreatus in aqueous-ethanolic solution. The heating of EME resulted in a reduction of pH and total soluble solids and changes in color values in time dependence (p < 0.05). In addition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, antiradical activity (DPPH• and ABTS•+ inhibition), and reducing power were enhanced with increasing temperature (90 °C, for 6 h), mainly in the P. ostreatus extract (p < 0.05). In contrast, the results indicate that high temperatures reduced (p < 0.05) the antibacterial effect against all pathogens tested. In conclusion, the thermal treatment affected physicochemical and antibacterial properties of EME and enhanced phenolic composition and antioxidant activity.


Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (23) ◽  
pp. 7345
Author(s):  
Mohamed S. M. Soliman ◽  
Asmaa Abdella ◽  
Yehia A. Khidr ◽  
Gamal O. O. Hassan ◽  
Mahmoud A. Al-Saman ◽  
...  

Euphorbia cuneata Vahl. (Euphorbiaceae) is a plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of pain and inflammation, although the biological basis for these effects has not been thoroughly investigated. The goal of this study was to investigate the pharmacological properties and characterization of phenolic and flavonoid compounds present in the aerial parts of E. cuneata. E. cuneata aerial parts were tested for antioxidant activity (DPPH), antibacterial activity, cell viability and cytotoxic effects, and anti-inflammatory activity. Phenolic and flavonoid contents (HPLC), and volatile constituents (GC-MS) were also characterized. The methanol extract had the highest antioxidant activity, while the ether extract had the lowest. The antioxidant activity of E. cuneata extract increased from (21.11%) at a concentration of 10 µg/mL to (95.53%) at a concentration of 1280 µg/mL. S. aureus was the most sensitive organism with the highest zone of inhibition and lowest MIC, with acetone extract; whereas C. tropicalis was the most resistant, with the lowest inhibition zone. MTT assay revealed that the methanol extract of E. cuneata had significant cytotoxic effects on the A549, Caco-2, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines, respectively. Lower concentrations of methanolic extract gave anti-inflammatory activity, and those effects were compared with indomethacin as a positive control. Pyrogallol was the most abundant phenolic acid, followed by caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, syringic, and gallic acids, respectively. The 7-hydroxyflavone and rutin flavonoids were also found in the extract. GC-mass analysis showed that aerial parts of E. cuneata were rich in methyl 12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoate. The volatile components were also composed of considerable amounts of hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester, (9E,12E)-octadeca-9,12-dienoyl chloride, and methyl octadeca-9,12-dienoate as well as a little amount of hexanal dimethyl acetal. It can be concluded that methanolic extract of E. cuneata could be used as an available source of natural bioactive constituents with consequent health benefits.


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