The urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) system plays a significant role in the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. The present study was conducted to investigate natural product compounds as inhibitors and hit molecules of uPA using in-silico analysis. A pharmacophore model was built to screen the Indonesian Herbal Database (HerbalDB) to obtain inhibitors of different scaffolds. Based on the molecular docking score, four ligands were selected as potential uPA inhibitors. Subsequently, the stability of the ligand-uPA complex was analyzed using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. An RMSD graph of the backbone protein and the RMSF values of the amino acid residues were also determined. In addition, the MM-PBSA method was applied to calculate the free binding energy. According to the results, Model_3, characterized by aromatic rings 23 (F1 and F2), cationic H-bond donor (F3), and metal ligator (F4) features, had an adequate goodness-of-hit score (GH). The four top-ranked ligands, isorhamnetin, rhamnetin, quercetin, and kaempferol, showed higher docking scores compared to the others. This study confirmed that isorhamnetin, rhamnetin, and kaempferol build stable complexes with uPA with lower binding energy than quercetin.
AbstractFibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) performs a wide range of biological functions in organisms. Here, we report for the first time that FGF-21 suppresses thrombus formation with no notable risk of bleeding. Prophylactic and therapeutic administration of FGF-21 significantly improved the degree of vascular stenosis and reduced the thrombus area, volume and burden. We determined the antithrombotic mechanism of FGF-21, demonstrating that FGF-21 exhibits an anticoagulant effect by inhibiting the expression and activity of factor VII (FVII). FGF-21 exerts an antiplatelet effect by inhibiting platelet activation. FGF-21 enhances fibrinolysis by promoting tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) expression and activation, while inhibiting plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) expression and activation. We further found that FGF-21 mediated the expression and activation of tPA and PAI-1 by regulating the ERK1/2 and TGF-β/Smad2 pathways, respectively. In addition, we found that FGF-21 inhibits the expression of inflammatory factors in thrombosis by regulating the NF-κB pathway.
Glucocorticoids delay fracture healing and induce osteoporosis. However, the mechanisms by which glucocorticoids delay bone repair have yet to be clarified. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the principal inhibitor of plasminogen activators and an adipocytokine that regulates metabolism. We herein investigated the roles of macrophages in glucocorticoid-induced delays in bone repair after femoral bone injury using PAI-1-deficient female mice intraperitoneally administered with dexamethasone (Dex). Dex significantly decreased the number of F4/80-positive macrophages at the damaged site two days after femoral bone injury. It also attenuated bone injury-induced decreases in the number of hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow in wild-type and PAI-1-deficient mice. PAI-1 deficiency significantly weakened Dex-induced decreases in macrophage number and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) mRNA levels at the damaged site two days after bone injury. It also significantly ameliorated the Dex-induced inhibition of macrophage phagocytosis at the damaged site. In conclusion, we herein demonstrated that Dex decreased the number of macrophages at the damaged site during early bone repair after femoral bone injury partly through PAI-1 and M-CSF in mice.
Agen trombolitik merupakan plasminogen activator yang dapat memecah fibrin menjadi fibrin degradation product (FDP) dan dapat digunakan pada terapi penyakit kardiovaskular. Agen trombolitik dapat diperoleh dari mikroorganisme seperti Acetobacter tropicalis InaCC B374 dan dari tanaman seperti Centella asiatica. Kedua sumber agen trombolitik tersebut dapat dilakukan kombinasi melalui proses fermentasi untuk meningkatkan efek terapetiknya. Proses fermentasi sendiri dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor termasuk media fermentasi dan waktu fermentasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh proses fermentasi terhadap peningkatan aktivitas trombolitik dari hasil fermentasi Centella asiatica oleh Acetobacter tropicalis InaCC B374 pada berbagai variasi waktu fermentasi. Preparasi dilakukan dengan memfermentasi Centella asiatica selama 24, 48, dan 72 jam pada suhu 30°±1°C dengan kecepatan pengocokan 100 rpm kemudian ditentukan aktivitas trombolitiknya dengan metode clot lysis yang dilakukan inkubasi pada suhu 37°±1°C selama 60 menit. Hasil pengujian aktivitas trombolitik menunjukkan bahwa terjadi peningkatan aktivitas trombolitik setelah dilakukan proses fermentasi selama 24, 48 dan 72 jam dan aktivitas trombolitik maksimum tercapai pada hasil fermentasi 72 jam. Centella asiatica yang difermentasi selama 72 jam menunjukkan nilai indeks trombolitik yang paling besar (82,03) jika dibandingkan dengan infusa Centella asiatica tanpa fermentasi (37,39) dan Acetobacter tropicalis InaCC B374 (37,68). Disimpulkan bahwa proses fermentasi Centella asiatica oleh Acetobacter tropicalis InaCC B374 secara signifikan dapat meningkatkan aktivitas trombolitik keduanya
Angiogenesis is a process associated with the migration and proliferation of endothelial cells (EC) to form new blood vessels. It is involved in various physiological and pathophysiological conditions and is controlled by a wide range of proangiogenic and antiangiogenic molecules. The plasminogen activator–plasmin system plays a major role in the extracellular matrix remodeling process necessary for angiogenesis. Urokinase/tissue-type plasminogen activators (uPA/tPA) convert plasminogen into the active enzyme plasmin, which in turn activates matrix metalloproteinases and degrades the extracellular matrix releasing growth factors and proangiogenic molecules such as the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A). The plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the main inhibitor of uPA and tPA, thereby an inhibitor of pericellular proteolysis and intravascular fibrinolysis, respectively. Paradoxically, PAI-1, which is expressed by EC during angiogenesis, is elevated in several cancers and is found to promote angiogenesis by regulating plasmin-mediated proteolysis and by promoting cellular migration through vitronectin. The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) also induces EC cellular migration during angiogenesis via interacting with signaling partners. Understanding the molecular functions of the plasminogen activator plasmin system and targeting angiogenesis via blocking serine proteases or their interactions with other molecules is one of the major therapeutic strategies scientists have been attracted to in controlling tumor growth and other pathological conditions characterized by neovascularization.
Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is an inflammatory biomarker elevated in cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this 3-year follow-up prospective study was to evaluate suPAR levels in patients with a first ischemic stroke in correlation with CRP, PCT, NT-proCNP and endothelin 1-21 and to investigate the impact of suPAR on the outcome. Fifty-one patients (mean age 73.7+ = 11.9 years, 26 female and 25 male) were included. Samples were collected on the first (suPAR 1), third (suPAR 3) and seventh days after stroke onset (suPAR 7). Plasma samples were analyzed using ELISA. A phone interview was conducted to collect follow-up information after 24 and 36 months (modified Rankin Scale, mRS). A positive correlation between suPAR levels and other inflammatory biomarkers (except endothelin 3) was observed. A positive correlation between suPAR 3 and mRS score at 24 months was observed (p = 0.042). The logistic regression model revealed no significant effect of suPAR on death occurrence in the first 24 months: suPAR 1 (p = 0.8794), suPAR 3 (p = 0.2757), and suPAR 7 (p = 0.3652). The suPAR level is a potential inflammatory marker in ischemic stroke, and there is a correlation with other markers. There is no major impact on mortality. However, the suPAR level is associated with a degree of disability or dependence in daily activities 2 years after a stroke.