genetic condition
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ligia Pereira Castro ◽  
Danilo Batista-Vieira ◽  
Tiago Antonio de Souza ◽  
Ana Rafaela de Souza Timoteo ◽  
Jessica Dayanna Landivar Coutinho ◽  

Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare genetic condition in which exposure to sunlight leads to a high tumor incidence due to defective DNA repair machinery. Herein, we investigated seven patients clinically diagnosed with XP living in a small city, Montanhas (Rio Grande do Norte), in the Northeast region of Brazil. We performed high-throughput sequencing and, surprisingly, identified two different mutated genes. Six patients carry a novel homozygote mutation in the POLH/XPV gene, c.672_673insT (p.Leu225Serfs*33), while one patient carries a homozygote mutation in the XPC gene, c.2251-1G>C. This latter mutation was previously described in Southeastern Africa (Comoro Island and Mozambique), Pakistan, and in a high incidence in Brazil. The XP-C patient had the first symptoms before the first year of life with aggressive ophthalmologic tumor progression and a melanoma onset at 7 years of age. The XP-V patients presented a milder phenotype with later onset of the disorder (mean age of 16 years old), and one of the six XP-V patients developed melanoma at 72 years. The photoprotection is minimal among them, mainly for the XP-V patients. The differences in the disease severity between XP-C (more aggressive) and XP-V (milder) patients are obvious and point to the major role of photoprotection in the XPs. We estimate that the incidence of XP patients at Montanhas can be higher, but with no diagnosis, due to poor health assistance. Patients still suffer from the stigmatization of the condition, impairing diagnosis, education for sun protection, and medical care.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 42-66
Alessandro Castiglione ◽  
Claes Möller

Usher syndrome (USH) is the most common genetic condition responsible for combined loss of hearing and vision. Balance disorders and bilateral vestibular areflexia are also observed in some cases. The syndrome was first described by Albrecht von Graefe in 1858, but later named by Charles Usher, who presented a large number of cases with hearing loss and retinopathy in 1914. USH has been grouped into three main clinical types: 1, 2, and 3, which are caused by mutations in different genes and are further divided into different subtypes. To date, nine causative genes have been identified and confirmed as responsible for the syndrome when mutated: MYO7A, USH1C, CDH23, PCDH15, and USH1G (SANS) for Usher type 1; USH2A, ADGRV1, and WHRN for Usher type 2; CLRN1 for Usher type 3. USH is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Digenic, bi-allelic, and polygenic forms have also been reported, in addition to dominant or nonsyndromic forms of genetic mutations. This narrative review reports the causative forms, diagnosis, prognosis, epidemiology, rehabilitation, research, and new treatments of USH.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 01-05
Svetlana Rechitsky ◽  
Tatiana Pakhalchuk ◽  
Maria Prokhorovich ◽  
Anver Kuliev

Inherited cancer predisposition is presently one of the major indications for preimplantation genetic testing (PGT), providing an option for couplers at risk to avoid the birth of an offspring with predisposition to cancer. We present here our experience of 35 of 874 PGT cycles for cancer, in which in addition to BRCA1/2 the couples were at risk to another genetic conditions as well, for which PGT was performed together with PGT for breast cancer. This resulted in in birth of 20 mutation free children with not only unaffected for the tested genetic condition, but also without risk of developing cancer. This is a part of our overall PGT series of 6,204 PGT cases for monogenic disorders (PGT-M), with 2,517 resulting births, free of genetic disorder. The accumulated experience, demonstrates considerable progress in using PGT for avoiding the birth of affected children together with avoiding predisposition to cancer.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 13
Figen Seymen ◽  
Hong Zhang ◽  
Yelda Kasimoglu ◽  
Mine Koruyucu ◽  
James P. Simmer ◽  

Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a rare genetic condition affecting the quantity and/or quality of tooth enamel. Hypomaturation AI is characterized by brownish-yellow discoloration with increased opacity and poorly mineralized enamel prone to fracture and attrition. We recruited three families affected by hypomaturation AI and performed whole exome sequencing with selected individuals in each family. Bioinformatic analysis and Sanger sequencing identified and confirmed mutations and segregation in the families. Family 1 had a novel homozygous frameshift mutation in GPR68 gene (NM_003485.3:c.78_83delinsC, p.(Val27Cysfs*146)). Family 2 had a novel homozygous nonsense mutation in SLC24A4 gene (NM_153646.4:c.613C>T, NP_705932.2:p.(Arg205*)). Family 3 also had a homozygous missense mutation in SLC24A4 gene which was reported previously (c.437C>T, p.(Ala146Val)). This report not only expands the mutational spectrum of the AI-causing genes but also improves our understanding of normal and pathologic amelogenesis.

2021 ◽  
pp. 112067212110673
Ayman G. Elnahry ◽  
Gehad A. Elnahry

Gyrate atrophy (GA) of the choroid and retina is a rare autosomal recessive genetic condition characterized by elevation of the plasma level of the amino acid ornithine due to deficiency of the enzyme ornithine ketoacid aminotransferase. Accumulation of ornithine occurs in various body tissues but leads primarily to characteristic ophthalmic manifestations including myopia, cataract, progressive chorioretinal atrophy, and macular changes. Patients usually present with night blindness that starts in the first decade of life followed by visual field constriction and eventually diminution of the central visual acuity and blindness. The condition has been reported worldwide and its differential diagnosis is broad and includes choroideremia and retinitis pigmentosa. Treatment currently depends on life-long dietary modifications including restriction of the amino acid arginine in diet. This article describes in detail the pathogenesis, clinical features, multimodal imaging findings, and treatment options for GA of the choroid and retina and its complications.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (11) ◽  
pp. 108130-108141
Fernanda Odete Souza Rodrigues ◽  
Angelita Alves De Lima ◽  
Bruna do Nascimento Villela ◽  
Clara Dornas Dutra ◽  
Viviane Fusco Alvim ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Katja Kloth ◽  
Denise Obrecht ◽  
Dominik Sturm ◽  
Torsten Pietsch ◽  
Monika Warmuth-Metz ◽  

Gorlin syndrome is a genetic condition associated with the occurrence of SHH activated medulloblastoma, basal cell carcinoma, macrocephaly and other congenital anomalies. It is caused by heterozygous pathogenic variants in PTCH1 or SUFU. In this study we included 16 patients from the HIT2000, HIT2000interim, I-HIT-MED, observation registry and older registries such as HIT-SKK87, HIT-SKK92 (1987 – 2020) with genetically confirmed Gorlin syndrome, harboring 10 PTCH1 and 6 SUFU mutations. Nine patients presented with desmoplastic medulloblastomas (DMB), 6 with medulloblastomas with extensive nodularity (MBEN) and one patient with classic medulloblastoma (CMB); all tumors affected the cerebellum, vermis or the fourth ventricle. SHH activation was present in all investigated tumors (14/16); DNA methylation analysis (when available) classified 3 tumors as iSHH-I and 4 tumors as iSHH-II. Age at diagnosis ranged from 0.65 to 3.41 years. All but one patient received chemotherapy according to the HIT-SKK protocol. Ten patients were in complete remission after completion of primary therapy; four subsequently presented with PD. No patient received radiotherapy during initial treatment. Five patients acquired additional neoplasms, namely basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic tumors, ovarian fibromas and meningioma. Developmental delay was documented in 5/16 patients. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) between patients with PTCH1 or SUFU mutations did not differ statistically (10y-OS 90% vs. 100%, p=0.414; 5y-PFS 88.9% ± 10.5% vs. 41.7% ± 22.2%, p=0.139). Comparing the Gorlin patients to all young, SHH activated MBs in the registries (10y-OS 93.3% ± 6.4% vs. 92.5% ± 3.3%, p=0.738; 10y-PFS 64.9%+-16.7% vs. 83.8%+-4.5%, p=0.228) as well as comparing Gorlin M0 SKK-treated patients to all young, SHH activated, M0, SKK-treated MBs in the HIT-MED database did not reveal significantly different clinical outcomes (10y-OS 88.9% ± 10.5% vs. 88% ± 4%, p=0.812; 5y-PFS 87.5% ± 11.7% vs. 77.7% ± 5.1%, p=0.746). Gorlin syndrome should be considered in young children with SHH activated medulloblastoma, especially DMB and MBEN but cannot be ruled out for CMB. Survival did not differ to patients with SHH-activated medulloblastoma with unknown germline status or between PTCH1 and SUFU mutated patients. Additional neoplasms, especially basal cell carcinomas, need to be expected and screened for. Genetic counselling should be provided for families with young medulloblastoma patients with SHH activation.

Children ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (11) ◽  
pp. 1030
Marco Colizzi ◽  
Giulia Antolini ◽  
Laura Passarella ◽  
Valentina Rizzo ◽  
Elena Puttini ◽  

Mosaic trisomy 20 is a genetic condition in which three chromosomes 20 are found in some cells. Its clinical phenotype seems to be highly variable, with most features not reported across all individuals and not considered pathognomonic of the condition. Limited and recent evidence indicates that neuropsychiatric manifestations may be more present in the context of trisomy 20 than was once thought. Here, we present a case of a 14-year-old female adolescent of White/Caucasian ethnicity with mosaic trisomy 20, who was admitted twice to an inpatient Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Unit for persisting self-injury and suicidal ideation. A severe and complex neuropsychiatric presentation emerged at the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral levels, including mild neurodevelopmental issues, isolation, socio-relational difficulties, depressed mood, temper outbursts, irritability, low self-esteem, lack of interest, social anxiety, panic attacks, self-cutting, and low-average-range and heterogeneous intelligence quotient profile. Particularly, the patient was considered at high risk of causing harm, mainly to self, and appeared to be only partially responsive to medication, even when polypharmacy was attempted to improve clinical response. Except for school bullying, no other severe environmental risk factors were present in the patient’s history. The patient received a diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder.

Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (11) ◽  
pp. 1782
Barbara Citoni ◽  
Maria Cristina Digilio ◽  
Rossella Capolino ◽  
Maria Giulia Gagliardi ◽  
Andrea Campana ◽  

Pericarditis with pericardial effusion in SARS CoV-2 infection is a well-known entity in adults. In children and adolescents, only a few cases have been reported. Here, we present here a case of a 15-year-old girl affected by Sotos syndrome with pre-tamponed pericardial effusion occurred during SARS-CoV-2 infection. A possible relation between SARS-CoV-2 pericarditis and genetic syndromes, as a major risk factor for the development of severe inflammation, has been speculated. We emphasize the importance of active surveillance by echocardiograms when SARS-CoV-2 infection occurs in combination with a genetic condition.

2021 ◽  
pp. 130-152
Sylwia Muranowicz

Until the 18th century, melancholy functioned in people’s consciousness like a disease or a genetic condition. During the Enlightenment, some changes allowed to perceive it as emotional states, without any medical connotations. Among the many works, in which melancholy is mentioned, one can find several types of it, although everyone describing it, treated it in a personal way. A few of the most common new terms are sweet melancholy (douce mélancolie), boredom (ennui ), vapours (vapeurs), spleen, consomption, reverie (rêverie). Thanks to the sensitivity that was fashionable in the 18th century, emotional dilemmas were perceived not only negatively, and sometimes even desirable.

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