Inflammatory Reaction
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2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (3) ◽  
pp. 225-227
Author(s):  
Srikousthubha MS ◽  
Mohandas AS

Human dirofilariasis is an uncommon zoonotic roundworm infection caused by worms belonging to dirofilaria species transmitted by zoo -anthropophilic blood sucking insects which is known to manifest as ocular infection or as a subcutaneous nodule usually in the upper part of the body. We present a case report of subcutaneous dirofilariasis in the left temporal region besides the eye brow in a 65yr old female, clinically diagnosed as epidermal cyst. Gross and histopathological evaluation revealed the presence of an adult worm with granulomatous inflammatory reaction.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (3) ◽  
pp. 376-378
Author(s):  
Ekaterina S. Mishina ◽  
Mariya A. Zatolokina ◽  
Lydia M. Ryazaeva ◽  
Viktor S. Pol'skoy

Background: the use of various scaffolds allows us to model the future fibrous framework of the newly formed regenerate, and also serves as a substrate for the settlement of the cellular component. The development of tissue engineering in regenerative medicine demands an understanding of the more specific mechanisms of the formation of the connective framework at the site of the defect. The aim of this research was to study the morphofunctional rearrangement of the fibrous structures of the rat dermis in response to the implantation of a 3D scaffold based on polyprolactone Methods and Results: The experiment was performed on 30 white male Wistar rats. The object of the study was a skin fragment together with an implantable 3D scaffold based on polyprolactone, taken on Days 3, 7 and 14 after implantation. Biomaterial with implantable scaffold was studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. The results of the study indicate that the 3D scaffold based on polyprolactone has good biocompatibility, causing a weak inflammatory reaction, and contributes to the formation of the connective tissue framework by Day 14. Conclusion: The results of the study can be used to develop new scaffolds or modify existing ones, as a "framework" for populating the cellular component and creating tissue-engineering structures.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (3) ◽  
pp. 587-597
Author(s):  
Tomasz Urbanowicz ◽  
Michał Michalak ◽  
Aleksandra Gąsecka ◽  
Bartłomiej Perek ◽  
Michał Rodzki ◽  
...  

Background: Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) is believed to limit inflammatory reaction. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is one of the more common and easily accessible markers of inflammatory response. The aim of the study was to compare postoperative results of NLR with mid-term OPCAB results. Methods: In total, 224 patients (198 (88%) men and 26 (12%) women) with mean age 65 +/− 9 years who underwent OPCAB though median full sternotomy in our department in 2018 enrolled into the study. We scrupulously collected the postoperative mid-term results, including survival rate, clinical status and risk for major adverse events, and compared them with perioperative laboratory results. Results: A three-year follow-up was completed by 198 individuals (90% survival rate) with 12 (5%) showing major adverse cardiovascular (MACE) events risk. In the multivariable analysis, the laboratory parameters noticed on the 1st postoperative day were statistically significantly predictive of survival, including neutrophils (HR 1.59, 1.33–1.89 95%CI, p < 0.0001), platelets (HR 1.01, 1.01–1.01 95%CI, p = 0.0065), NLR (HR 1.47, 1.3–1.65 95%CI, p < 0.0001) and postoperative ejection fraction (HR 0.9, 0.87–0.95 95%CI, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Postoperative NLR above 4.6, as an inflammatory reaction marker, is related to mid-term mortality in OPCAB patients.


2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (17) ◽  
pp. 3907
Author(s):  
Salim S. Hayek ◽  
Christoph Roderburg ◽  
Pennelope Blakely ◽  
Christopher Launius ◽  
Jesper Eugen-Olsen ◽  
...  

Background: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the result of a hyper-inflammatory reaction to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The biomarkers of inflammation have been used to risk-stratify patients with COVID-19. Osteopontin (OPN) is an integrin-binding glyco-phosphoprotein involved in the modulation of leukocyte activation; its levels are associated with worse outcomes in patients with sepsis. Whether OPN levels predict outcomes in COVID-19 is unknown. Methods: We measured OPN levels in serum of 341 hospitalized COVID-19 patients collected within 48 h from admission. We characterized the determinants of OPN levels and examined their association with in-hospital outcomes; notably death, need for mechanical ventilation, and need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) and as a composite outcome. The risk discrimination ability of OPN was compared with other inflammatory biomarkers. Results: Patients with COVID-19 (mean age 60, 61.9% male, 27.0% blacks) had significantly higher levels of serum OPN compared to healthy volunteers (96.63 vs. 16.56 ng/mL, p < 0.001). Overall, 104 patients required mechanical ventilation, 35 needed dialysis, and 53 died during their hospitalization. In multivariable analyses, OPN levels ≥140.66 ng/mL (third tertile) were associated with a 3.5 × (95%CI 1.44–8.27) increase in the odds of death, and 4.9 × (95%CI 2.48–9.80) increase in the odds of requiring mechanical ventilation. There was no association between OPN and need for RRT. Finally, OPN levels in the upper tertile turned out as an independent prognostic factor of event-free survival with respect to the composite endpoint. Conclusion: Higher OPN levels are associated with increased odds of death and mechanical ventilation in patients with COVID-19, however, their utility in triage is questionable.


Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (9) ◽  
pp. 1313
Author(s):  
Maciej Tarnowski ◽  
Patrycja Kopytko ◽  
Katarzyna Piotrowska

Epigenetic modifications occur in response to environmental changes and play a fundamental role in the regulation of gene expression. PA is found to elicit an inflammatory response, both from the innate and adaptive divisions of the immunological system. The inflammatory reaction is considered a vital trigger of epigenetic changes that in turn modulate inflammatory actions. The tissue responses to PA involve local and general changes. The epigenetic mechanisms involved include: DNA methylation, histone proteins modification and microRNA. All of them affect genetic expression in an inflammatory milieu in physical exercise depending on the magnitude of physiological stress experienced by the exerciser. PA may evoke acute or chronic biochemical and physiological responses and have a positive or negative immunomodulatory effect.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jian-Hui Su ◽  
Meng-Yi Luo ◽  
Na- Liang ◽  
Shao-Xin Gong ◽  
Wei Chen ◽  
...  

Cardio-Cerebrovascular Disease is a collective term for cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease, being a serious threat to human health. A growing number of studies have proved that the content of inflammatory factors or mediators determines the stability of vascular plaque and the incidence of cardio-cerebrovascular event, and involves in the process of Cardio-Cerebrovascular Diseases. Interleukin-6 is a widely used cytokine that causes inflammation and oxidative stress, which would further result in cardiac and cerebral injury. The increased expression of interleukin-6 is closely related to atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, heart failure and ischemic stroke. It is a key risk factor for these diseases by triggering inflammatory reaction and inducing other molecules release. Therefore, interleukin-6 may become a potential target for Cardio-Cerebrovascular Diseases in the future. This paper is aimed to discuss the expression changes and pathological mechanisms of interleukin-6 in Cardio-Cerebrovascular Diseases, and to provide a novel strategy for the prevention and treatment of Cardio-Cerebrovascular Diseases.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jiena Wu ◽  
Haiyun Zhang ◽  
Xiaoxin Chen ◽  
Jinwei Chai ◽  
Yunrui Hu ◽  
...  

Sepsis is an exacerbated inflammatory reaction induced by severe infection. As important defensive molecules in innate immunity, several AMPs are reported to prevent septic shock. In this study, we characterized a novel cathelicidin, FM-CATH, from the frog skin of F. multistriata. FM-CATH was found to adopt an amphipathic α-helix structural in membrane-mimetic environments and possess favorable antimicrobial effects against bacteria and fungus. In addition, it triggered the agglutination of bacteria. It could also strongly bind to LPS and LTA. Additionally, FM-CATH affected the enzymatic activities of thrombin, plasmin, β-tryptase, and tPA, leading to coagulation inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we observed that FM-CATH improved survival rate and inhibited pathological alteration, bacterial count, serum biochemistry, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that FM-CATH might be served as a promising agent for the treatment of sepsis.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Annelie Barrueta Tenhunen ◽  
Jaap van der Heijden ◽  
Wojciech Weigl ◽  
Robert Frithiof ◽  
Paul Skorup ◽  
...  

While fluid resuscitation is fundamental in the treatment of sepsis-induced tissue hypo-perfusion, a sustained positive fluid balance is associated with excess mortality. Crystalloids are the mainstay of fluid resuscitation and use of either synthetic colloids or albumin is controversial. Hyaluronan, an endogenous glycosaminoglycan with high affinity to water, has not been tested as adjuvant in fluid resuscitation. We sought to evaluate the effects of hyaluronan as an adjuvant to fluid resuscitation in peritonitis induced sepsis. In a prospective, parallel-grouped, blinded model of porcine peritonitis-sepsis, we randomized animals to intervention with adjuvant hyaluronan (add-on to standard therapy) (n=8) or 0.9% saline (n=8). After the onset of hemodynamic instability the animals received an initial bolus of 0.1 % hyaluronan 1 mg/kg/10 min or placebo (saline) followed by a continuous infusion of 0.1% hyaluronan  (1 mg/kg/h) or saline during the experiment. We hypothesized that the administration of hyaluronan would reduce the volume of fluid administered (aiming at stroke volume variation <13%) and/or attenuate the inflammatory reaction. Total volumes of intravenous fluids infused were 17.5 ± 11 ml/kg/h vs. 19.0 ± 7 ml/kg/h in intervention and control groups, respectively ( p = 0.442). Plasma IL-6 increased to 2450 (1420 – 6890) pg/ml and 3700 (1410 – 11960) pg/ml (18 hours of resuscitation) in the intervention and control groups (NS). In a post-hoc analysis, modified shock index remained lower in intervention group ( p = 0.011 - 0.037). In conclusion adjuvant hyaluronan did not reduce the volume needed for fluid administration or decrease the inflammatory reaction. Adjuvant hyaluronan was, however, associated with lower modified shock index. Bearing in mind that the experiment has a limited group-size we suggest that further studies on hyaluronan in sepsis are warranted.


2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (1) ◽  
pp. 27-35
Author(s):  
J. V. Kosayev ◽  
I. A. Khasanov ◽  
N. S. Abushov ◽  
G. T. Taghi-zade

Aim: to study the state of lipid metabolism, hemostasis, inflammatory reaction and the potential for their correction after indirect revascularization in patients with distal steno-occlusion of arteries and critical ischemia of lower extremities (critical ILE).Material and methods. Changes in hemostasis and dynamics of its parameters during the complex surgical treatment in 131 patients with critical ILE and distal arterial stenoocclusion were analyzed. To achieve the targeted goals, patients were divided into the following groups: 34 patients had traditional care (control group); 32 patients had intravenous laser blood irradiation in combination with standard therapy (Group I); 32 patients had cytokine therapy with roncoleukin in combination with standard therapy (Group II); 33 patients had intravenous laser blood irradiation combined with cytokine therapy and standard therapy (Group III). Parameters of lipid metabolism were studied in dynamics (total cholesterol, very low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins, triglycerides); products of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehydes, conjugates, superoxide dismutase); inflammatory mediators (C-reactive protein, sialic acids, seromucoids, fibrinogen A, circulating immune complexes); hemostatic parameters (fibrinogen, fibrinolytic activity, fibrin degradation products, antithrombin III activity). Hemostatic indices were compared with identical parameters of 48 apparently healthy individuals (reference group).Results. On admission, patients with critical ILE and distal wall occlusion had sharp changes in their lipid metabolism, inflammatory reaction, and hemostasis. Conclusion. The inclusion of intravenous laser blood irradiation and cytokine therapy separately and in combination in a set of therapeutic measures led to the leveling of the studied homeostasis indicators. The best results were obtained in the group where patients had combined perioperative intravenous laser blood irradiation with cytokine therapy in indirect revascularization.


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