Soft Drinks
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Fabrizio Ferretti ◽  
Michele Mariani ◽  
Elena Sarti

The impact of soft drinks on obesity has been widely investigated during the last decades. Conversely, the role of obesity as a factor influencing the demand for soft drinks remains largely unexplored. However, understanding potential changes in the demand for soft drinks, as a result of changes in the spread of obesity, may be useful to better design a comprehensive strategy to curb soft drink consumption. In this paper, we aim to answer the following research question: Does the prevalence of obesity affect the demand for soft drinks? For this purpose, we collected data in a sample of 97 countries worldwide for the period 2005–2019. To deal with problems of reverse causality, an instrumental variable approach and a two-stage least squares method were used to estimate the impact of the age-standardized obesity rate on the market demand for soft drinks. After controlling for several demographic and socio-economic confounding factors, we found that a one percent increase in the prevalence of obesity increases the consumption of soft drinks and carbonated soft drinks by about 2.37 and 1.11 L per person/year, respectively. Our findings corroborate the idea that the development of an obesogenic food environment is a self-sustaining process, in which obesity and unhealthy lifestyles reinforce each other, and further support the need for an integrated approach to curb soft drink consumption by combining sugar taxes with bans, regulations, and nutrition education programs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-6
Florica Busuricu ◽  
Verginica Schroder ◽  
Doina Margaritti ◽  
Andreea Hortensa Anghel ◽  
Sirma Tomos

In the recent years, young consumers choose to consume from the category of soft drinks, without acknowledging that their health may be endangered. To this end, we aim to contribute to the real scientific estimation of the nutrient intake from a number of 20 waters with vitamins and minerals having a reduced addition of fruit extract (1-3%), compared to juices that have 10-30 % fruits extract, from those sold in Romania. We analyzed the presentation of the nutritional declaration, the quality of the additives and the profiling of nutrients through the SENS system. The obtained results classify the products in the category of those with low energy value and in the category “significant sources of vitamins and minerals”; there are from food classes 2 and 4, as a nutritional profile

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 1081-1089
Juthi Mirza ◽  
Masuda Sultana ◽  
Md. Esrafil ◽  
Shamoli Akter ◽  
Md. Jahangir Alam ◽  

Caffeine is one of the commonly used food additives, which has unique flavor characteristics and bitter taste and used in soft drinks as flavor enhancer. An experimental study was designed to determine the concentration of caffeine in different brands of soft drinks and energy drinks available in Bangladesh by using HPLC. For chromatographic analysis, A Luna 5 C18 (2) 100A column (250×4.6 mm) was used at 37°C temperature at the wavelength of 272nm. Chromatographic separation was determined using buffer of sodium acetate and acetic acid with acetonitrile at a ratio of 80:20 (pH=4.0; flow rate of 1.0 ml/min). The results of this study showed that caffeine content in soft drinks ranged from 19.63 to 101.73 mg/100ml and highest concentration of caffeine found in brand 3 samples while lowest concentration found in brand 2 samples. Significantly higher concentration of caffeine (p<0.05) found in six soft drinks sample when compared to BSTI and FDA reference value except brand 2 sample (p>0.05). Quantification of caffeine in different brands of energy drink sample revealed that, four brand sample contained caffeine; among them brand 3 sample showed the highest levels of caffeine 295.86 mg/100ml and lowest amount found in brand 1 sample (101.74 mg/100ml). Concentration of Caffeine in soft and energy drinks exceeded the national and international standard recommended range hence this proposed HPLC method can be used for routine determination and control of caffeine content in different drinks.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0261749
Yun-Hsuan Wu ◽  
Spencer Moore ◽  
Yu Ma ◽  
Laurette Dube

There is increasing interest in the effect that food environments may have on obesity, particularly through mechanisms related to the marketing and consumption of calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and sugary beverages. Price promotions, such as temporary price discounts, have been particularly effective in the marketing of carbonated soft drinks (CSDs) among consumers. Research has also suggested that the purchasing behavior of consumer groups may be differentially sensitive to price discounts on CSDs, with obese women particularly sensitive. In addition, the intensity of price discount in a person’s food environment may also vary across geography and over time. This study examines whether the weight change of obese women, compared to overweight or normal BMI women, is more sensitive to the intensity of price discounts on CSDs in the food environment. This study used longitudinal survey data from 1622 women in the Montreal Neighborhood Networks and Health Aging (MoNNET-HA) Panel. Women were asked to report their height and weight in 2008, 2010 and 2013 in order to calculate women’s BMI in 2008 and their change of weight between 2008 and 2013. Women’s exposure to an unhealthy food environment was based on the frequency in which their neighborhood food stores placed price discounts on CSDs in 2008. The price discount frequency on CSDs within women’s neighborhoods was calculated from Nielsen point-of sales transaction data in 2008 and geocoded to participant’s forward sortation area. The prevalence of obesity and overweight among MoNNET-HA female participants was 18.3% in 2008, 19.9% in 2010 and 20.7% in 2013 respectively. Results showed that among obese women, exposure to unhealthy food environments was associated with a 3.25 kilogram (SE = 1.35, p-value = 0.02) weight gain over the five-year study period. Exposure to price discounts on CSDs may disproportionately affect and reinforce weight gain in women who are already obese.

2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (No.1) ◽  
pp. 163-183
Avil Terrance Saldanha ◽  
Rajendra Desai ◽  
Rekha Aranha

The purpose of this study is to predict the share of visual inventory (SOVI), which is defined as the number of stock-keeping units (SKUs) of a company’s products, calculated as a percentage of the total SKUs on the display of all products. Research studies in the past have focused mainly on the impact of inventory, which includes back end and visual inventory, on sales but less attention has been given to the impact of SOVI on sales. To address this research gap, this study attempted to create an analytics model to predict SOVI at the category of soft drinks level using four predictor variables namely point of purchase display, channel/sub-channel, package group, product category, and derived variable gross national income (GNI). The results were encouraging confirming the effectiveness of such a model. The researchers utilized a data set collected over a period of 18 months (February 2016 to July 2017) by a soft drink firm headquartered in the United States. Based on the findings, it is suggested that this prediction model can be utilized by other researchers and practitioners to predict SOVI of other soft drinks, fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG), and food and beverage companies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Xiaoyue Xu ◽  
Alice F. Yan ◽  
Youfa Wang ◽  
Zumin Shi

Aims: To identify dietary patterns during the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and to examine their association with changes in weight status in the Chinese population.Methods: The 2020 China COVID-19 cross-sectional survey is an anonymous 74-item survey administered via social media across 31 provinces in mainland China between April and May 2020. Dietary data were assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire and the changes in weight status were self-reported. Exploratory factor analysis using the principal component analysis method was applied to identify dietary patterns. The multinomial regression models were conducted, and forest plots were used to present the associations between dietary patterns and changes in weight status.Results: Of a total of 10,545 adults (aged ≥18 years), more than half of participants reported to have weight gain, with 18.6% of men and 16.3% of women having weight gain &gt;2.5 kg. Approximately 8% of participants reported to have weight loss, with 2.1% of men and 2.5% women having weight loss &gt;2.5 kg. Two dietary patterns, namely, the modern and prudent dietary patterns, were identified during the COVID-19 pandemic. The modern dietary pattern was loaded heavily with soft drinks, fried foods, pickles, and inversely with fresh vegetables. The prudent dietary pattern was characterized by high intake of fresh fruits, vegetables, and inversely with soft drinks and fried food. The modern dietary pattern was positively associated with weight gain in men and women, while the prudent dietary pattern was negatively associated with both weight gain and loss in men and women during the COVID-19 pandemic.Conclusion: Dietary patterns during COVID-19 are significantly associated with the changes in weight status, which may subsequently increase the risk of diet-related non-communicable disease among the Chinese population.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
pp. 943-952
Diana Safitri ◽  
W Wirasti ◽  
Khusna Santika Rahmasari ◽  
S Slamet

AbstractPotassium sorbate is one type of preservative that is often added in soft drinks. The addition is to inhibit and prevent the process of fermentation, acidification or other forms of destruction, or is an ingredient that can protect food from spoilage. The purpose of this study was to analyze the content of potassium preservatives in soft drink samples and to determine whether the levels of potassium sorbate in soft drinks were in accordance with the standards set by BPOM RI Number 36 of 2013 concerning the maximum limit for the use of food additives potassium sorbate which is 25 mg /kg body weight. The methods used in this research are qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative analysis used is the Color Test Method. The quantitative analysis used is High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with methanol acetonitril as the mobile phase. The results obtained from the color test of the sample change the color of the sample to pink according to the comparison color while the HPLC results obtained that the sample content is calculated in each total volume, namely M1 = 0.051 mg/kg BW, M2 = 0.226 mg/kg BW, M3 = 0.209 mg/kg BW, M4 = 0.103 mg/kg BW, M5 = 0.322 mg/kg BW, M6 = 0.150 mg/kg BW, M7 = 0.173 mg/kg BW, M8 = 0.127 mg/kg BW, M9 = 0.195 mg /kg BW, M10 = 0.185 mg/kg BW, M11 = 0.107 mg/kg BW and M12 = 0.174 mg/kg BW. It can be said that samples M1 to M12 meet the requirements for potassium sorbate levels set by BPOM RI Number 36 of 2013.Keywords: soft drinks, potassium sorbate, preservatives, content analysis, HPLC. AbstrakKalium sorbat adalah salah satu jenis zat pengawet yang sering ditambahkan dalam minuman ringan. Penambahan tersebut untuk menghambat dan mencegah proses fermentasi, pengasaman atau bentuk perusakan lainnya, atau merupakan bahan yang dapat melindungi pangan dari pembusukan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis kandungan pengawet kalium sorbatdalam sampel minuman ringan dan untuk mengetahui apakah kadar kalium sorbatdalam minuman ringan sudah sesuai dengan standar yang telah ditetapkan oleh BPOM RI Nomor 36 Tahun 2013 tentang batas maksimal penggunaan bahan tambahan pangan kalium sorbatyaitu sebesar 25mg/kg berat badan. Metode yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah metode kualitatif dan kuantitatif. Analisis kualitatif yang digunakan yaitu Metode Uji Warna. Analisis kuantitatif yang digunakan yaitu High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) dengan fase gerak metanol asetonitril. Hasil yang diperoleh dari uji warna terjadi perubahan warna sampel menjadi berwarna merah muda sesuai dengan warna pembanding sedangkan dengan hasil HPLC diperoleh kadar sampel yang dihitung dalam tiap jumlah total volume sampel yaitu M1 = 0,051 mg/kg BB, M2 = 0,226 mg/kg BB, M3 = 0,209 mg/kg BB, M4 = 0,103 mg/kg BB, M5 = 0,322 mg/kg BB, M6 = 0,150 mg/kg BB, M7 = 0,173 mg/kg BB, M8 = 0,127 mg/kg BB, M9 = 0,195 mg/kg BB, M10 = 0,185 mg/kg BB, M11 = 0,107 mg/kg BB dan M12 = 0,174 mg/kg BB. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa sampel M1 sampai M12 memenuhi persyaratan kadar kalium sorbatyang ditetapkan oleh BPOM RI Nomor 36 Tahun 2013.Kata Kunci: minuman ringan, kalium sorbat, pengawet, analisis kadar, HPLC.  

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