manufacturing technologies
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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 058-064
Juraj Beniak ◽  
Miloš Matúš ◽  
Ľubomír Šooš ◽  
Peter Križan

In the present time, there are many challenges in the production of industrial parts. Due to the constantly rising prices of materials and energy, it is necessary to constantly look for ways to optimize production costs and optimize material consumption. There is great pressure on economical production, i. to produce products with the lowest costs given the expected and necessary properties. With the introduction of additive manufacturing technologies into practice and the production of parts for end use comes the introduction of methods for optimizing the shape of the part and the required amount of material for its production. We call this method Topological Optimization. The presented article describes the preparation of topologically optimized parts and a comparison of their strength properties with respect to the original and the original part.

Jiang-Nan Fu ◽  
Xing Wang ◽  
Meng Yang ◽  
You-Rong Chen ◽  
Ji-Ying Zhang ◽  

Over centuries, several advances have been made in osteochondral (OC) tissue engineering to regenerate more biomimetic tissue. As an essential component of tissue engineering, scaffolds provide structural and functional support for cell growth and differentiation. Numerous scaffold types, such as porous, hydrogel, fibrous, microsphere, metal, composite and decellularized matrix, have been reported and evaluated for OC tissue regeneration in vitro and in vivo, with respective advantages and disadvantages. Unfortunately, due to the inherent complexity of organizational structure and the objective limitations of manufacturing technologies and biomaterials, we have not yet achieved stable and satisfactory effects of OC defects repair. In this review, we summarize the complicated gradients of natural OC tissue and then discuss various osteochondral tissue engineering strategies, focusing on scaffold design with abundant cell resources, material types, fabrication techniques and functional properties.

2022 ◽  
Vol 327 ◽  
pp. 197-206
Pietro Tonolini ◽  
Annalisa Pola ◽  
Lorenzo Montesano ◽  
Marialaura Tocci ◽  
Marcello Gelfi ◽  

In this paper, wear properties of samples manufactured using thixocasting were compared with those of components obtained using low-pressure die-casting and additive manufacturing in order to assess the relationship between material performance and production technologies, both conventional and innovative. The investigated items were made with AlSi7Mg alloy. First, microstructural analysis and hardness measurements were carried out. Subsequently, pin-on-disk wear tests were performed. Wear behavior of the samples was studied considering both coefficient of friction and wear rate, while the damage mechanism was analyzed by observation of the worn paths using scanning electron microscope, correlating the behavior to the specific microstructure. In addition, the effect of selected heat-treated conditions, relevant for real applications, on wear properties was also evaluated.

Antal Dér ◽  
Alexander Kaluza ◽  
Lars Reimer ◽  
Christoph Herrmann ◽  
Sebastian Thiede

AbstractRecent years introduced process and material innovations in the design and manufacturing of lightweight body parts for larger scale manufacturing. However, lightweight materials and new manufacturing technologies often carry a higher environmental burden in earlier life cycle stages. The prospective life cycle evaluation of lightweight body parts remains to this day a challenging task. Yet, a functioning evaluation approach in early design stages is the prerequisite for integrating assessment results in engineering processes and thus allowing for a life cycle oriented decision making. The current paper aims to contribute to the goal of a prospective life cycle evaluation of fiber-reinforced lightweight body parts by improving models that enable to predict energy and material flows in the manufacturing stage. To this end, a modeling and simulation approach has been developed that integrates bottom-up process models into a process chain model. The approach is exemplarily applied on a case study of a door concept. In particular, the energy intensity of compression molding of glass fiber and carbon fiber sheet molding compounds has been analyzed and compared over the life cycle with a steel reference part.

Marcos García Reyes ◽  
Alex Bataller Torras ◽  
Juan A. Cabrera Carrillo ◽  
Juan M. Velasco García ◽  
Juan J. Castillo Aguilar

AbstractIn the last years, a large number of new biocompatible materials for 3D printers have emerged. Due to their recent appearance and rapid growth, there is little information about their mechanical properties. The design and manufacturing of oral appliances made with 3D printing technologies require knowledge of the mechanical properties of the biocompatible material used to achieve optimal performance for each application. This paper focuses on analysing the mechanical behaviour of a wide range of biocompatible materials using different additive manufacturing technologies. To this end, tensile and bending tests on different types of recent biocompatible materials used with 3D printers were conducted to evaluate the influence of the material, 3D printing technology, and printing orientation on the fragile/ductile behaviour of the manufactured devices. A test bench was used to perform tensile tests according to ASTM D638 and bending tests according to ISO 178. The specimens were manufactured with nine different materials and five manufacturing technologies. Furthermore, specimens were created with different printing technologies, biocompatible materials, and printing orientations. The maximum allowable stress, rupture stress, flexural modulus, and deformation in each of the tested specimens were recorded. Results suggest that specimens manufactured with Stereolithography (SLA) and milling (polymethyl methacrylate PMMA) achieved high maximum allowable and rupture stress values. It was also observed that Polyjet printing and Selective Laser Sintering technologies led to load–displacement curves with low maximum stress and high deformation values. Specimens manufactured with Digital Light Processing technology showed intermediate and homogeneous performance. Finally, it was observed that the printing direction significantly influences the mechanical properties of the manufactured specimens in some cases.

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