deficient mismatch repair
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Chunhui Jin ◽  
Xiaodan Zhu ◽  
Xiaona Huang ◽  
Tingjie Gong ◽  
Zhipeng Wei ◽  

Aims: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of PD-1/PD-L1 and/or CTLA-4 inhibitors in the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) by meta-analysis. Methods: Electronic databases were searched. Eligible studies included investigations of efficacy and safety of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 or anti-CTLA-4 agents in patients with CRC. Corresponding indicators were calculated. Results: A total of 15 articles were included. The pooled objective response rate, overall survival rate, progression-free survival rate and adverse event rate were 33, 56, 46 and 59%, respectively. The objective response rates for CRC with deficient mismatch repair and CRC with proficient mismatch repair were 43 and 3%, respectively, in patients treated with PD-1 inhibitors. Conclusion: The authors' study indicates that PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors manifest promising clinical responses in the treatment of CRC with deficient mismatch repair with acceptable treatment-related adverse events.

Rajvala Choudhary ◽  
Chandrika Gupta ◽  
Lakhami Chand Sinsinwar ◽  
Sapna Shrivastava ◽  
Sanjeev Singh Choudhary

Medullary carcinoma (MC) of the colon is a rare and unique histologic subtype of colorectal cancer whichcharacterized by poor glandular differentiation and intraepithelial lymphocytic infiltrate. This has now been incorporated as a separate entity in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of colorectal cancers.It is commonly associated with deficient mismatch repair proteins and has a strong association with Lynch syndrome. Diagnosis is challenging as it does not have the usual immunohistochemical stains on pathology seen in colorectal adenocarcinoma. Here, we discuss an interesting case of MC of the colon that was metastatic on presentation and constituted a diagnostic challenge1. Keywords: medullary carcinoma, colorectal carcinomas (CRC), medullary carcinoma of colon,poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, undifferentiated adenocarcinoma.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Wantao Wu ◽  
Yihan Liu ◽  
Shan Zeng ◽  
Ying Han ◽  
Hong Shen

AbstractIn this era of precision medicine, with the help of biomarkers, immunotherapy has significantly improved prognosis of many patients with malignant tumor. Deficient mismatch repair (dMMR)/microsatellite instability (MSI) status is used as a biomarker in clinical practice to predict favorable response to immunotherapy and prognosis. MSI is an important characteristic which facilitates mutation and improves the likelihood of a favorable response to immunotherapy. However, many patients with dMMR/MSI still respond poorly to immunotherapies, which partly results from intratumor heterogeneity propelled by dMMR/MSI. In this review, we discuss how dMMR/MSI facilitates mutations in tumor cells and generates intratumor heterogeneity, especially through type II interferon (IFN-γ) signaling and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). We discuss the mechanism of immunotherapy from the perspective of dMMR/MSI, molecular pathways and TILs, and we discuss how intratumor heterogeneity hinders the therapeutic effect of immunotherapy. Finally, we summarize present techniques and strategies to look at the tumor as a whole to design personalized regimes and achieve favorable prognosis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (29) ◽  
pp. 3781-3785
Ana Oaknin ◽  
Anna V Tinker ◽  
Lucy Gilbert ◽  
Vanessa Samouëlian ◽  
Cara Mathews ◽  

This document provides a short summary of the GARNET trial which was published in JAMA Oncology in October 2020. At the end of this document, there are links to websites where you can find more information about this study. The trial enrolled adult participants with advanced solid tumors. This report is restricted to patients with a particular type of endometrial cancer that has a deficient mismatch repair (dMMR) status. Patients received a trial treatment called dostarlimab (also known by the brand name Jemperli). In the US, dostarlimab is approved as a single therapy in adult patients with dMMR recurrent or advanced endometrial cancer that has progressed on or after platinum-based chemotherapy. In the EU, dostarlimab is approved as a single therapy in adult patients with recurrent or advanced dMMR/microsatellite instability–high (MSI-H) endometrial cancer that has progressed on or after treatment with a platinum-containing regimen. The GARNET trial looked at dostarlimab given intravenously to patients with dMMR endometrial cancer from 7 countries. The trial showed that dostarlimab was successful in shrinking the tumor in 42% of these patients. In general, the percentage of participants who experienced medical problems (referred to as side effects) was low and within expectations for this type of treatment. NCT number: NCT02715284 . To read the full Plain Language Summary of this article, click on the View Article button above and download the PDF. Link to original article here .

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Wenyue Zhou ◽  
Yuwen Zhou ◽  
Cheng Yi ◽  
Xinyao Shu ◽  
Guixia Wei ◽  

Microsatellite instability-high/deficient mismatch repair (MSI-H/dMMR) status of tumors is a distinct predictive biomarker of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) for colorectal and non-colorectal cancer populations. The overall response rate (ORR) varies from approximately 40% to 60%, indicating that nearly half of MSI-H tumors do not respond to ICIs. The mechanism of response heterogeneity in MSI-H/dMMR cancers is unclear. Some patients who have been treated with ICIs have developed a novel pattern of progression called hyperprogression, which is defined as unexpected accelerated tumor growth. No case of MSI-H/dMMR immunotherapy-associated hyperprogression has been reported in the literature. Here, we present the case of a patient with dMMR gastrointestinal cancer who suffered hyperprogressive disease (HPD) after treatment with nivolumab. We explored the potential mechanisms of HPD by clinical, immune, and genomic characteristics. Extremely high levels of serum LDH, low TMB and TILs, and the disruption of TGFβ signaling, may be related to hyperprogression.

Jun Yin ◽  
Mohamed E Salem ◽  
Jesse G Dixon ◽  
Zhaohui Jin ◽  
Romain Cohen ◽  

Abstract Background Disease-free survival with a 3-year median follow-up (3-year DFS) was validated as a surrogate for overall survival with a 5-year median follow-up (5-year OS) in adjuvant chemotherapy colon cancer (CC) trials. Recent data show further improvements in OS and survival after recurrence, in patients who received adjuvant FOLFOX. Hence, re-evaluation of the association between DFS and OS and determination of the optimal follow-up duration of OS to aid its utility in future adjuvant trials are needed. Methods Individual patient data from nine randomized studies conducted between 1998 and 2009 were included; three trials tested biologics. Trial-level surrogacy examining the correlation of treatment effect estimates of 3-year DFS with 5 to 6.5-year OS was evaluated using both linear regression (R2WLS) and Copula bivariate (R2Copula) models and reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For R2, a value closer to 1 indicates a stronger correlation. Results Data from a total of 18,396 patients were analyzed (median age = 59 years; 54.0% male), with 54.1% having low-risk tumors (pT1-3 & pN1), 31.6% KRAS mutated, 12.3% BRAF mutated, and 12.4% microsatellite instability high/deficient mismatch repair tumors. Trial level correlation between 3-year DFS and 5-year OS remained strong (R2 =0.82, 95% CI = 0.67 to 0.98; R2 =0.92, 95% CI = 0.83 to 1.00) and increased as the median follow-up of OS extended. Analyses limited to trials that tested biologics showed consistent results. Conclusion Three-year DFS remains a validated surrogate endpoint for 5-year OS in adjuvant CC trials. The correlation was likely strengthened with 6 years of follow-up for OS.

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