Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
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Published By Future Medicine

2042-6313, 2042-6305

Maria José Labis da Costa ◽  
Gesiane Cavalcante Nascimento ◽  
Thannuse Silva Athie ◽  
Juliana de Sales Silva ◽  
Edna Afonso Reis ◽  

Aim: Malaria is an infection caused by protozoa of genus Plasmodium, considered the one associated with increasingly large outbreaks. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with residents in the northern region of Brazil on the willingness to pay (WTP) for a hypothetical vaccine against malaria (effective protection of 80%). Results: Of 616 people interviewed, most interviewees were female (61%) and were employed (97%). The median individual maximum WTP for a hypothetical malaria vaccine was US$11.90 (BRL 50). Conclusion: The northern region of Brazil is one of the largest markets for a malaria vaccine due to its epidemiological relevance. Consequently, economic studies will be important to assist in the assessment of the potential price and value of new vaccines.

Chunhui Jin ◽  
Xiaodan Zhu ◽  
Xiaona Huang ◽  
Tingjie Gong ◽  
Zhipeng Wei ◽  

Aims: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of PD-1/PD-L1 and/or CTLA-4 inhibitors in the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) by meta-analysis. Methods: Electronic databases were searched. Eligible studies included investigations of efficacy and safety of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 or anti-CTLA-4 agents in patients with CRC. Corresponding indicators were calculated. Results: A total of 15 articles were included. The pooled objective response rate, overall survival rate, progression-free survival rate and adverse event rate were 33, 56, 46 and 59%, respectively. The objective response rates for CRC with deficient mismatch repair and CRC with proficient mismatch repair were 43 and 3%, respectively, in patients treated with PD-1 inhibitors. Conclusion: The authors' study indicates that PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors manifest promising clinical responses in the treatment of CRC with deficient mismatch repair with acceptable treatment-related adverse events.

Esther Liu ◽  
Hudson Lee ◽  
Briana Lui ◽  
Robert S White ◽  
Jon D Samuels

This narrative review summarizes recent reports to provide an updated understanding of the multiorgan effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in obese individuals. A PubMed search of 528 primary articles was performed, with inclusion based on novelty, relevance and redundancy. Obesity confers an increased risk for hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, severe pneumonia, intubation and acute kidney injury in COVID-19 patients. Obesity is also associated with higher levels of inflammatory and thrombotic markers. However, the associations between obesity and mortality or cardiac injury in COVID-19 patients remain unclear. Obesity is a risk factor for several respiratory and nonrespiratory COVID-19 complications. Future work is needed to further explore these relationships and optimize the management of obese COVID-19 patients.

Jia-Lun Guan ◽  
Ge Wang ◽  
Dan Fang ◽  
Ying-Ying Han ◽  
Mu-Ru Wang ◽  

Aim: Different researches showed controversial results about the ‘off-hours effect’ in nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB). Materials & methods: A total of 301 patients with NVUGIB were divided into regular-hours group and off-hours group based on when they received endoscopic hemostasis, and the relationship of the clinical outcomes with off-hours endoscopic hemostasis was evaluated. Results: Patients who received off-hours endoscopy were sicker and more likely to experience worse clinical outcomes. Off-hours endoscopic hemostasis was a significant predictor of the composite outcome in higher-risk patients (adjusted OR: 4.63; 95% CI: 1.35–15.90). However, it did not associate with the outcomes in lower-risk patients. Conclusion: Off-hours effect may affect outcomes of higher-risk NVUGIB patients receiving endoscopic hemostasis (GBS ≥12).

Murat Sayan ◽  
Ayse Arikan ◽  
Murat Isbilen

Aims: This study determined SARS-CoV-2 variations by phylogenetic and virtual phenotyping analyses. Materials & methods: Strains isolated from 143 COVID-19 cases in Turkey in April 2021 were assessed. Illumina NexteraXT library preparation kits were processed for next-generation ]sequencing. Phylogenetic (neighbor-joining method) and virtual phenotyping analyses (Coronavirus Antiviral and Resistance Database [CoV-RDB] by Stanford University) were used for variant analysis. Results: B.1.1.7–1/2 (n = 103, 72%), B.1.351 (n = 5, 3%) and B.1.525 (n = 1, 1%) were identified among 109 SARS-CoV-2 variations by phylogenetic analysis and B.1.1.7 (n = 95, 66%), B.1.351 (n = 5, 4%), B.1.617 (n = 4, 3%), B.1.525 (n = 2, 1.4%), B.1.526-1 (n = 1, 0.6%) and missense mutations (n = 15, 10%) were reported by CoV-RDB. The two methods were 85% compatible and B.1.1.7 (alpha) was the most frequent SARS-CoV-2 variation in Turkey in April 2021. Conclusion: The Stanford CoV-RDB analysis method appears useful for SARS-CoV-2 lineage surveillance.

Amanda Honeycutt ◽  
Andrew Breck ◽  
Sarah Bass ◽  
Dominick Esposito

Aim: To estimate the impact of universal anti-TNF therapy in patients with moderate-to-severe Crohn’s disease. Materials & methods: Developed a population-level Markov model to estimate the impact on health outcomes and medical expenditures of expanding anti-TNF therapy use versus current treatment practices. Results: Reductions in deaths (2600), hip fractures (980), major adverse cardiac events (2700) and patient out-of-pocket medical spending (2%) over 5 years. Total societal costs would be US$22,100 higher per patient per year, primarily due to the high cost of anti-TNF therapy. Conclusion: Expanding anti-TNF therapy use among US adult patients with moderate-to-severe Crohn’s disease would reduce morbidity and mortality, decrease disease-related medical costs and increase treatment costs compared with current practice. Despite the higher costs, this approach could substantially benefit patients.

Jonathan Romsa ◽  
Ryan J Imhoff ◽  
Swetha R Palli ◽  
Richard Inculet ◽  
Sanjay Mehta

Aim: SPECT/CT has been found to improve predicted postoperative forced expiratory volume in one second (ppoFEV1) assessments in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: An economic simulation was developed comparing the cost–effectiveness of SPECT/CT versus planar scintigraphy for a US payer. Clinical outcomes and cost data were obtained through review of the published literature. Results: SPECT/CT increased the accuracy ppoFEV1 assessment, changing the therapeutic decision for 1.3% of nonsurgical patients to a surgical option, while 3.3% of surgical patients shifted to more aggressive procedures. SPECT/CT led to an expected cost of $4694 per life year gained, well below typical thresholds. Conclusion: SPECT/CT resulted in substantially improved health outcomes and was found to be highly cost-effective.

Alex Simpson ◽  
Sreeram V Ramagopalan

In the latest update we focus on recent publications which have provided insights into the importance of focusing on the development and consideration of a body of real-world evidence, and an approach to evaluating the complex area of treatment sequencing.

Belinda A Mohr ◽  
Diane Bartos ◽  
Stephen Dickson ◽  
Libby Bucsi ◽  
Mariska Vente ◽  

Aim: This study estimates the costs and outcomes pre- versus post-implementation of an early deterioration detection solution (EDDS), which assists in identifying patients at risk of clinical decline. Materials & methods: A retrospective database analysis was conducted to assess average costs per discharge, length of stay (LOS), complications, in-hospital mortality and 30-day all-cause re-admissions pre- versus post-implementation of an EDDS. Results: Average costs per discharge were significantly reduced by 18% (US$16,201 vs $13,304; p  = 0.007). Average LOS was also significantly reduced (6 vs 5 days; p  = 0.033), driven by a reduction in general care LOS of 1 day (p  = 0.042). Complications, in-hospital mortality and 30-day all-cause re-admissions were similar. Conclusion: Costs and LOS were lower after implementation of an EDDS for general care patients.

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