healthy eating index
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Anthony Brennan ◽  
Lars Marstaller ◽  
Hana Burianová ◽  
David Benton ◽  
Claire J. Hanley ◽  

Abstract Background/objectives Obesity affects more than forty percent of adults over the age of sixty. Aberrant eating styles such as disinhibition have been associated with the engagement of brain networks underlying executive functioning, attentional control, and interoception. However, these effects have been exclusively studied in young samples overlooking those most at risk of obesity related harm. Methods Here we assessed associations between resting-state functional connectivity and disinhibited eating (using the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire) in twenty-one younger (aged 19–34 years, BMI range: 18–31) and twenty older (aged 60–73 years, BMI range: 19–32) adults matched for BMI. The Alternative Healthy Eating Index was used to quantify diet quality. Results Older, compared to younger, individuals reported lower levels of disinhibited eating, consumed a healthier diet, and had weaker connectivity in the frontoparietal (FPN) and default mode (DMN) networks. In addition, associations between functional connectivity and eating behaviour differed between the two age groups. In older adults, disinhibited eating was associated with weaker connectivity in the FPN and DMN––effects that were absent in the younger sample. Importantly, these effects could not be explained by differences in habitual diet. Conclusions These findings point to a change in interoceptive signalling as part of the ageing process, which may contribute to behavioural changes in energy intake, and highlight the importance of studying this under researched population.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 ◽  
Tatiane dos Santos Lopes ◽  
Aline Veroneze de Mello ◽  
Luana Romão Nogueira ◽  
Ana Carolina Barco Leme ◽  
Regina Mara Fisberg

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate associations between snacking and energy, nutrients and food source, and to identify the contribution of snacking across age, sex, weight status and lifestyle behaviors among adolescents and young adults. Methods: A sub-sample was calculated from the population-based cross-sectional study 2015-Health Survey of São Paulo (ISA-Capital). The survey “ISA-Nutrição” used a sample of non-institutionalized individuals aged >15 years. For this study, only adolescents (12-18 years old; n=418) and young adults (19-29 years old; n=218) were included. Snacks were identified, and their contribution to energy, nutrients, and food sources were calculated. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions were used. Results: Participants experienced an average of 2.9±0.6 snacking occasions per day. Young adults consumed more energy from morning and night snacks, and adolescents, from afternoon snacks. The top three food sources on snacking contributed to 30.5% of energy: cookies (11.8%), sugar sweetened beverages (9.4%), sweets and other desserts (9.3%). Although results were non-significant, being a female (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.93; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.36-1.49), meeting the physical activity recommendations (OR 0.75; 95%CI 0.25-1.25), and scoring higher for the healthy eating index (OR 0.88; 95%C 0.24-1.52) were all factors related to increased intake of snacks. Alternatively, overweight individuals (OR -0.54; 95%CI -1.00 to -0.08) consumed less snacks. Conclusions: Improving the quality of snacks should be considered in behavior-change strategies.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 159
Jing Wu ◽  
Klaus Fuchs ◽  
Jie Lian ◽  
Mirella Haldimann ◽  
Tanja Schneider ◽  

In light of the globally increasing prevalence of diet-related chronic diseases, new scalable and non-invasive dietary monitoring techniques are urgently needed. Automatically collected digital receipts from loyalty cards hereby promise to serve as an objective and automatically traceable digital marker for individual food choice behavior and do not require users to manually log individual meal items. With the introduction of the General Data Privacy Regulation in the European Union, millions of consumers gained the right to access their shopping data in a machine-readable form, representing a historic chance to leverage shopping data for scalable monitoring of food choices. Multiple quantitative indicators for evaluating the nutritional quality of food shopping have been suggested, but so far, no comparison has validated the potential of these alternative indicators within a comparative setting. This manuscript thus represents the first study to compare the calibration capacity and to validate the discrimination potential of previously suggested food shopping quality indicators for the nutritional quality of shopped groceries, including the Food Standards Agency Nutrient Profiling System Dietary Index (FSA-NPS DI), Grocery Purchase Quality Index-2016 (GPQI), Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015), Healthy Trolley Index (HETI) and Healthy Purchase Index (HPI), checking if any of them performs differently from the others. The hypothesis is that some food shopping quality indicators outperform the others in calibrating and discriminating individual actual dietary intake. To assess the indicators’ potentials, 89 eligible participants completed a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and donated their digital receipts from the loyalty card programs of the two leading Swiss grocery retailers, which represent 70% of the national grocery market. Compared to absolute food and nutrient intake, correlations between density-based relative food and nutrient intake and food shopping data are stronger. The FSA-NPS DI has the best calibration and discrimination performance in classifying participants’ consumption of nutrients and food groups, and seems to be a superior indicator to estimate nutritional quality of a user’s diet based on digital receipts from grocery shopping in Switzerland.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 36
Orietta Segura-Badilla ◽  
Ashuin Kammar-García ◽  
Addí Rhode Navarro-Cruz ◽  
Jacqueline Araneda-Flores ◽  
Javier Mancilla-Galindo ◽  

As the population ages, greater attention to age-related health problems related to diet and lifestyles is needed. Here, we sought to evaluate the associations between demographic and clinical characteristics and food insecurity with the quality of diet of non-institutionalized elderly from a southern Chilean commune. We performed an analytical cross-sectional study in a sample of 376 older adults. Nutritional status was evaluated through anthropometric measurements. Quality of diet was determined by the healthy eating index (HEI), obtained through the frequency of consumption questionnaire. Socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle variables were also collected. Ordinal logistic and Poisson regression models were applied to study associations with quality of diet. The sample consisted of more women (81.6%) than men (18.4%). Most older adults were found to live in a situation of vulnerability or poverty (82.4%), with most having food security (65.7%). According to the HEI, only 14.1% had a good quality of diet, 83.8% had diet in need of improvement, and 2.1% had an unhealthy diet. There was an association of food insecurity and cardiovascular risk (according to waist circumference) with lower quality of diet categories. However, an association with the unhealthy quality of diet category was not confirmed with Poisson regression analysis, which was possibly due to the low number of subjects in that category (n = 8, 2.1%). Other modifiable factors like physical activity, hours of sleep, and polypharmacy were not associated with lower quality of diet categories. Socioeconomic status, which is a structural health determinant, was not associated with decreased quality of diet. Since this was a cross-sectional study performed on a small sample from a Chilean commune, directionality of associations cannot be discerned, and future longitudinal studies could aim to better characterize these associations in larger samples of elderly patients.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-39
Nicole Dorrington ◽  
Rosalind Fallaize ◽  
Ditte A. Hobbs ◽  
Michelle Weech ◽  
Julie A. Lovegrove

Abstract Diet quality indexes (DQIs) are useful tools for assessing diet quality in relation to health and guiding delivery of personalised nutritional advice, however existing DQIs are limited in their applicability to older adults (aged ≥65 years). Therefore, this research aimed to develop a novel evidence-based DQI specific to older adults (DQI-65). Three DQI-65 variations were developed to assess the impacts of different component quantitation methods and inclusion of physical activity. The variations were: Nutrient and Food-based DQI-65 (NFDQI-65), NFDQI-65 with Physical Activity (NFDQI-65+PA) and Food-based DQI-65 with Physical Activity (FDQI-65+PA). To assess their individual efficacy, the NFDQI-65, NFDQI-65+PA and FDQI-65+PA were explored alongside the validated Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) and Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010) using data from the cross-sectional UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) rolling programme. Scores for DQI-65 variations, the HEI-2015 and AHEI-2010 were calculated for adults ≥65 years from years 2-6 of the NDNS (n=871). Associations with nutrient intake, nutrient status and health markers were analysed using linear and logistic regression. Higher DQI-65s and HEI-2015 scores were associated with increased odds of meeting almost all of our previously proposed age-specific nutritional recommendations, and with health markers of importance for older adults, including lower body mass index, lower medication use and lower C-reactive protein (P<0.01). Few associations were observed for the AHEI-2010. This analysis suggests value of all three DQI-65s as measures of dietary quality in UK older adults. However, methodological limitations mean further investigations are required to assess validity and reliability of the DQI-65s.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 4561
Shristi Rawal ◽  
Valerie B. Duffy ◽  
Lauren Berube ◽  
John E. Hayes ◽  
Ashima K. Kant ◽  

We identified associations between self-reported olfactory dysfunction (OD) and dietary attributes in participants aged ≥40 years (n = 6,356) from the nationally representative 2011–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The chemosensory questionnaire and 24-hour dietary recalls were administered by trained interviewers. OD was defined as self-report of either smell problems in the last year, worse smell relative to age 25, or perceiving phantom odors. Dietary outcomes included Healthy Eating Index 2015 score (HEI) with adequacy and moderation components (higher scores indicated higher diet quality), dietary diversity, energy density, and intake of major food groups. Survey-weighted linear regression models estimated OD–diet associations, adjusting for socio-demographic, lifestyle, and clinical factors. Adjusted mean difference (95% CI) between those with versus without OD, showed that adults with OD had significantly lower HEI moderation score (−0.67 (−1.22, −0.11)) and diets higher in energy density (0.06 (0.00, 0.11)), and percent energy from saturated fat (0.47 (0.12, 0.81)), total fat (0.96 (0.22, 1.70)), and added sugar (1.00 (0.33, 1.66)). Age and sex-stratified analyses showed that younger females (40–64 years) primarily accounted for the associations with diet quality and total/saturated fat intake. These findings inform dietary screening and recommendations for adults who report OD, including those experiencing transient or persistent smell loss with COVID-19.

Natalie Christensen ◽  
Irene van Woerden ◽  
Nicki L. Aubuchon-Endsley ◽  
Pamela Fleckenstein ◽  
Janette Olsen ◽  

The International Olympic Committee has identified mental health as a priority that significantly affects the physical health and safety of collegiate athletes. Interventions that improve diet quality have been shown to improve mental health in several populations. However, studies are needed to examine this relationship in female collegiate athletes, who have elevated risk of experiencing anxiety and depression symptoms, as well as dietary insufficiencies. In a quantitative, cross-sectional study, female student athletes at a U.S. university completed three mental health questionnaires: Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), Athlete Psychological Strain Questionnaire (APSQ), and COVID Stress Scales (CSS). Each female athlete also completed a validated, web-based Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ-III) resulting in a Healthy Eating Index (HEI). Seventy-seven participants completed all survey information. HEI scores were consistently higher for athletes with poorer mental health. HEI scores were significantly positively associated with stress (p = 0.015), performance concerns (p = 0.048), CSS components of danger (p = 0.007), contamination (p = 0.006), and traumatic stress (p = 0.003). Although findings support statistically significant associations among dietary quality and mental health indicators, including broad symptom severity or stressors specific to athletics or COVID-19, these associations were in the opposite direction hypothesized. Possible reasons for results and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Juliane Heydenreich ◽  
Antje Schweter ◽  
Petra Lührmann

Abstract Aim Identifying risk factors for low bone stiffness index (SI) might be one crucial strategy for osteoporosis prevention. Purpose was to characterize healthy schoolchildren across tertiles of SI. Subject and methods In 248 girls (13.4 ± 1.9 years, BMI: 20.2 ± 4.8 kg/m2) and 231 boys (13.6 ± 1.7 years, BMI: 19.3 ± 3.3 kg/m2), the following parameters were assessed: calcaneal SI (quantitative ultrasound), body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis), Bone Healthy Eating Index (BoneHEI; food frequency questionnaire), and physical activity level (PAL; activity questionnaire). Participants were classified according to age- and sex-specific SI tertiles (low, medium, and high). Between-group comparisons were achieved by Kruskal–Wallis-H-tests (α = 0.05). Results Girls with low SI had significantly lower body mass (49.2 ± 16.7 vs 54.8 ± 12.2 kg; p < 0.01), BMI (19.6 ± 5.4 vs 21.3 ± 3.9 kg/m2; p < 0.0001), fat-free mass (36.3 ± 8.3 vs 39.5 ± 6.0 kg; p < 0.01), and fat mass (23.7 ± 9.1 vs 26.8 ± 7.2%; p < 0.05) compared to those with high SI. In boys, significant differences between low and high SI were obtained for PAL (1.49 ± 0.12 vs 1.56 ± 0.14; p < 0.01). BoneHEI was not significantly different between tertiles in both sexes. Conclusion Girls with low body mass and boys with low PAL have a higher risk for low SI. Schoolchildren should strive for normal body mass and perform regular physical activity.

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