membrane dynamics
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Ilanila Ilangumaran Ponmalar ◽  
Jitendriya Swain ◽  
Jaydeep Kumar Basu

Prevalence of wide spread bacterial infections bring forth a critical need in understanding the molecular mechanisms of the antibiotics as well as the bacterial response to those antibiotics. Improper usage of antibiotics, which can be in sub-lethal concentrations is one among the multiple reasons for acquiring antibiotic resistance which makes it vital to understand the bacterial response towards sub-lethal concentrations of antibiotics. In this work, we have used colistin, a well-known membrane active antibiotic used to treat severe bacterial infections and explored the impact of its subminimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) on the lipid membrane dynamics and morphological changes of E. coli. Upon investigation of live cell membrane properties such as lipid dynamics using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we observed that colistin disrupts the lipid membrane at sub-MIC by altering the lipid diffusivity. Interestingly, filamentationlike cell elongation was observed upon colistin treatment which led to further exploration of surface morphology with the help of atomic force spectroscopy. The changes in the surface roughness upon colistin treatment provides additional insight on the colistin-membrane interaction corroborating with the altered lipid diffusion. Although altered lipid dynamics could be attributed to an outcome of lipid rearrangement due to direct disruption by antibiotic molecules on the membrane or an indirect consequence of disruptions in lipid biosynthetic pathways, we were able to ascertain that altered bacterial membrane dynamics is due to direct disruptions. Our results provide a broad overview on the consequence of the cyclic polypeptide, colistin on membrane specific lipid dynamics and morphology of a live Gram-negative bacterial cell.

2021 ◽  
Adeline Supandy ◽  
Heer H Mehta ◽  
Truc T Tran ◽  
William R Miller ◽  
Rutan Zhang ◽  

Infections caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) are an important public health threat. VREfm have become increasingly resistant to the front-line antibiotic, daptomycin (DAP). As such, the use of DAP combination therapies (like fosfomycin [FOS]), has received increased attention. Antibiotic combinations could extend the efficacy of current available antibiotics and potentially delay the onset of further resistance. We investigated the potential for E. faecium HOU503, a clinical VREfm isolate that is DAP and FOS susceptible, to develop resistance to a DAP-FOS combination. Of particular interest was whether the genetic drivers for DAP-FOS resistance might be epistatic and, thus, potentially decrease the efficacy of a combinatorial approach in either inhibiting VREfm or in delaying the onset of resistance. We show that resistance to DAP-FOS could be achieved by independent mutations to proteins responsible for cell wall synthesis for FOS and in altering membrane dynamics for DAP. However, we did not observe genetic drivers that exhibited substantial cross-drug epistasis that could undermine DAP-FOS combination. Of interest was that FOS resistance in HOU503 was largely mediated by changes in phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) flux as a result of mutations in pyruvate kinase (pyk). Increasing PEP flux could be a readily accessible mechanism for FOS resistance in many pathogens. Importantly, we show that HOU503 were able to develop DAP resistance through a variety of biochemical mechanisms and were able to employ different adaptive strategies. Finally, we showed that the addition of FOS can prolong the efficacy of DAP, significantly extending the timeline to resistance in vitro.

iScience ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 103608
Rebika Shrestha ◽  
De Chen ◽  
Peter Frank ◽  
Dwight V. Nissley ◽  
Thomas J. Turbyville

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Ian D. Tomlinson ◽  
Oleg Kovtun ◽  
Ruben Torres ◽  
Laurel G. Bellocchio ◽  
Travis Josephs ◽  

The serotonin transporter (SERT) is the primary target for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants that are thought to exert their therapeutic effects by increasing the synaptic concentration of serotonin. Consequently, probes that can be utilized to study cellular trafficking of SERT are valuable research tools. We have developed a novel ligand (IDT785) that is composed of a SERT antagonist (a tetrahydro pyridyl indole derivative) conjugated to a biotinylated poly ethylene glycol (PEG) via a phenethyl linker. This compound was determined to be biologically active and inhibited SERT-mediated reuptake of IDT307 with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 7.2 ± 0.3 μM. We demonstrated that IDT785 enabled quantum dot (QD) labeling of membrane SERT in transfected HEK-293 cultures that could be blocked using the high affinity serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine. Molecular docking studies suggested that IDT785 might be binding to the extracellular vestibule binding site rather than the orthosteric substrate binding site, which could be attributable to the hydrophilicity of the PEG chain and the increased loss of degrees of freedom that would be required to penetrate into the orthosteric binding site. Using IDT785, we were able to study the membrane localization and membrane dynamics of YFP-SERT heterologously expressed in HEK-293 cells and demonstrated that SERT expression was enriched in the membrane edge and in thin cellular protrusions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Maria Sol Herrera-Cruz ◽  
Megan C. Yap ◽  
Nasser Tahbaz ◽  
Keelie Phillips ◽  
Laurel Thomas ◽  

Abstract Background Rab32 is a small GTPase associated with multiple organelles but is particularly enriched at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, it controls targeting to mitochondria-ER contacts (MERCs), thus influencing composition of the mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM). Moreover, Rab32 regulates mitochondrial membrane dynamics via its effector dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). Rab32 has also been reported to induce autophagy, an essential pathway targeting intracellular components for their degradation. However, no autophagy-specific effectors have been identified for Rab32. Similarly, the identity of the intracellular membrane targeted by this small GTPase and the type of autophagy it induces are not known yet. Results To investigate the target of autophagic degradation mediated by Rab32, we tested a large panel of organellar proteins. We found that a subset of MERC proteins, including the thioredoxin-related transmembrane protein TMX1, are specifically targeted for degradation in a Rab32-dependent manner. We also identified the long isoform of reticulon-3 (RTN3L), a known ER-phagy receptor, as a Rab32 effector. Conclusions Rab32 promotes degradation of mitochondrial-proximal ER membranes through autophagy with the help of RTN3L. We propose to call this type of selective autophagy “MAM-phagy”.

2021 ◽  
Michael G Hanna ◽  
Patreece Suen ◽  
Yumei Wu ◽  
Karin M Reinisch ◽  
Pietro De Camilli

Cellular membranes differ in protein and lipid composition as well as in the protein-lipid ratio. Thus, progression of membranous organelles along traffic routes requires mechanisms to control bilayer lipid chemistry and their abundance relative to proteins. The recent structural and functional characterization of VPS13-family proteins has suggested a mechanism through which lipids can be transferred in bulk from one membrane to another at membrane contact sites, and thus independently of vesicular traffic. Here we show that SHIP164 (UHRF1BP1L) shares structural and lipid transfer properties with these proteins and is localized on a subpopulation of vesicle clusters in the early endocytic pathway whose membrane cargo includes the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (MPR) and ATG9. Loss of SHIP164 disrupts retrograde traffic of these organelles to the Golgi complex. Our findings raise the possibility that bulk transfer of lipids to endocytic membranes may play a role in their traffic.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-24
Yinghao Li ◽  
Robert Kim ◽  
Terrence J. Sejnowski

Abstract Recurrent neural network (RNN) models trained to perform cognitive tasks are a useful computational tool for understanding how cortical circuits execute complex computations. However, these models are often composed of units that interact with one another using continuous signals and overlook parameters intrinsic to spiking neurons. Here, we develop a method to directly train not only synaptic-related variables but also membrane-related parameters of a spiking RNN model. Training our model on a wide range of cognitive tasks resulted in diverse yet task-specific synaptic and membrane parameters. We also show that fast membrane time constants and slow synaptic decay dynamics naturally emerge from our model when it is trained on tasks associated with working memory (WM). Further dissecting the optimized parameters revealed that fast membrane properties are important for encoding stimuli, and slow synaptic dynamics are needed for WM maintenance. This approach offers a unique window into how connectivity patterns and intrinsic neuronal properties contribute to complex dynamics in neural populations.

Ana Katic ◽  
Dario Hüsler ◽  
François Letourneur ◽  
Hubert Hilbi

The haploid social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is a powerful model organism to study vesicle trafficking, motility and migration, cell division, developmental processes, and host cell-pathogen interactions. Dynamin superfamily proteins (DSPs) are large GTPases, which promote membrane fission and fusion, as well as membrane-independent cellular processes. Accordingly, DSPs play crucial roles for vesicle biogenesis and transport, organelle homeostasis, cytokinesis and cell-autonomous immunity. Major progress has been made over the last years in elucidating the function and structure of mammalian DSPs. D. discoideum produces at least eight DSPs, which are involved in membrane dynamics and other processes. The function and structure of these large GTPases has not been fully explored, despite the elaborate genetic and cell biological tools available for D. discoideum. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge about mammalian and D. discoideum DSPs, and we advocate the use of the genetically tractable amoeba to further study the role of DSPs in cell and infection biology. Particular emphasis is put on the virulence mechanisms of the facultative intracellular bacterium Legionella pneumophila.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document