numerical control
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Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 604
Marcin Paprocki ◽  
Krystian Erwiński

Synchronization between devices (in particular drive systems) is paramount for multi-axis motion control systems used in Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) machines, robots, and specialized technology machines used in many areas of the manufacturing industry. EtherCAT is an Ethernet-based network that is one of the most popular industrial networks for multi-axis motion control systems. EtherCAT is standardized in the IEC 61158 and IEC 61784 standards. In the article, an EtherCAT communication network for electrical drives is presented. The article focuses on the synchronization in the EtherCAT network consisting of one master device and slave servo drive devices. Special attention is given to synchronization mechanisms in EtherCAT, such as distributed clocks in slave servo drives devices. For this purpose, a laboratory stand was built consisting of two prototype servo drive devices with BLDC motors equipped with EtherCAT communication modules. A description of the working developed EtherCAT communication modules is given. Authors in communication modules ware used an EtherCAT Slave Controller (ESC) chip (AX58100) to implement lower EtherCAT layers. EtherCAT application layer was implemented in software form on a 32-bit microcontroller, based on CANopen over EtherCAT (CoE) CAN in Automation 402 (CiA402) profile. This research’s main contribution was to show the time dependencies regarding synchronization in terms of data flow in the EtherCAT communication stack in slave servo drive devices. The research results showed that the synchronous operation of drives is mainly influenced not by the mechanism of distributed clocks that ensures synchronization in the EtherCAT network but the implementation of the highest layer of the communication stack in slave servo drive devices. Experimental results are presented that prove the modules’ adequacy for use in high-performance motion control systems.

Faraz Kiarasi ◽  
Masoud Babaei ◽  
Mostafa Omidi Bidgoli ◽  
Kazem Reza Kashyzadeh ◽  
Kamran Asemi

In the current research, the authors have attempted to improve the mechanical properties and creep behavior of the magnesium alloy Mg–9Al–1Zn (AZ91) in three different stress levels. To this end, the present study investigated experimentally the addition effects of different values of yttrium oxide nanoparticles to the AZ91. In this regard, weight percentages of 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2% nanoparticles were added to the material using the vortex casting method. Then, various test specimens were fabricated based on the ASTM standards by utilizing a Computer Numerical Control lathe machine. Different experiments were performed, and the results of different groups were compared with each other. The results revealed that the addition of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) nanoparticles increases the strength of AZ91 magnesium alloy until the nanoparticles do not clump in the microstructure. In other words, the tensile strength of the nanocomposite increased by adding nanoparticles up to 1.5%, but by adding 2% of nanoparticles, we found that the tensile strength is lower than that of pure magnesium. Moreover, one of the most important achievements of this study is that if the nanoparticles do not clump in the material microstructure, the addition of Y2O3 increases the rate of stable creep (the secondary creep stage). Also, the experimental results indicated that the highest stable creep rate is related to the nanocomposite with 1.5% yttrium oxide nanoparticles. Furthermore, the maximum hardness of the material was obtained in the same case.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Rajkumar Bhimgonda Patil ◽  
Suyog Subhash Patil ◽  
Gajanand Gupta ◽  
Anand K. Bewoor

PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to carry out a reliability analysis of a mechanical system considering the degraded states to get a proper understanding of system behavior and its propagation towards complete failure.Design/methodology/approachThe reliability analysis of computerized numerical control machine tools (CNCMTs) using a multi-state system (MSS) approach that considers various degraded states rather than a binary approach is carried out. The failures of the CNCMT are classified into five states: one fully operational state, three degraded states and one failed state.FindingsThe analysis of failure data collected from the field and tests conducted in the laboratory provided detailed understandings about the quality of the material and its failure behavior used in designing and the capability of the manufacturing system. The present work identified that Class II (major failure) is critical from a maintainability perspective whereas Class III (moderate failure) and Class IV (minor failure) are critical from a reliability perspective.Research limitations/implicationsThis research applies to reliability data analysis of systems that consider various degraded states.Practical implicationsMSS reliability analysis approach will help to identify various degraded states of the system that affect the performance and productivity and also to improve system reliability, availability and performance.Social implicationsIndustrial system designers recognized that reliability and maintainability is a critical design attribute. Reliability studies using the binary state approach are insufficient and incorrect for the systems with degraded failures states, and such analysis can give incorrect results, and increase the cost. The proposed MSS approach is more suitable for complex systems such as CNCMT rather than the binary-state system approach.Originality/valueThis paper presents a generalized framework MSS's failure and repair data analysis has been developed and applied to a CNCMT.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 474
Elio Hajj Assaf ◽  
Cornelius von von Einem ◽  
Cesar Cadena ◽  
Roland Siegwart ◽  
Florian Tschopp

Increasing demand for rail transportation results transportation by rail, resulting in denser and more high-speed usage of the existing railway network, making makes new and more advanced vehicle safety systems necessary. Furthermore, high traveling speeds and the greatlarge weights of trains lead to long braking distances—all of which necessitates Long braking distances, due to high travelling speeds and the massive weight of trains, necessitate a Long-Range Obstacle Detection (LROD) system, capable of detecting humans and other objects more than 1000 m in advance. According to current research, only a few sensor modalities are capable of reaching this far and recording sufficiently accurate enoughdata to distinguish individual objects. The limitation of these sensors, such as a 1D-Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), is however a very narrow Field of View (FoV), making it necessary to use ahigh-precision means of orienting to target them at possible areas of interest. To close this research gap, this paper presents a novel approach to detecting railway obstacles by developinga high-precision pointing mechanism, for the use in a future novel railway obstacle detection system In this work such a high-precision pointing mechanism is developed, capable of targeting aiming a 1D-LiDAR at humans or objects at the required distance. This approach addresses To address the challenges of a low target pricelimited budget, restricted access to high-precision machinery and equipment as well as unique requirements of our target application., a novel pointing mechanism has been designed and developed. By combining established elements from 3D printers and Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machines with a double-hinged lever system, simple and cheaplow-cost components are capable of precisely orienting an arbitrary sensor platform. The system’s actual pointing accuracy has been evaluated using a controlled, in-door, long-range experiment. The device was able to demonstrate a precision of 6.179 mdeg, which is at the limit of the measurable precision of the designed experiment.

Hossein Ghorbani-Menghari ◽  
Mehrdad Azadipour ◽  
Mehran Ghasempour-Mouziraji ◽  
Young Hoon Moon ◽  
Ji Hoon Kim

The deformation machining process (DMP) involves machining and incremental forming of thin structures. It can be applied for manufacturing products such as curved-surface blades without using 5-axis computerised numerical control machines. This work presents the effect of tool diameter and forming temperature on spring-back and dimensional accuracy of a simple fabricated part. The results of the first phase of the study are utilised to design the fabrication process of a curved surface blade. A feature-based algorithm is used to design the tool path for the forming process. The dimensional accuracy of the final product is improved through warm forming, two-point incremental forming, and extension of the bending zone to the outside of the product edges. The results show that DMP can be used to fabricate complex curved-surface workpieces with acceptable dimensional accuracy.

Shreyas S

Abstract: Smart Manufacturing systems are regarded as the fourth revolution in the manufacturing industry, which is shaped by widespread deployment of sensors and Internet of Things. The present work constitutes of ‘Development of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) Dashboard for ‘Overall Equipment Effectiveness’ (OEE) Monitoring of CNC Machine Tools’ for a legacy CNC machine which is converted to smart machine. Data fetched from the CNC controllers through OPCUA is sent to the connected cloud database which will be imported into PowerBI desktop and the data has been classified and processed according to the requirement to develop a data modelling architecture of OEE, the Working status of the machine is visualized by Creating Monitoring and Performance charts and graphs of different design in Microsoft PowerBI Desktop. The Advanced visualizations constitutes od various features along with different analysing capabilities that results is creating reports which enumerates the state of OEE as a Key Performance Indicator (KPI). As Microsoft Power BI pertains a set of pre-established steps for data processing, the situation designated may constitute a limitation to automatic data refresh, leading to a do-over to verify, the specific interval of time, the conformity of data so they can be imported into the system. Keywords: Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), Open Platform Communications United Architecture (OPCUA), Computer Numerical Control (CNC), Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE), Key Performance Indicator (KPI).

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (02) ◽  
pp. 33-43
Mochamad Saidiman ◽  
Muhammad Satya Nugroho ◽  
Subekti ◽  
Abdul Hamid

Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui karakteristik dinamik Computer Numerical Control Router 4 Axis dengan menggunakan metode Bump Test. Pengujian dilakukan dengan cara menempatkan sensor Accelerometer Khoctek 107b pada Mesin CNC Router 4 Axis pada sumbu x, y, z dikerangka atas, kerangka bawah, dan spindle. Hasil eksperimen pengujian getaran Mesin CNC dibagi kedalam dua proses pengujian yaitu kondisi normal dan kondisi rusak pada masing-masing sumbu. Diperoleh bahwa pengujian ini menghasilkan frekuensi global dimana frekuensi 8 Hz, 24 Hz, dan 40 Hz muncul disetiap sumbu x, y, dan z pada kerangka atas, kerangka bawah dan spindle. Pada mesin dengan kondisi rusak muncul frekuensi lokal pada sumbu y kerangka atas sebesar 5 Hz. Kemudian pada sumbu y spindle muncul frekuensi lokal sebesar 10 Hz, 56 Hz, dan 88 Hz. Munculnya frekuensi lokal menandakan adanya kerusakan pada CNC oleh sumbu tertentu selain frekuensi global.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (3) ◽  

Design of flexible manufacturing  systems (FMS) of modern multi-level production is usually carried out on the basis of general rationing when using large recommendations.  At the same time, the specifics and features of a particular production are not always taken into account.  In such a design, the most important is the experience of the designer, which is not always based on modern methods of optimizing project solutions.  Therefore, the problem of creating automated design systems in the development of flexible automated productions (FAP), which use cost equipment with numerical control (CNC) is extremely urgent.    The development of automated design systems is based on the ideas of a systematic approach that determine different cycles of the process: design - production preparation - production. Information about the projected object is generated in the process of project development by different groups of users: researchers, designers, designers, technologists, production organizers. A multilevel, cyclical design process requires the use of such a volume of information that cannot be processed without the use of modern mathematical methods and calculated equipment. Therefore, it is extremely important to create automated gap design systems, which are marked by greater versatility, efficiency and possibility of development, improvement and adaptation to the conditions of various enterprises. Such requirements served as the basis for the creation of an automated design  system  , which allows to take into account a huge amount of information in the automatic cycle during the development of the project. The scientific novelty of the work is the development of an integrated automation system for the design of processing technology and the selection of elements of  FMS structures. At the same time, information unity with the system of technological training of production at the level of operation of  FMS is ensured.

2021 ◽  
Lai Zou ◽  
Heng Li ◽  
Wenxi WANG ◽  
Yun Huang ◽  
Yutong Li

Abstract To ensure the safety and long-term performance of nuclear fuel cladding zirconium tubes, the wall thickness uniformity of each cross section is strictly needed. Therefore, this paper presents comprehensive investigations on development of an automatic ultrasonic wall thickness measurement system for detecting the nuclear zirconium tubes. Based on the determination of overall scheme, optimization of key mechanical structures and design of control system, a series of performance testing analyses of this developed auto-measuring system were performed from aspects of measuring accuracy, measuring efficiency, stability and practicability. The results revealed that it could accurately obtain the wall thickness distribution and effectively guide the subsequent grinding process by automatically generated deviation correcting procedures to achieve the requirement of the wall thickness uniformity. The new combination method of ultrasonic auto-measuring and numerical control grinding proposed in this work would have a great significance for the development and application of nuclear reaction zirconium alloy container.

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