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2022 ◽  
Nitish Kumar Gupta ◽  
Gaganpreet Singh ◽  
Harshawardhan Wanare ◽  
S Anantha Ramakrishna ◽  
Kumar Vaibhav Srivastava ◽  

Abstract This work pertains to the design, numerical investigation, and experimental demonstration of an optically transparent, lightweight, and conformable metastructure that exhibits multispectral signature management capabilities despite its extremely low-profile configuration. In comparison to the existing hierarchical approaches of designing multispectral stealth solutions, attention has been paid to accommodate the conflicting requirements of radar and infrared stealth using a single metasurface layer configuration, which required a few constraints to be incorporated during the design stage to ensure compatibility. This methodlogy promulgates the desired multispectral response with minimal manufacturing footprint and facilitates an efficient integration with the other existing countermeasure platforms. The resulting design exhibits a polarization-insensitive and incident angle stable broadband microwave absorption with at least 90% absorption ranging from 8.2 to 18.4 GHz. Concomitantly it also exhibits an averaged infrared emissivity of 0.46 in the 8-14µm long-wave infrared regime, along with high optical transparency (71% transmission at 632.8nm). Notably, the total thickness of the metastructure stands at 0.10λ_L (λ_L corresponds to the wavelength at lowest frequency). The metastructure has been fabricated with ITO coated PET sheets, on which the frequency selective pattern is machined using Excimer laser micromachining, and the performances are verified experimentally. Furthermore, a hybrid theoretical model has been developed that not only provides crucial insights into the operation of metastructure but also presents a methodical semi-analytical approach to design.

Gels ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 49
Hatem Alnojeidi ◽  
Ruhangiz Taghi Kilani ◽  
Aziz Ghahary

(1) Background: Developing a high-quality, injectable biomaterial that is labor-saving, cost-efficient, and patient-ready is highly desirable. Our research group has previously developed a collagen-based injectable scaffold for the treatment of a variety of wounds including wounds with deep and irregular beds. Here, we investigated the biocompatibility of our liquid scaffold in mice and compared the results to a commercially available injectable granular collagen-based product. (2) Methods: Scaffolds were applied in sub-dermal pockets on the dorsum of mice. To examine the interaction between the scaffolds and the host tissue, samples were harvested after 1 and 2 weeks and stained for collagen content using Masson’s Trichrome staining. Immunofluorescence staining and quantification were performed to assess the type and number of cells infiltrating each scaffold. (3) Results: Histological evaluation after 1 and 2 weeks demonstrated early and efficient integration of our liquid scaffold with no evident adverse foreign body reaction. This rapid incorporation was accompanied by significant cellular infiltration of stromal and immune cells into the scaffold when compared to the commercial product (p < 0.01) and the control group (p < 0.05). Contrarily, the commercial scaffold induced a foreign body reaction as it was surrounded by a capsule-like, dense cellular layer during the 2-week period, resulting in delayed integration and hampered cellular infiltration. (4) Conclusion: Results obtained from this study demonstrate the potential use of our liquid scaffold as an advanced injectable wound matrix for the management of skin wounds with complex geometries.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
Yaoge Jiao ◽  
Lifang Zhou ◽  
Rui Tao ◽  
Yanhong Wang ◽  
Yun Hu ◽  

AbstractPrime editing (PE) enables efficiently targeted introduction of multiple types of small-sized genetic change without requiring double-strand breaks or donor templates. Here we designed a simple strategy to introduce random DNA sequences into targeted genomic loci by prime editing, which we named random prime editing (Random-PE). In our strategy, the prime editing guide RNA (pegRNA) was engineered to harbor random sequences between the primer binding sequence (PBS) and homologous arm (HA) of the reverse transcriptase templates. With these pegRNAs, we achieved efficient targeted insertion or substitution of random sequences with different lengths, ranging from 5 to 10, in mammalian cells. Importantly, the diversity of inserted sequences is well preserved. By fine-tuning the design of random sequences, we were able to make simultaneously insertions or substitutions of random sequences in multiple sites, allowing in situ evolution of multiple positions in a given protein. Therefore, these results provide a framework for targeted integration of random sequences into genomes, which can be redirected for manifold applications, such as in situ protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) library construction, enhancer screening, and DNA barcoding.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (21) ◽  
pp. 12189
Boud Verbrugge ◽  
Mohammed Mahedi Hasan ◽  
Haaris Rasool ◽  
Thomas Geury ◽  
Mohamed El Baghdadi ◽  

This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art related to the implementation of battery electric buses (BEBs) in cities. In recent years, bus operators have started focusing on the electrification of their fleet to reduce the air pollutants in cities, which has led to a growing interest from the scientific community. This paper presents an analysis of the BEB powertrain topology and the charging technology of BEBs, with a particular emphasis on the power electronics systems. Moreover, the different key technical requirements to facilitate the operation of BEBs are addressed. Accordingly, an in-depth review on vehicle scheduling, charger location optimization and charging management strategies is carried out. The main findings concerning these research fields are summarized and discussed. Furthermore, potential challenges and required further developments are determined. Based on this analysis, it can be concluded that an accurate energy consumption assessment of their BEBs is a must for bus operators, that real-time, multi-objective smart charging management strategies with V2X features should be included when performing large bus fleet scheduling and that synchronized opportunity charging, smart green depot charging, and electric bus rapid transit can further reduce the impact on the grid. This review paper should help to enable a smarter and more efficient integration of BEBs in cities in the future.

Asim Zafar ◽  
Ahmet Bekir ◽  
M. Raheel ◽  
Kottakkaran Sooppy Nisar ◽  
Salman Mustafa

This paper comprises the different types of optical soliton solutions of an important Triki–Biswas model equation with beta-time derivative. The beta derivative is considered as a generalized version of the classical derivative. The aforesaid model equation is the generalization of the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation that describes the ultrashort pulse propagation with non-Kerr dispersion. The study is carried out by means of a novel beta derivative operator and three efficient integration schemes. During this work, a sequence of new optical solitons is produced that may have an importance in optical fiber systems. These solutions are verified and numerically simulated through soft computation.

Tukur Abdulkadir Sulaiman ◽  
Abdullahi Yusuf ◽  
Bashir Yusuf ◽  
Dumitru Baleanu

This paper presents the modulation instability (MI) analysis and the different types of optical soliton solutions of the Triki–Biswas model equation. The aforesaid model equation is the generalization of the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation which describes the ultrashort pulse propagation with non-Kerr dispersion. The study is carried out by means of a novel efficient integration scheme. During this work, a sequence of optical solitons is produced that may have an important in optical fiber systems. The results show that the studied model hypothetically has incredibly rich optical soliton solutions. The constraint conditions for valid soliton solutions are also reported. The gained results show that the applied method is efficient, powerful and can be applied to various complex models with the help of representative calculations.

E. N. Malysheva

Abstract: The findings of monitoring virtual space of federal libraries: their websites and social media, are interpreted. The author analyzes search optimization indicators, i. e. website quality factor, website adaptiveness for mobile systems, as well as behavior indicators, e.g. average visit time, number of viewed pages per visit, etc. The comparison of these findings with prior research evidences on increasing quality of information resources under investigation. The efficiencyоf the federal libraries’ activity in VKontakte (VK), one of the most popular mass media and digital platforms, was analyzed with Socstat.ru web-analytics. The federal libraries’ VK communities are characterized by: number of subscribers, total number of posts, number of posts for a time period, average post length, and the average number of posts per day. Federal library user activity factors areal so analyzed; number of responses, average number of responses, average community engagement, and average post engagement. The author insists on the necessity of monitoring of library presence in the digital environment through web-analytics for libraries efficient integration into the single cultural information space.

2021 ◽  
Vol 79 (2) ◽  
pp. 122-132
Ionuţ CIORANU ◽  

In the increasingly uncertain future conditions, because the lost time cannot be recovered, the only one within reach remains the future. Thus, defence planning is about planning for an uncertain future, about reducing the level of uncertainty, or about increasing the level of tolerance for uncertainty. Therefore, we consider that it is time to move on to prospective planning, to the management components reprioritization, with an emphasis on foresight, especially as we observe the security environment new specifics, in order to choose, develop and maintain those capabilities to meet current and future challenges. In this article we will analyze all these aspects, in an attempt to highlight the fact that the efficient integration of those elements, which lead to obtaining and maintaining optimal capabilities, must represent a synergistic action in order to increase the effectiveness of military actions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (3) ◽  
pp. 397-404
Alireza Alikhani ◽  
Hamid Reza Hamidi

A smart contract is a digital protocol (software code) that enables automated monitoring and executing contract’s provisions without the need for intermediaries. Blockchain technology allows implementing smart contracts through a distributed ledger, but has no reliable way of enforcing legal rules. For example, in networks such as Bitcoin, it is possible to engage in illegal activities such as money laundering and dealing in weapons. In addition, it is impossible to enforce and audit legal costs such as taxes and duties. This research has devised a plan that allows official institutions to enforce the rules and audits efficiently during automatic execution process of smart contracts. This article discusses five important challenges in applying legal rules to Blockchain: the accreditation to the contracting parties’ and the goods’ nature, collecting legal costs, enforcing territorial laws and auditing. We present “Hyper Smart Contract”, a method for regulating Blockchain-based smart contracts and assess the limitations of the current generation of smart contracts on Ethereum to ensure a proper implementation of this plan. The performance of proposed method evaluated on a motivation application.

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