Endobronchial Ultrasound
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2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Anne Geweniger ◽  
Ales Janda ◽  
Kristin Eder ◽  
Roland Fressle ◽  
Cecil Varna Kannan ◽  

Abstract Background The microbiological diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (Tb) in a pediatric population is hampered by both low pathogen burden and noncompliance with sputum sampling. Although endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has been found useful for the evaluation of mediastinal pathologies in adults, for children, sparse data are available. Here, we have evaluated EBUS-TBNA as a diagnostic procedure in children and adolescents with suspected pulmonary Tb. Methods In this retrospective analysis, we reviewed the charts of unaccompanied refugee minors (URM) who were admitted between January 2016 and July 2018 and who, during their initial medical screening upon arrival in Germany, were found to have abnormal radiological pulmonary and mediastinal findings and/or immunological results indicative of Tb. For each patient, basic sociodemographic data, clinical features and data on diagnostic procedures performed were assessed. These included imaging, immunodiagnostic tests and microbiological data derived from sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, EBUS-TBNA, bronchoscopy and pleural fluid sampling. All patients who underwent invasive sampling procedures were included in the study. Results Out of 42 URM with suspected Tb, 34 fulfilled the study’s inclusion criteria. Ages ranged from 14 to 17 years. All were of African origin, with 70.0% coming from Somalia, Eritrea and Ethiopia. Among the 21 patients for whom EBUS-TBNA was performed, the diagnostic yield was high: 66.7% positive results (MTb detected either by acid-fast stain, culture or PCR in 4.8, 42.9 and 61.9% of samples, respectively). Multidrug-resistant MTb was found in two patients from Somalia. No complications were associated with the procedure. Overall, pulmonary Tb was diagnosed in 29 patients (85.3%), miliary Tb in two patients (5.9%) and latent Tb in three patients (8.8%). Conclusions EBUS-TBNA is a sensitive and safe method with high diagnostic yield in the evaluation of pediatric patients with mediastinal pathology and suspected Tb.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (8) ◽  
pp. e243498
Alice Stanton ◽  
Kevin Conroy ◽  
Graham Miller

A 72-year-old female patient underwent endobronchial ultrasound and transbronchial needle aspirate sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes to investigate a middle lobe abnormality following an urgent referral. CT imaging completed the following day demonstrated a pneumomediastinum. At clinical review, the patient remained clinically stable and no intervention was required.

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