sample characteristics
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2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 127-131
Javaid Ahmad Mir ◽  
Nadiya Rashid

A newborn baby has only three demands. They are warmth in the arms of his mother, food from her breasts and security in the knowledge of her presence. Breastfeeding satisfies all three. While breastfeeding may not seem the right choice for every parent, it is the choice for every baby because it fulfills the physical needs as well as psychotic complementary of the child. The study aimedto find out the association of nipple soreness in experimental group and comparison group in terms of sample characteristics of postnatal mothers. A quasi experimental study was conducted on 70 postnatal mothers, (35 in experimental group and 35 in the comparison group) who breast feeds their babies were selected conveniently. Feeding pattern was assessed by LATCH scale four times in a day followed by the application of hind milk minimum four times in a day for three or four days as per discharge day of mother. The mother was asked to rub hind milk on nipples after feeding the baby and letting it air dry in front of researcher and nipple soreness scale was used to check the sore nipple at third and fifth day or at the day of discharge. Follow up of postnatal mothers was done telephonically by using interview questionnaire on day 15 in both groups. Study findings revealed that on 3rd day, the mean nipple soreness score was higher in comparison group (1.45) than experimental group (0.10) and thus there was significant difference (t value = 3.87) in nipple soreness score.Study concluded that breast milk application was effective in preventing sore nipples among postnatal mothers. Hence, it can be recommended to use breast milk for the prevention of sore nipple.

2022 ◽  
pp. 175407392110680
Juhyun Park ◽  
Xinyi Zhan ◽  
Kristin Naragon- Gainey

To better define the boundaries of conceptually overlapping constructs of intrapersonal emotion knowledge (EK), we examined meta-analytic correlations among five intrapersonal EK-related constructs (affect labelling, alexithymia, emotional awareness, emotional clarity, emotion differentiation) and attention to emotion. Affect labelling, alexithymia, and emotional clarity were strongly associated, and they were moderately associated with attention to emotion. Alexithymia and emotional awareness were weakly associated, and emotion differentiation was unrelated with emotional clarity. Sample characteristics and measures moderated some of the associations. Publication bias was not found, except for the alexithymia-emotional awareness association. This study helped to clarify the extent to which similarly defined constructs overlap or are distinct, which can inform our decision to adequately label important constructs and employ corresponding measures.

Assessment ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 107319112110675
Cornelia Wrzus ◽  
Andreas B. Neubauer

Ecological Momentary Assessments (i.e., EMA, repeated assessments in daily life) are widespread in many fields of psychology and related disciplines. Yet, little knowledge exists on how differences in study designs and samples predict study compliance and dropout—two central parameters of data quality in (micro-)longitudinal research. The current meta-analysis included k = 477 articles (496 samples, total N = 677,536). For each article, we coded the design, sample characteristics, compliance, and dropout rate. The results showed that on average EMA studies scheduled six assessments per day, lasted for 7 days, and obtained a compliance of 79%. Studies with more assessments per day scheduled fewer assessment days, yet, the number of assessments did not predict compliance or dropout rates. Compliance was significantly higher in studies providing financial incentives. Otherwise, design or sample characteristics had little effects. We discuss the implications of the findings for planning, reporting, and reviewing EMA studies.

2022 ◽  
Katherine L. Winters ◽  
Javier Jasso ◽  
James E Pustejovsky ◽  
Courtney Byrd

Purpose: Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) typically examine narrative performance when completing a comprehensive language assessment. However, there is significant variability in the methodologies used to evaluate narration. The primary aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to a) investigate how narrative assessment type (e.g., macrostructure, microstructure, internal state language) differentiates typically developing (TD) children from children with developmental language disorder (DLD), or, TD–DLD group differences, b) identify specific narrative assessment measures (e.g., number of different words) that result in greater TD–DLD differences, and, c) evaluate participant and sample characteristics (e.g., DLD inclusionary criteria) that may uniquely influence performance differences. Method: Three electronic databases (PsychInfo, ERIC, and PubMed) and ASHAWire were searched on July 30, 2019 to locate studies that reported oral narrative language measures for both DLD and TD groups between ages 4 and 12 years; studies focusing on written narration or other developmental disorders only were excluded. Thirty-seven primary studies were identified via a three-step study selection procedure. We extracted data related to the sample participants, the narrative task(s) and assessment measures, and research design. Standardized mean differences using a bias-corrected Hedges’ g were the calculated effect sizes (N = 382). Research questions were analyzed using mixed-effects meta-regression with robust variance estimation to account for effect size dependencies. Results: Searches identified eligible studies published between 1987 and 2019. An overall meta-analysis using 382 effect sizes obtained across 37 studies showed that children with DLD had decreased narrative performance relative to TD peers, with summary estimates ranging from -0.850, 95% CI [-1.016, -0.685] to -0.794, 95% CI [-0.963, -0.624], depending on the correlation assumed. Across all models, effect size estimates showed significant heterogeneity both between and within studies, even after accounting for effect size-, sample-, and study-level predictors. Grammatical accuracy (microstructure) and story grammar (macrostructure) yielded the most consistent evidence of significant TD–DLD group differences across statistical models.Conclusions: Present findings suggest some narrative assessment measures may yield significantly different performance between children with and without DLD. However, researchers need to be consistent in their inclusionary criteria, their description of sample characteristics, and in their reporting of the correlations of measures, in order to determine which assessment measures are more likely to yield group differences.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 336-345
Md. Abu Borhan ◽  
Md. Ayub Ali ◽  

Background: Anemia in pregnancyis a decrease in the total red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood duringpregnancyor in the period following pregnancy. It is the condition of having a lower-than-normal number of red blood cells or quantity of hemoglobin. Anemia diminishes the capacity of the blood to carry oxygen. Patients with anemia may feel tired, fatigue easily, appear pale, develop palpitations, and become shortness of breath. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate about the awareness of anemia among rural pregnant women in Bagerhat district of Bangladesh Materials and Method: A sample of 29 pregnant women (PW) from a total of listed 111 women from three upazilas of Bagerhat district was considered for assessing the awareness of Anemia. Those three upazilas were taken at random first from the nine upazilas of Bagerhat district.Data on different variables were collected directly from the selected women through a prescribed questionnaire. Descriptive statistics e.g., maximum, minimum, mean, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, etc. of the variables together with their standard error of their estimates were considered foranalyzing sample characteristics of the study. The relationship between two nominal variables is assessed by cross tabulation with test statistics Phi and Cramers V. The bootstrapresampling method was used to understand the population parameters. Results: About86% pregnant women have no idea about anemia and also their causes. All respondents feel weakness that indicates they have the symptom of anemia. The phi andcramersV imply that the relationship between heard about anemia and the source of information is highly significant (p= 0.000). Among the awarded women in Bagerhat district, probability of getting awareness from service provider was0.917 and that from relatives was 0.083. Among the population, the probability of contribution of the service provider was0.379. Probability of unknown was 0.586 indicating much populationin Bagerhat district werenot aware about anemia. Probability of getting information of anemia from mother was zero indicating very recently service providers have started their program in Bagerhat district. Conclusion: Probability of getting information of anemia from mother is zero indicating very recently service providers have started their program in Bagerhat district. Therefore, this program should be continued until the probability of getting information from mother will be closed to 1. Recommendation: Government as well as the NGOs should continue & enhance the present awareness program in Bagerhat district.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 163
Filiz Oezkan ◽  
Woo Yul Byun ◽  
Clemens Loeffler ◽  
Udo Siebolts ◽  
Linda Diessel ◽  

Advancements in personalized medicine have increased the demand for quantity and preservation of tissue architecture of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) samples. These demands may be addressed by the SonoTip TopGain® needle, which has a 3-point crown-cut design that contrasts with the standard single bevel design of the ViziShot 2®. The objective was to compare the SonoTip TopGain® and ViziShot 2® needles by considering biopsy sample characteristics, diagnostic accuracy, and patient safety. The primary endpoint of the study was the number of high-power fields (HPFs) in the center of the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cell block per sample. The lymph node with the highest probability for malignant infiltration based on size and sonographic appearance was chosen as the target lymph node for 20 patients. The same lymph node in each patient was sampled using both the ViziShot 2® and SonoTip TopGain® needles. The samples were measured, sliced, and analyzed by a pathologist. Sixteen patients were biopsied with both needles. Four patients could not be biopsied with the SonoTip TopGain® needle since it could not penetrate cartilage or be repositioned to bypass cartilage. HPFs and sample dimensions were significantly greater in the patients where sampling with the SonoTip TopGain® needle was possible (p = 0.007 and p = 0.005, respectively). Diagnostic accuracy and safety profiles were comparable. Significantly more material can be sampled using the SonoTip TopGain® needle when cartilage penetration can be avoided. This improves the yield for molecular workup in the era of personalized medicine.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. 200-200
XinQi Dong ◽  
Dexia Kong

Abstract This paper aims to describe study design of the unique dyadic older Chinese American-adult children dataset, and present sample characteristics of the dyads. A total of 807 older parents were matched with their adult children (characteristics of matched versus not matched participants will be compared). On average, adult children were 48 years old, had 12 years of education, lived with 3 persons in household, had 2 children, and lived in U.S. for 17 years. Approximately 65% of the adult children sample were female, 82% married, 93% preferred to speak Chinese dialects, and over 97% foreign-born immigrants. On the other hand, older parents were 74 years old, had 7 years of education, lived with 3 persons in household, had 3 children, and lived in U.S. for 17 years on average. About 60% of the older parent sample were female, 73% married, over 99% foreign-born immigrants who preferred to speak Chinese dialects.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Irene Wei Kiong Ting ◽  
Imen Tebourbi ◽  
Wen-Min Lu ◽  
Qian Long Kweh

AbstractThis study utilizes mediation analysis and bootstrapping to analyze the mediating effect of capital structure on the association between managerial ability and firm performance. The dataset consists of 6384 firm-year observations from the Taiwanese electronics industry during 2005–2018. Our results indicate that (1) low (high) levels of debt are likely observed in firms with CEOs with high (low) ability, (2) managerial ability positively affects firm performance, and (3) capital structure mediates the positive relationship between managerial ability and firm performance. Overall, the findings may have limited generalizability due to the specific sample characteristics and provide convincing support for the importance of capital structure as a mediator in the managerial ability-firm performance nexus. Specifically, this study highlights the need for examining the effect of managerial ability on firm performance through a mediator.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (A) ◽  
pp. 1142-1147
W. A. Gusti Deasy ◽  
M. Husni Cangara ◽  
Andi Alfian Zainuddin ◽  
Djumadi Achmad ◽  
Syarifuddin Wahid ◽  

BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine neoplasm (NEN) is an epithelial cell neoplasm that can give a histopathological appearance resembling high-grade colorectal adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical assays with specific neuroendocrine markers of chromogranin A and synaptophysin are required to establish a definite diagnosis of NEN. AIM: This study aimed to determine whether there was an expression of chromogranin A, synaptophysin and Ki67 which indicated the presence of neuroendocrine neoplasms in samples that have been diagnosed as high-grade colorectal adenocarcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A study of the expression of chromogranin A, synaptophysin and Ki67 in paraffin blocks was carried out as a result of biopsy and tissue surgery of 70 samples of colorectal tumor specimens diagnosed with colorectal adenocarcinoma. Descriptive analyses were used to assess the study results of the amount of chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and sample characteristics. RESULTS: We discovered that eight (8) samples (11.4%) were NEN from 70 previously diagnosed samples as high-grade colorectal adenocarcinoma using immunohistochemical assay with neuroendocrine markers, namely chromogranin A and synaptophysin. CONCLUSION: The final diagnosis obtained from 8 samples diagnosed as NEN were Neuroendocrine tumor (NET) G1, G2, and G3, respectively 1.4% and LCNEC 7.1% based on the specific neuroendocrine markers of chromogranin A, synaptophysin and Ki67.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
pp. 413-418
Jinqi Song

Firstly, this paper proposes F statistic whose limit distribution and critical values are also provided to test nonlinearity and structure change with unit root in TV-ESTAR model framework. The results show that the distribution of F statistic is nonstandard. Then, this paper analyzes finite sample characteristics of F statistics through the Monte Carlo simulation and founds F statistics has better power than kss statistics in Kapetanios et al to test nonlinear unit root with structure change.

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