International Journal of Advances in Medicine
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Published By Medip Academy

2349-3933, 2349-3925

Vaibhav Dubey

Bipolar disorder (BD) displays abnormalities in protein kinase C (PKC) signaling, and evidence suggests that inhibiting PKC may help treat mania. Endoxifen a potent inhibitor of the PKC signaling pathway, is effective in controlling acute bipolar mania, at doses of 8 mg OD, for a period of 3-weeks. Here we present the case of a patient with severe mania, increased alcohol consumption administered endoxifen 8 mg BID for a period of 3-months, to achieve a better response. High-dose, long-term treatment with endoxifen was efficacious in controlling manic symptoms, with no adverse effects. Additionally, the patient didn’t consume alcohol during the course of treatment. This case showed the long-term effectiveness and safety of high-dose endoxifen to control mania in a patient with BD.

Gaurav Tripathi ◽  
Vimal Mehta ◽  
Vijay Trehan

Background: Objective of the study was to provide insight on the immune response in patients of rheumatic heart disease, mitral stenosis and evaluation of various cytokines in pulmonary hypertension secondary to rheumatic heart disease.Methods: Total 163 subjects, more than 18 year of age, were enrolled in this study. 84 subjects with rheumatic mitral stenosis (group A) diagnosed on two-dimensional echocardiography (2D echo) and 79 normal healthy volunteers (group B). Patients with mitral stenosis were further divided into subgroups based on severity of mitral stenosis [mitral valve area (MVA >1 cm2 and MVA <1 cm2) (subgroup Aa and Ab)] and presence or absence of pulmonary hypertension [pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP >36 mm Hg) (subgroup Ac and Ad)]. Interleukins IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were assessed in both groups.Results: Mean IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, TNF-α and hs-CRP in group A and group B was 6.57±3.53 and 2.73±1 (p≤0.001), 8.185±2.8 and 3.51±0.86 (p≤0.001), 136.31±89.0 and 47.96±9.76 (p≤0.001), 21.26±18.59 and 5.36±3.57 (p≤0.001), 4.69±6.3 and 2.63±2.22 (p≤0.008) respectively. On subgroup analysis mean TNF-α in subgroup Aa was 20.71±16.84, while in subgroup Ab was 7.56±1.93 (p≤0.001). Mean IL-10 in subgroup Ac and Ad was 8.74±3.29 and 7.47±1.82, respectively. Differences in levels of other cytokines in these subgroups were not found statistically significant.Conclusions: This study finds increased IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, TNF-α and hs-CRP levels in subjects with rheumatic mitral stenosis. Subjects with severe mitral stenosis had increased TNF-α levels. Subjects of mitral stenosis having pulmonary hypertension had increased IL-10 levels. 

Prabhu S. ◽  
Sudha Karbari

Background: The increasing incidence of metabolic syndrome has been on the rise especially in urban population and leading to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus. It has been associated with impairment of pulmonary functions. However, there is limited data regarding the association with individual components of metabolic syndrome and overall effect on components of pulmonary functions.Methods: This is a cross sectional study consisting of 50 subjects with metabolic syndrome. All the subjects underwent pulmonary function tests and the association between different components of metabolic syndrome and pulmonary function were examined using unpaired t-test and Pearson’s partial correlation coefficient. This data was analysed by using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 12.0.Results: In females, moderate negative significant correlation was seen between forced vital capacity (FVC) and systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting blood sugar (FBS), triglyceride (TG), waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) whereas positive weak non-significant correlation was seen between FVC and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), while no such relation was found with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). In males, negative, moderate significant correlation was seen between FVC and FBS whereas strong, positive, significant correlation was seen between FVC and WC; between FVC and BMI. Negative, moderate, significant correlation was seen between FEV1 and WC; between FEV1 and BMI.Conclusions: Our study concluded that there was a significant impact of FBS and WC on decreasing FVC on both genders with minimally significant impact of other components of metabolic syndrome on FVC with no effect on FEV1 hence indicating a restrictive pattern of pulmonary function derangement. Hence, further studies with larger sample size is needed to confirm whether there are direct or indirect mechanisms through which insulin resistance could affect pulmonary function.

Sharif Qamar Uddin ◽  
M. Nazrul Islam ◽  
M. Nizamuddin Chowdhury ◽  
Nizam Uddin Ahmed Chowdhury ◽  
Mohammad Zahir Uddin ◽  

Background: Early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI) in burn-injured patients can help modify the treatment to prevent progression of acute renal failure and reduce the need for renal replacement therapy. The aim of the study was to evaluate urinary interleukin-18 in the early post-burn period to predict the AKI for the various degrees of burn patients.Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in the department of nephrology, Dhaka medical college in collaboration with burn and plastic surgery unit of the same medical college hospital, from July 2017 to June 2018 for a period of one year. The 48 burn patients (Age>18 years) who attended in the burn unit of Dhaka medical college, Dhaka of both sexes were enrolled in this study. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 22.0. A value of p<0.05 was considered statistically significant for all tests.Results: In this study, mean age of the burn patients was 32.41±10.59 years. Male female ratio was 3.36:1. Urinary IL-18 in diagnosis of AKI showed accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 93.8%, 91.7%, 94.4%, 84.6% and 97.1% respectively. AUC for urinary IL-18 at admission was 0.968 (CI, 0.921-1.000) and AUC for serum creatinine at admission was 0.937 (CI, 0.871-1.000). Conclusions: According to Kappa value, AUC and sensitivity and specificity urinary IL-18 is a good biomarker in predicting of early AKI in burn patients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 15
Sheenam Gazala ◽  
Mohmad Saleem Chesti ◽  
Syed Mushfiq

Background: Current study aimed at s to delineate the etiology and clinical parameters associated with AUFI presenting to emergency department in a tertiary care hospital.Methods: This was a prospective hospital based study carried out at emergency medicine, SKIMS hospital, Soura Kashmir, India July 2017 to august 2018. Patients with acute undifferentiated fever were enrolled. Descriptive statistics were calculated in terms of mean±SD for continuous variables like age of the patients and duration of fever, Frequency and percentage were used to analyse categorical variables such as causes of fever and gender, while as descriptive analysis was calculated in terms of mean±SD for continuous variables like age of the patients and duration of fever.Results: Total numbers of patients included were 174, among these 112 (64.3%) were males and 62 (35.6%) were females. Most patients were diagnosed enteric fever (N=59, 33.9%) followed by UTI (N=25, 14.3%) dengue (N=12, 6.8%) and malaria (N=8, 4.5%) while rest of cases were associated with other viral illnesses (N=70, 40.5%) based on clinical basis and inconclusive laboratory results.Conclusions: Enteric fever was found to be the most common cause of acute undifferentiated fever followed by dengue and other viral illnesses, although causes and clinic spectrum of AUFI is varied.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 50
Santosh Kumar Swain

Cochlear implantation is indicated in patients with severe to profound hearing loss that cannot be adequately treated by other auditory rehabilitation measures. The definitive indication of cochlear implantation is made on the basis of an extensive interdisciplinary clinical, audiological, radiological, and psychological diagnostic work-up. There are numerous changes are happening in cochlear implant candidacy. These have been associated with concomitant changes in surgical techniques, which enhanced the utility and safety of cochlear implantation. Currently, cochlear implants are approved for individuals with severe to profound unilateral hearing loss rather than previously needed for bilateral profound hearing loss. Studies have begun using the short electrode arrays for shallow insertion in patients with low-frequency residual hearing loss. The advancement in designs of the cochlear implant along with improvements in surgical techniques reduce the complications and result in the safety and efficacy of the cochlear implant which further encourages the use of these devices. This review article aims to discuss the new concepts in the candidacy of the cochlear implant, cochlear implant in younger children and hearing preservation, a cochlear implant for unilateral deafness, bilateral cochlear implant, and cochlear implant with neural plasticity and selection of patients for the cochlear implant.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 19
Prafulla Samant ◽  
Siddhi Ghodge ◽  
Ajay Sankhe ◽  
Heena Ali ◽  
Vijaykumar Gawali ◽  

Background: There is scarcity of essential medications, medical talent and health care facilities to treat covid-19, at remote places. This study explores various modalities in resource-limited settings for the management of COVID-19 patients.Methods: We retrospectively analysed data of 266 consecutive discharged and death Covid-19 patients from 26December 2020 to 29May 2021. All patients were admitted and received appropriate supportive care, regular clinical and laboratory monitoring.Results: Of total 266 patients the mean age of patients was 49.19 (SD 14.1) years and 185 (69.54%) of them were males. 99 (37%) cases were moderate, 83(31%)were severe cases remaining 84 (32%) were mild cases. 16 (6.01%) patients expired and remaining 250 patients were subsequently discharged. Median duration of stay in the hospital was 9 (37) days. Of total 266 admitted patients’ mortality rate was only 6.01%.Conclusions: We emphasize that even in healthcare facilities with limited resource, poor infrastructure and lack of ICU facilities, clinical observation-based managementt can help to reduce mortality considerably. Unique features of our study include; use of progesterone as an immunomodulator, use of dual antiviral agents, use of age-related lower limit of oxygen saturation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 46
Anu Yarky ◽  
Vipan Kumar ◽  
Nidhi Chauhan ◽  
Priyesh Sharma

Neurologic complications are common in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 infection. Most common complications are myalgias, headaches, encephalopathy and dizziness. Uncommon complications are stroke, motor and sensory deficits, seizures, ataxia and movement disorders. Multiple neuro-ophthalmological manifestations have also been reported in association with COVID-19. These complications may be the result of a range of pathophysiological mechanisms like hypoxic neuronal injury during active COVID-19 infection, RAS dysfunction, immune dysfunction and direct injury by the virus etc throughout the course of the disease. Here we reported a case of neuro-ophthalmic complication of Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) followed by bilateral optic atrophy in a middle-aged man with recent COVID-19 infection. He presented to the emergency with complaints of headache, dizziness and sudden painless bilateral diminution of vision for 3 days. His fundus examination was suggestive of bilateral papilledema, his MRI brain was normal and opening pressure of CSF was raised on lumbar puncture. His MRV was normal, there was no evidence of CSVT. He was started on steroids and acetazolamide. His headache improved but there was no improvement in visual acuity. Repeat fundus showed pale disc and MRI orbit was suggestive of bilateral optic atrophy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 10
Tamajyoti Ghosh ◽  
Subir Dey

Background: Raised peripheral neutrophil lymphocyte ratio is associated with poorer outcomes in conditions such as severe brain injury, ICH, cardiovascular conditions, cancer.Methods: Retrospective analysis of 96 severe Traumatic Brain injury data treated at our institute over a period of 1 year. The patients were followed up for a period of at least 1 month. The primary outcome of the study was 1 month GOS and the various variables which may be associated with the poor GOS at 1 month follow up. Model based analysis was done for NLCR <24 hrs at 48 hrs and GCS at the time of presentation and discriminative ability of the models were studied by the Area under the curve.Results: Univariate analysis were done of 96 patients of severe traumatic brain injury for various variables such as age, sex, mode of head injury, type of head injury, presenting GCS and NLCR at 24 hrs and 48 hrs to that of GOS at 1 month follow up. Initial GCS <7 (p=0.0138) with AUC=0.6689 and peak NLCR (<24 hr) of > 9.6 (AUC=0.931) with a p value of <0.001 with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 79.27% and peak NLCR (48 hrs) of >12.4 (AUC= 0.973) with a p value of <0.001 with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 89.02% were associated with unfavourable outcome.Conclusions: High NLCR and initial poor GCS are independent unfavourable prognostic factors in 1 month GOS following severe traumatic head injury.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 40
Vineet Sehgal ◽  
Lucky Bhalla ◽  
Priyanshu Bansal ◽  
Shaifali Arora

Dengue is a common mosquito-borne infection in India. We reported a rare Pharyngeal cervical brachial (PCB) variant of Landry Guillain Barre syndrome (LGBS) associated with the dengue virus infection. The pathogenesis seems to be molecular mimicry between gangliosides and microbial lipo-oligosaccharides. PCB usually presents with oropharyngeal or cervicobrachial weakness. Therefore, it must be recognised early and distinguished from conditions presenting with cephalocaudal progressing weakness, such as Myasthenia Gravis, Miller-Fisher syndrome, botulism, diphtheria, porphyria or brain stem stroke. The aim of the study was to add to the limited literature on the PCB variant of LGBS after dengue infection and shed some light on presentation and management options for this rare entity.

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