Wild Mushrooms
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Kansuda Wunjuntuk ◽  
Mehraj Ahmad ◽  
Taweesak Techakriengkrai ◽  
Rangsita Chunhom ◽  
Euaphorn Jaraspermsuk ◽  

Ioana Feher ◽  
Cornelia Veronica Floare-Avram ◽  
Florina-Dorina Covaciu ◽  
Olivian Marincas ◽  
Romulus Puscas ◽  

Edible mushrooms have been recognized as highly nutritional food for a long time, due to their specific flavor, texture and also for therapeutic effects. This study proposes a new simple approach, based on FT-IR analysis, followed by statistical methods, in order to differentiate three wild mushrooms species from Romanian spontaneous flora, namely Armillaria mellea, Boletus edulis and Cantharellus cibarius. The preliminary data treatment consisted of data set reduction with principal component analysis (PCA), which provided scores for the next methods. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) manage to 100% classify the three species and the cross validation step of the method returned 97.4% of correctly classified samples. Only one A. mellea sample overlapped on B. edulis group. When kNN was used in the same manner as LDA, the overall percent of correctly classified samples from the training step was 86.21%, while for holdout set the percent raised at 94.74%. The lowered values obtained for the training set was due to one C. cibarius sample, two B. edulis and five A. mellea, which were placed to other species. Anyway, for holdout sample set, only one sample from B. edulis was misclassified. The fuzzy c-means clustering (FCM) analysis successfully classified investigated mushroom samples according to their species, meaning that in every partition the predominant specie had the biggest DOMs, while samples belonging to other specie had lower DOMs.

Heliyon ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. e07997
S.M. Moazzem Hossen ◽  
Mohammad Shahadat Hossain ◽  
Sumaiya Akbar ◽  
Umme Tahmida ◽  
Jannatul Mawa ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (08) ◽  
pp. 180-184
Kiroom Rashmi Topno ◽  
Anjani Kumar Srivastava ◽  

Food industry is dynamic and in search of innovation and nutrition content. Nutrition and food supplements demand can be fulfilled by mushroom.Agaricus(Button mushroom), Pleurotus (Oyster mushroom)and Volvariella(Paddy straw mushroom)are only popularly species cultivated and commercialized. There are many other wild mushrooms which can be commercialized with ethnomedicinal and rich nutrition content. In Jharkhand many wild mushroom species are found but they identified with many synonyms.(Srivastava and Soreng 2014) Identification is done on the basis of morphological structures and microscopic study of spores.(Pegler 1981, Wu2014) This study is to identify the wild mushroom locally called as Jamun khukhari through molecular characterization and report molecular data to NCBI GeneBank.

PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e11747
W. Dalley Cutler II ◽  
Alexander J. Bradshaw ◽  
Bryn T.M. Dentinger

Mushrooms have been consumed by humans for thousands of years, and while some have gastronomic and nutritional value, it has long been recognized that only select species of mushrooms are suitable for consumption. Adverse health effects of consuming poisonous mushrooms range from mild illness to death. Many valuable edible mushrooms are either impractical or unable to be grown commercially, requiring them to be harvested from the wild. In the U.S., products containing these wild-collected mushrooms are often sold with the nonspecific and undefined label “wild mushrooms,” although in some cases particular species are listed in the ingredients. However, the ambiguity of the definition of “wild mushrooms” in foods makes it impossible to know which species are involved or whether they are truly wild-collected or cultivated varieties. As a consequence, any individual adverse reactions to consuming the mushrooms in these products cannot be traced to the source due to the minimal regulations around the harvest and sale of wild mushrooms. For this study, we set out to shed light on what species of fungi are being sold as “wild mushrooms” using DNA metabarcoding to identify fungal contents of various food products acquired from locally sourced grocers and a large online retail site. Twenty-eight species of mushroom were identified across 16 food products, ranging from commonly cultivated species to wild species not represented in global DNA databases. Our results demonstrate that “wild mushroom” ingredients often consist entirely or in part of cultivated species such as the ubiquitous white and brown “button” mushrooms and portabella (Agaricus bisporus), oyster (Pleurotus spp.) and shiitake (Lentinula edodes). In other cases truly wild mushrooms were detected but they were not always consistent with the species on the label. More alarmingly, a few products with large distribution potential contained species whose edibility is at best dubious, and at worst potentially toxic.

Elham R. S. Soliman ◽  
Heba El-Sayed

Abstract Background The discovery of potential, new cost-effective drug resources in the form of bioactive compounds from mushrooms is one way to control the resistant pathogens. In the present research, the fruiting bodies of five wild mushrooms were collected from Egypt and identified using internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of the rRNA encoding gene and their phylogenetic relationships, antimicrobial activities, and biochemical and phenolic compounds were evaluated. Results The sequences revealed identity to Bjerkandera adusta, Cyclocybe cylindracea, Agrocybe aegerita, Chlorophyllum molybdites, and Lentinus squarrosulus in which Cyclocybe cylindracea and Agrocybe aegerita were closely related, while Chlorophyllum molybdites was far distant. Cyclocybe cylindracea and Agrocybe aegerita showed 100% similarity based on the sequenced ITS-rDNA fragment and dissimilar antimicrobial activities and chemical composition were detected. Bjerkandera adusta and Cyclocybe cylindracea showed strong antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Candida albicans. This activity could be attributed to the detected phenolic and related compounds’ contents. Conclusion Our finding provides a quick and robust implement for mushroom identification that would facilitate mushroom domestication and characterization for human benefit.

Rajinder Singh

For many years, the foraging and consumption of wild mushrooms has been practised in different parts of the world. Despite having various health benefits, few mushroom species are known for causing toxicity as well. In forensic casework conditions, samples from mushroom poisoning cases can be found in dried or powdered form. So, it becomes necessary to characterize mushroom species for identification purposes. In the present study, volatile fractions of five wild toxic and edible Amanita mushroom species (Amanita muscaria, Amanita pantherina, Amanita caesarea, Amanita subglobosa and Amanita porphyria) were analyzed so as to identify compounds for the characterization of selected mushroom species. The obtained volatile fractions were broadly classified into various chemical classes: alcohols, aldehydes, acids, esters, nitrogen-containing compounds, ketones and miscellaneous. The following compounds; octadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid (z)-, ethane, 1-chloro-1-fluoro- were the most abundant. The present approach utilizing GC-MS, intends to obtain a fingerprint of each sample for discrimination purposes. Also, this work is the first study on the forensic analysis of methanol-soluble components of Amanita mushroom species from the North-Western Himalaya, India.

Dagmara Strumińska-Parulska ◽  
Jerzy Falandysz ◽  
Aleksandra Moniakowska

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